Russian submarine Novomoskovsk (K-407)
K-407 Novomoskovsk on duty
|Soviet Union, Russia|
|Builder:||Northern Engineering Plant (Sevmash)|
|Laid down:||4 March 1988|
|Launched:||28 February 1990|
|Completed:||27 November 1990|
|Commissioned:||20 February 1992|
|Homeport:||Olenya Bay, Skalisty Naval Base|
|Status:||Ship in active service|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||Delta-class submarine|
|Length:||167 m (547.9 ft)|
|Beam:||11.7 m (38.4 ft)|
|Draft:||8.8 m (28.9 ft)|
|Propulsion:||Two VM4-SG nuclear reactors|
|Complement:||135 officers and men|
K-407 Novomoskovsk is a Project 667BDRM Delfin-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Delta IV) of the Russian Navy's Northern Fleet.
Construction of the nuclear submarine K-407 Novomoskovsk began at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk on February 2, 1987, and it became part of the Soviet Navy on November 27, 1990. She was the last of seven 667BDRM Delfin submarines and the last SSBN submarine built in the USSR. This class of submarines was developed at the Rubin Design Bureau in 1975 and is considered one of the most successful Soviet submarine missile carrier designs.
The submarine has a submerged displacement of 18,200 tons and a surface displacement of 11,700 tons. It is 167 m long and 11.7 m wide. It is powered by two nuclear reactors with a total power of 180 MW. The submarine's immersion depth is 400 m; its surface speed is 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph), and its underwater speed is 24 knots (44 km/h; 28 mph). It carries a crew of 135. Armaments include a D-9RM missile system (16 RSM-54 ballistic missiles) and four 533-mm torpedo tubes.
The RSM-54 missile (3M37, R-29RM, or SS-N-23 according to the NATO classification) is a liquid-propellant, three-stage missile with separable heads (it carries four or ten warheads depending on the modification). It has a range of 8300 km, a CEP of 500 m, and a launching mass of 40.3 tons. It is 14.8 m long and 1.9 m in diameter.
On 6 August 1991 21:09 Novomoskovsk, under the command of Captain Second Rank Sergey Yegorov, became the world's only submarine to successfully launch an all-missile salvo, launching 16 ballistic missiles (RSM-54) of total weight of almost 700 tons at an interval of several seconds (operation code name "Behemoth-2"). The first and the last missiles hit their targets successfully, while the others were self-destroyed in the air according to the plan. This operation was considered by the Soviet Navy as a part of possible nuclear war scenario ("Dress rehearsal of the Apocalypse") and experimentally confirmed the technical possibility of a safe underwater all-missile salvo. Politically, the Soviet ballistic missile submarines passed a reasonability check as a part of strategic triad. The previous attempt of an all-missile salvo (operation code name "Behemoth") was performed in 1989 and finished unsuccessfully, however with no casualties. As the experiment took place just before the August Putsch in the USSR, its results were forgotten for a while, and the crew's work wasn't rewarded by the Soviet government authorities.
On 19 March 1993, Novomoskovsk, under the command of Captain First Rank Andrey Bulgakov, collided with USS Grayling. The American submarine was trailing the Russian submarine and miscalculated its speed. Both submarines returned to their homeports, and though badly damaged both returned to service. Grayling was decommissioned some four years later, while Novomoskovsk remains in service almost 25 years later.
In 1996, Novomoskovsk, together with the submarine K-447, successfully fired a batch of ballistic missiles. The city of Novomoskovsk in Tula Oblast took the submarine under its patronage, and on June 19, 1997, K-407 received the name Novomoskovsk.
The unusual launch was the first time a commercial payload had ever been sent from Earth into orbit from a submarine and the first commercial space launch in the history of the Russian Navy.
The satellite, developed by Berlin Technical University, was placed in orbit on an SS-N-23 (RSM-54)-type ballistic missile. The Northern Fleet was paid some 200,000 German Mark (US$111,000) for the launch.
On 17 February 2004, Novomoskovsk seemingly attempted to test-fire a SS-N-23 ballistic missile, but the missile failed to come out of its silo because of an unspecified technical problem. The Russian Navy, despite earlier statements describing the test, explained that no "physical" launch was intended at all: the exercise was supposed to be a simulation. President of Russia Vladimir Putin was aboard Arkhangelsk, an Akula-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Typhoon), to observe the exercise.
Like the other 667BDRM Delfin ships in service with the Northern Fleet, K-407 is slated to receive new SLBMs to replace the RSM-54. The missile is a new-build, minor modernization of the RSM-54. It does not bear a separate designator from the RSM-54/R-29RM/SS-N-23 asides from the name "Sineva". Testing of the R-29RM "Sineva" was completed in June 2004. Novomoskovsk is the third Delfin-class submarine in line to receive the new missile (after her siblings K-51 Verkhoturye and K-84 Ekaterinburg). She was fully overhauled and modernized in 2006 before returning to service.
In July 2006, cleric of Aleksandr Nevskiy Cathedral, the head of the Diocesan department on interaction with the Armed Forces and law enforcement agencies, priest Leonid Leontiuk was temporarily included in the personnel list of the K-18 Kareliya and was on board of K-407 Novomoskovsk. During the deployment the priest has performed the consecration ceremony of submarine's compartments, met with submarine personnel, led discussions on the basics of faith and spiritual life. Six sailors got baptized on board.
In November 2008 K-407 Novomoskovsk went to the Zvezdochka plant for general overhaul and modernization. On 29 July 2012 the refit was finished and the submarine returned to active service.
The submarine is expected to remain in service until 2020.
At the moment, Novomoskovsk is worthy of the proud name of "the most shooting" submarine of the Russian Navy. The submarine is currently part of the 31st Order of the Red Banner underwater strategic missile cruiser division of the 12th submarine squadron of the Northern Fleet (Olenya Bay, Skalisty Naval Base). The submarine's commander in 2012 is Captain Stepan Kelbas.
As a member of association of Russian regions and cities, patrons of Northern Fleet ships and units, the Tula Oblast patronages K-114 Tula and K-407 Novomoskovsk submarines and assists in patriotic education and preparation of young people for serving in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Citizens of Novomoskovsk have preference to serve on K-407 Novomoskovsk. The submarine crew are regularly provided by humanitarian goods and visited by the city authorities.
In popular culture
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<ref>tag; name "pereplet" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
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- Strategic Fleet (Russian strategic nuclear forces)
- Ballistic missile submarine K-407 "Novomoskovsk" (in Russian)
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