2008 Russian presidential election

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2008 Russian presidential election

← 2004 2 March 2008 2012 →
Opinion polls
Turnout69.7% Increase 5.4 pp
  Dmitry Medvedev official large photo -5.jpg Gennady Zyuganov Moscow asv2018-01 (cropped).jpg Vladimir Zhirinovsky in 2015.jpg
Nominee Dmitry Medvedev Gennady Zyuganov Vladimir Zhirinovsky
Party United Russia Communist Party LDPR
Home state Moscow Moscow Moscow
Popular vote 52,530,712 13,243,550 6,988,510
Percentage 71.2% 18.0% 9.5%

2008 Russian presidential election map.svg
  Constituencies won by Dmitry Medvedev

President before election

Vladimir Putin
Independent

Elected President

Dmitry Medvedev
United Russia

Logo

The 2008 Russian presidential election was held on 2 March 2008, and resulted in the election of Dmitry Medvedev as the third President of Russia. Medvedev was elected for a 4-year term, whose candidacy was supported by incumbent President Vladimir Putin and five political parties (United Russia, Fair Russia, Agrarian Party, Civilian Power, Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"), received 71% of the vote, and defeated candidates from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and the Democratic Party of Russia.[1][2]

The fairness of the election was disputed, with official monitoring groups giving conflicting reports. Some reported that the election was free and fair, while others reported that not all candidates had equal media coverage and that the opposite to the Kremlin was treated unfairly. Monitoring groups found a number of other irregularities.[3] The European election monitoring group PACE characterized the election as "neither free nor fair."[4]

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) election monitoring group refused to monitor the election because of what it called "severe restrictions on its observers by the Russian government", a charge Russia vehemently rejected, calling the decision "unacceptable".[5][6]

Сandidates[edit]

An election ballot listing the presidential candidates

Registered candidates[edit]

Candidates are listed in the order they appear on the ballot paper (alphabetical order in Russian).

Candidate name, age,
political party
Political offices Details Registration date
Andrey Bogdanov
(38)
Democratic Party
(campaign)
Andrey Bogdanov (2017-12-27).jpg Leader of the Democratic Party
(2005-2014)
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Russia
(2007–present)
Registered as a candidate on January 24. Bogdanov had an investigation opened against him for providing too many forged signatures of support for his nomination, but it was reported that even if the accusations were to be proven, his candidacy would not be dismissed.[7] At 38, he was the youngest person to run for president in Russia, a record he would retain until 2018. 24 January 2008
Vladimir Zhirinovsky
(61)
Liberal Democratic Party
(campaign)
Vladimir Zhirinovsky in 2015.jpg Deputy of the State Duma
(1993-present)
Leader of the Liberal Democratic Party
(1991-present)
Zhirinovky ran for the presidency on three prior occasions: in 1991, 1996 and 2000. His best result was third with 7.81% support. Registered as a candidate on December 26.[8] 26 December 2007
Gennady Zyuganov
(63)
Communist Party
(campaign)
Gennady Zyuganov Moscow asv2018-01 (cropped).jpg Deputy of the State Duma
(1993-present)
Leader of the Communist Party
(1993-present)
Zyuganov ran for president in 1996 (when he came short just a few percent of the votes) and 2000, but not in 2004.[9] Officially nominated on December 15, 2007, with 215 of 218 votes in favor.[10] Registered as a candidate on December 26.[11] 26 December 2007
Dmitry Medvedev
(42)
United Russia
(campaign)
Dmitry Medvedev official large photo -5.jpg First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
(2005-2008)
Kremlin Chief of Staff
(2003-2005)
Medvedev was nominated by the United Russia party, and supported by the parties A Just Russia, Agrarian Party, The Greens and Civilian Power. In addition he was supported by incumbent president Vladimir Putin. 21 January 2008

Withdrawn candidates[edit]

Candidate name, age,
political party
Political offices Details Registration date Date of withdrawal
Boris Nemtsov
(48)
Union of Right Forces
(campaign)
Boris Nemtsov 2003 RussiaMeeting.JPG Deputy of the State Duma
(1999–2003)
Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
(1997–1998)
Minister of Fuel and Energy of Russia
(1997)
Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
(1991-1997)
Nemtsov was nominated by the Union of Rightist Forces on December 18, 2007[12] and was registered as a candidate on December 22.[13] He withdrew his bid on December 26 and called on his supporters to vote for Mikhail Kasyanov instead.[14] 22 December 2007 26 December 2007

Campaign[edit]

Medvedev campaign poster hanging in Moscow's Manezh Square

Following his appointment as First Deputy Prime Minister, many political observers expected Medvedev to be nominated as Putin's successor for the 2008 presidential elections.[15] There were other potential candidates, such as Sergey Ivanov and Viktor Zubkov, but on December 10, 2007, President Putin announced that Medvedev was his preferred successor. Four parties supporting Putin also declared Medvedev to be their candidate to the post – United Russia, A Just Russia, Agrarian Party of Russia and Civilian Power.[16] United Russia held its party congress on December 17, 2007, where by secret ballot of the delegates, Medvedev was officially endorsed as their candidate in the 2008 presidential election.[17] He formally registered his candidacy with the Central Election Commission on December 20, 2007, and said he would step down as chairman of Gazprom, since under the current laws, the president was not permitted to hold another post.[18] Sources close to Gazprom and Medvedev told the Vedomosti newspaper that Medvedev might be replaced by Putin at Gazprom.[19] His registration was formally accepted as valid by the Russian Central Election Commission on January 21, 2008.[20]

Medvedev with Putin at a campaign event

In January 2008, Medvedev launched his presidential campaign with stops in the regions.[21] In his first speech since he was endorsed, Medvedev announced that, as president, he would appoint Vladimir Putin to the post of prime minister to head the Russian government.[22] Although constitutionally barred from a third consecutive presidential term, such a role would allow Putin to continue as an influential figure in Russian politics[23] Putin pledged that he would accept the position of prime minister should Medvedev be elected president. Election posters portrayed the pair side-by-side with the slogan "Together we will win" ("Вместе победим").[24]

Zhirinovsky conducting a whistlestop tour

During the pre-election debates on the Star TV on February 20, Nikolai Gotsa, a representative of Bogdanov, accused Vladimir Zhirinovsky and his party of lying to and betraying their supporters. He accused them of voting in favor of government initiatives they criticize when in public. Zhirinovsky replied fiercely, insulting Gotsa and calling him a "sick man, a schizoid", "bastard", and punched him when they went off the cameras. Bogdanov and Gotsa launched a legal issue against Zhirinovsky. On February 28, in another debate, Bogdanov claimed he had a personal talk with Zhirinovsky, and that the latter had threatened his life and demanded to withdraw the issue.[25]

Opinion polls[edit]

According to opinion polls taken prior to the election, up to 82% of people said that they would vote for Dmitry Medvedev, the candidate endorsed by Vladimir Putin as his preferred successor. The second most popular candidate was Gennady Zuganov, Leader of the Communist Party of Russia, who was expected to receive between 6% and 15% of the vote.[26] An opinion poll by the Yury Levada Analytical Center, taken in September after Vladimir Putin announced he would head the electoral list of United Russia in the 2007 Parliamentary elections, showed a commanding lead for Sergei Ivanov and Dmitry Medvedev, with 34% and 30% of the vote respectively. Viktor Zubkov and Sergei Glazyev received only 4% of the vote each.[27]

Conduct[edit]

Front
Back
Voter invitation card

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, in its capacity as an international election standards watchdog, refused to monitor the election because of what it called severe restrictions on its observers by the Russian government.[28] After weeks of negotiations, Russia agreed to increase the observer numbers for the ODIHR mission and extend the time frame for its visit, but the ODIHR claimed that the offer still didn't meet their requirements, insisting that it needed to send at least 50 of its observers to Russia on February 15, five days before the date proposed by Moscow, in order effectively monitor the election campaign.[5]

Russia responded by insisting that it was complying fully with its international obligations and that its invitation for 400 monitors meets international standards. It accused the OSCE of attempting to politicize the dispute and that it suspected ODIHR's intention from the outset was to boycott the election, saying that the ODIHR had displayed "contempt for basic ethical norms ... which, it seems, indicates that ODIHR from the start was not even trying to agree on mutually acceptable conditions for monitoring."[6]

Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated that

Vladimir Putin voting in the election

Russia's Foreign Ministry spokesman, Mikhail Kamynin, said "The ODIHR flatly rejected a compromise without providing any clear explanations for its position. We believe such actions are unacceptable." Kamynin added that Moscow "deeply regretted" the OSCE refusal, accusing the organization, which he said generally sends 10-20 experts to observe election campaigns one or two weeks ahead of polls, of political bias against Russia.[5]

An incident arose during the election when three out of nine members of the Biysk Electoral Commission refused to sign the protocols citing widespread falsifications in their Priobsky Division. The rest of commission decided to approve the protocols as the alleged abuse was not reported during the election.[30]

The European election monitoring group PACE characterized the election as "neither free nor fair."[4]

Representatives from the GOLOS monitoring group stated that "the Election Day was held in a relatively quiet atmosphere in contrast to the State Duma election day. Such large-scale violations observed then as campaigning next to polling stations, transporting of voters, intimidation of voters and others were practically non-existent." They did however report irregularities in the election.[3]

The Commonwealth of Independent States observer mission said the election was free, fair and in line with international standards. "The CIS observer mission states that the election is a major factor in the further democratization of public life in the Russian Federation, and recognizes it as free, open and transparent," said Nauryz Aidarov, head of the CIS mission.[31]

A voter places their ballot into the ballot box at a polling station

Observers from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization said the election was free, fair and in line with international standards.[32]

An observing group from Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe stated that the result of the election was a "reflection of the will of an electorate whose democratic potential was, unfortunately, not tapped". They said "In the elections, which had more the character of a plebiscite on the last eight years in this country, the people of Russia voted for the stability and continuity associated with the incumbent President and the candidate promoted by him. The President-elect will have a solid mandate given to him by the majority of Russians."[33][34]

The head of Russia's electoral commission Vladimir Churov said that media coverage for the presidential election had been "fair but not equal".[35]

The Economist reported that Medvedev has been mentioned over six times more often than his three rivals in 1,000 different news sources, according to figures from SCAN, a media database owned by Interfax, but stated that this could be due to Medvedev's high-profile job as chairman of the state-owned gas monopoly, Gazprom.[36]

A report by the International Herald Tribune described Medvedev's election as "the culmination of Putin's efforts to consolidate control over the government, business and the news media since taking office eight years ago."[37]

Russian Novaya Gazeta claimed that there were forged election protocols and cases when independent observers were not allowed to monitor the election process.[38] Journalist Victor Shenderovich claims that only 3.5% of voters came to the elections in certain North Caucasus regions according to independent observers, whereas the Central Election committee reporter more than 90% turnaround.[39]

Results[edit]

Medvedev was also endorsed by Agrarian Party, Fair Russia, Russian Ecological Party - "The Greens" and Civilian Power, but was officially nominated as a United Russia candidate.

Candidate Party Votes %
Dmitry Medvedev United Russia 52,530,712 71.2
Gennady Zyuganov Communist Party 13,243,550 18.0
Vladimir Zhirinovsky Liberal Democratic Party 6,988,510 9.5
Andrei Bogdanov Democratic Party 968,344 1.3
Invalid/blank votes 1,105,533
Total 74,746,649 100
Registered voters/turnout 107,222,016 69.7
Source: Nohlen & Stöver[40]

Results by federal subject[edit]

Federal subject Medvedev Zyuganov Zhirinovsky Bogdanov
# % # % # % # %
Adygea 151,441 69.77 46,686 21.51 15,092 6.95 1,861 0.86
Altai Krai 736,578 60.35 284,159 23.28 170,214 13.95 13,930 1.14
Altai Republic 80,463 73.82 17,206 15.79 7,937 8.20 1,123 1.03
Amur Oblast 287,525 63.62 79,329 19.76 63,972 14.15 5,066 1.12
Arkhangelsk Oblast 417,355 66.98 116,981 18.77 72,472 11.63 10,475 1.68
Astrakhan Oblast 380,350 75.28 87,345 17.29 29,298 5.80 3,780 0.75
Bashkortostan 2,315,467 88.01 208,679 7.93 75,500 2.87 15,859 0.60
Belgorod Oblast 638,068 68.96 200,170 21.64 63,123 6.82 8,863 0.96
Bryansk Oblast 405,819 61.82 179,510 27.34 56,409 8.59 6,561 0.99
Buryatia 342,736 70.84 89,315 18.46 40,110 8.29 5,007 1.03
Chechnya 474,778 88.70 11,723 2.19 43,617 8.15 4,533 0.85
Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,214,028 65.63 374,066 20.22 209,106 11.30 28,443 1.54
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug 26,180 81.41 2,306 7.17 2,825 8.78 403 1.25
Chuvashia 466,170 66.48 158,270 22.57 56,021 7.99 7,064 1.01
Dagestan 1,190,974 91.92 93,873 7.24 6,351 0.49 1,975 0.15
Ingushetia 140,442 91.66 2,258 1.47 10,257 6.69 165 0.11
Ivanovo Oblast 302,963 64.92 94,049 20.15 57,263 12.27 6,877 1.47
Irkutsk Oblast 738,793 61.24 263,217 21.82 169,507 14.05 19,854 1.65
Jewish Autonomous Oblast 61,587 67.39 18,170 19.88 9,102 9.96 1,048 1.15
Kaliningrad Oblast 269,257 62.09 100,667 23.21 50,599 11.67 6,997 1.61
Kabardino-Balkaria 421,551 88.80 41,075 8.65 10,787 2.27 757 0.16
Kalmykia 102,407 71.56 31,908 22.30 5,926 4.14 1,380 0.96
Kaluga Oblast 352,446 65.54 117,318 21.82 53,235 9.90 7,494 1.39
Kamchatka Krai 106,085 69.39 22,679 14.83 19,748 12.92 2,309 1.51
Karachay-Cherkessia 252,197 90.35 22,104 7.92 3,581 1.28 523 0.19
Karelia 211,670 67.25 54,398 17.28 39,420 12.52 5,474 1.74
Kemerovo Oblast 1,212,873 70.51 145,401 8.45 258,547 15.03 47,304 2.75
Khabarovsk Krai 499,291 64.12 141,191 18.13 110,306 14.17 15,756 2.02
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area 528,499 66.68 114,779 14.48 126,235 15.93 12,714 1.60
Khakassia 147,208 60.47 55,469 22.79 33,750 13.86 3,614 1.47
Kirov Oblast 608,713 76.29 112,991 14.16 57,879 7.25 7,830 0.98
Komi Republic 385,447 71.74 79,451 14.79 59,601 11.09 6,770 1.26
Kostroma Oblast 226,361 62.44 82,380 22.72 45,713 12.61 4,693 1.29
Krasnodar Krai 2,332,581 75.06 522,725 16.82 185,683 5.97 25,771 0.83
Krasnoyarsk Krai 814,842 62.47 268,938 20.62 183,476 14.07 18,881 1.14
Kurgan Oblast 319,482 64.93 101,569 20.64 52,147 12.63 5,149 1.05
Kursk Oblast 407,232 64.27 138,256 21.82 74,192 11.71 6,447 1.02
Leningrad Oblast 556,250 70.19 142,098 17.93 74,662 0.42 10,651 1.34
Lipetsk Oblast 482,210 65.84 159,575 21.78 70,130 21.79 8,952 1.22
Magadan Oblast 53,870 63.07 17,168 20.10 11,841 13.86 1,304 1.53
Mari El 329,257 77.22 61,497 14.42 26,643 6.25 4,153 0.97
Mordovia 551,382 90.31 41,473 6.79 12,814 2.10 1,541 0.25
Moscow Oblast 2,654,108 70.41 678,746 18.01 320,243 8.50 54,525 1.45
Moscow 3,285,990 71.52 756,936 16.48 347,329 7.56 93,714 2.04
Murmansk Oblast 302,757 65.26 84,638 18.24 62,029 13.37 8,406 1.81
Nenets Autonomous Okrug 14,614 61.54 4,257 17.92 4,054 17.07 440 1.85
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,133,124 61.84 438,282 23.92 209,801 11.45 27,096 1.48
North Ossetia-Alania 259,910 73.35 69,189 19.53 16,350 4.61 2,007 0.57
Novgorod Oblast 210,145 65.81 64,459 20.18 36,813 11.53 4,519 1.42
Novosibirsk Oblast 823,201 61.90 326,591 24.56 143,606 10.80 19,479 1.46
Omsk Oblast 803,187 63.04 278,540 21.86 154,318 12.11 19,343 1.52
Orenburg Oblast 626,850 60.81 271,126 26.30 111,290 10.80 11,259 1.09
Oryol Oblast 331,467 66.38 113,670 22.76 40,614 8.13 4,690 0.94
Penza Oblast 331,467 71.40 158,862 19.04 54,209 6.50 7,601 0.91
Perm Krai 790,268 67.30 196,124 16.70 155,391 13.23 17,752 1.51
Primorsky Krai 620,968 63.84 191,401 19.68 129,205 13.28 15,526 1.60
Pskov Oblast 280,085 70.16 81,144 20.32 30,197 7.56 3,618 0.91
Rostov Oblast 1,772,595 76.94 351,889 15.27 141,353 6.14 19,685 0.85
Ryazan Oblast 364,460 60.82 145,207 24.23 72,123 12.04 8,653 1.44
Saint Petersburg 1,652,529 72.27 383,495 16.77 167,868 7.34 42,555 1.86
Sakha Republic 302,060 67.78 91,503 20.53 37,743 8.47 7,701 1.73
Samara Oblast 933,605 64.08 329,681 22.63 157,237 10.79 18,629 1.28
Saratov Oblast 1,110,004 75.62 237,553 16.25 91,094 6.21 12,055 0.82
Sakhalin Oblast 141,315 63.52 47,300 21.26 27,235 12.24 3,761 1.69
Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,432,010 68.98 273,629 13.18 302,887 14.59 34,588 1.67
Smolensk Oblast 319,842 59.26 132,427 24.54 71,817 13.31 7,497 1.39
Stavropol Krai 827,517 64.79 295,813 23.16 127,003 9.94 13,297 1.04
Tambov Oblast 483,117 72.51 128,765 19.33 35,877 5.38 5,104 0.77
Tatarstan 1,867,921 79.24 304,789 12.93 130,820 5.55 28,975 1.23
Tomsk Oblast 297,048 64.12 88,744 19.16 61,322 13.24 8,933 1.93
Tula Oblast 585,958 67.80 177,133 20.49 77,382 8.95 10,140 1.17
Tuva 118,091 89.32 7,638 5.78 4,174 3.16 772 0.58
Tver Oblast 519,380 67.57 147,434 19.18 83,234 10.83 9,911 1.29
Tyumen Oblast 676,848 78.88 80,885 9.43 80,995 9.44 10,063 1.17
Udmurtia 551,026 70.46 126,537 16.18 84,527 10.81 10,913 1.40
Ulyanovsk Oblast 443,115 66.93 141,326 21.35 60,690 9.17 8,059 1.22
Vladimir Oblast 433,585 64.05 147,833 21.84 78,084 11.53 9,557 1.41
Volgograd Oblast 743,775 62.27 289,613 24.25 135,793 11.37 13,235 1.11
Vologda Oblast 451,220 68.54 105,319 16.02 84,554 12.86 9,622 1.46
Voronezh Oblast 886,362 66.27 301,963 22.58 119,728 8.95 12,642 0.95
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 268,755 83.86 23,174 7.23 23,686 7.39 2,780 0.87
Yaroslavl Oblast 404,566 63.58 131,368 20.64 79,769 12.54 10,221 1.61
Zabaykalsky Krai
Other
Baikonur (Khazakstan) 10,049 79.22 1,255 9.89 1,129 8.90 133 1.05
Expatriate voting 283,298 85.80 24,932 7.55 14,695 4.45 3,736 1.13
Source: CEC

Reactions[edit]

According to Russia Today, many in the Western media portrayed Russia's presidential election as nothing but a farce. It reported that the claims of rigging the election were not supported by the various international election monitoring organizations in attendance.[41][not in citation given]

Political analyst and United Russia member, Sergei Markov, said that the outcome of this poll was predetermined because of how much support the Russian people show for Vladimir Putin's policies. "The Russian people have seen how successful these policies have been, and they want them to continue", he says. Markov cited fears that the West would interfere and change the course of the election, like they did in Ukraine and Georgia.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reintroducing: The Democratic Party Of Russia, The eXile, June 15, 2007.
  2. ^ Presidential candidate Bogdanov denies Kremlin ties, Reuters, January 30, 2008.
  3. ^ a b STATEMENT # 3 OF GOLOS ASSOCIATION ON THE RESULTS OF SHORT-TERM MONITORING OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS ON MARCH 2, 2008 Archived April 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The GOLOS Association, Moscow, March 3, 2008
  4. ^ a b Hooper, By Adrian Blomfield in Moscow and Duncan. "Russian election". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  5. ^ a b c Wrap: OSCE election watchdog to boycott Russian polls - tensions rise, RIA Novosti, February 7, 2008
  6. ^ a b Election watchdog scraps plans to monitor Russian vote Archived 2008-02-08 at Archive.today National Post Retrieved on March 19, 2008
  7. ^ News.ru. Прокуратура выявила факт подделки подписей в поддержку Богданова. Но участь Касьянова ему не грозит. 2008-01-31.
  8. ^ Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации Archived March 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Kommersant Moscow. Zyuganov Announces His Presidential Bid Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. 2007-06-11
  10. ^ ITAR-TASS Communist leader Zyuganov nominated for Russia presidency[permanent dead link]. 2007-12-15.
  11. ^ Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации Archived March 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Kyiv Post. Russian opposition party SPS nominates Nemtsov as presidential candidate Archived December 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации Archived March 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "RIA Novosti - Russia - Opposition candidate Nemtsov quits Russian presidential race". En.rian.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  15. ^ Russia: President's Potential Successor Debuts At Davos. January 31, 2007.
  16. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Дмитрий Медведев выдвинут в президенты России Lenta.ru
  17. ^ United Russia endorses D Medvedev as candidate for presidency Archived 2008-03-04 at the Wayback Machine ITAR-TASS, December 17, 2007.
  18. ^ Medvedev Registers for Russian Presidency, Will Leave Gazprom, Bloomberg, December 20, 2007.
  19. ^ Putin may become Gazprom chairman, Reuters, December 21, 2007.
  20. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) О регистрации Дмитрия Анатольевича Медведева кандидатом на должность Президента Российской Федерации Archived 2008-03-05 at the Wayback Machine, Decision No. 88/688-5 of the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation, January 21, 2008.
  21. ^ Putin's successor dismisses fears of state "grab", Reuters, January 17, 2008.
  22. ^ Speech by Dmitry A. Medvedev, New York Times, December 11, 2007
  23. ^ Drive Starts to Make Putin 'National Leader' The Moscow Times, November 8, 2007
  24. ^ "World | Europe | Profile: Dmitry Medvedev". BBC News. 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  25. ^ "Bogdanov versus Zhirinovsky, five-year prison term asked". Itar-tass.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "Rivals in Kremlin race". BBC News. 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  27. ^ Angus Reid Global Monitor. Ivanov Leads, Zubkov Negligible in Russia Archived 2007-10-08 at the Wayback Machine 2007-10-03.
  28. ^ Vote rig claim after Putin ally landslide - CNN.com Archived March 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ 300+ monitor Russian poll; OSCE skips Archived 2008-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, Russia Today, March 2, 2008
  30. ^ Voices of outrage in a Biysk territorial election commission‹See Tfd›(in Russian), FederalPress March 5, 2008
  31. ^ PACE says Medvedev won Russian polls, but doubts fairness, RIA Novosti, March 3, 2008.
  32. ^ Thumping mandate for Medvedev Archived 2008-03-10 at the Wayback Machine Russia Today Retrieved on March 19, 2008
  33. ^ Russia election not free or fair, say observers by Luke Harding, The Guardian, March 3, 2008
  34. ^ Russian Presidential election: for an election to be good it takes a good process, not just a good election day Archived 2008-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, PACE, Strasbourg, March 3, 2008
  35. ^ Russia official admits media bias BBC News Retrieved on March 19, 2008
  36. ^ No contest The economist [Feb 28th 2008]
  37. ^ Medvedev is victor in Russia election by Clifford J. Levy International Herald Tribune, March 2, 2008
  38. ^ Фальсификация Archived 2008-03-09 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on March 12, 2008
  39. ^ "Шендерович, писатель, журналист Виктор". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  40. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1661 ISBN 9783832956097
  41. ^ "Slovakia Parliament". Guide2womenleaders.com. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  42. ^ Viewpoints: Russian presidential election BBC Retrieved on March 12, 2008

External links[edit]