Russians in Estonia
|(320,000 (est.) (24% of total population))|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Tallinn, Ida-Viru County|
The population of Russians in Estonia is estimated at 320,000. Most Russians live in Estonia's capital city Tallinn and the major northeastern cities of Narva and Kohtla-Järve. Some areas in eastern Estonia near Lake Peipus have a centuries-long history of settlement by Russians, including the Old Believers' communities; however, the majority of today's Estonian Russians arrived during the Soviet era or are the descendants of those who did.
Prince Yaroslav the Wise of Kievan Rus' defeated Chuds in 1030 and established fort of Yuryev (in modern day Tartu), which survived until 1061 when the Kievans were driven out by the tribe of Sosols.
A medieval proto-Russian settlement was in Kuremäe, Vironia. The Orthodox community in the area built a church in the 16th century and in 1891 the Pühtitsa Convent was created on its site. Proto-Russian cultural influence had its mark on Estonian language, with a number of words such as "turg" (trade) and "rist" (cross) adopted from East Slavic.
In 1217, an allied Ugaunian-Novgorodian army defended the Ugaunian stronghold of Otepää from the German knights. Novgorodian prince Vyachko died in 1224 with all his druzhina defending the fortress of Tarbatu together with his Ugaunian and Sackalian allies against the Livonian Order led by Albert of Riga.
Orthodox churches and small communities of proto-Russian merchants and craftsmen remained in Livonian towns as did close trade links with the Novgorod Republic and the Pskov and Polotsk principalities. In 1481, Ivan III of Russia laid siege to the castle of Fellin (Viljandi) and briefly captured several towns in eastern Livonia in response to a previous attack on Pskov. Between 1558 and 1582, Ivan IV of Russia captured much of mainland Livonia in the midst of the Livonian War but eventually the Russians were driven out by Lithuanian-Polish and Swedish armies. Tsar Alexis I of Russia once again captured towns in eastern Livonia, including Dorpat (Tartu) and Nyslott (Vasknarva) between 1656 and 1661, but had to yield his conquests to Sweden.
17th century to 1940
The beginning of continuous Russian settlement in what is now Estonia dates back to the late 17th century when several thousand Russian Old Believers, escaping religious persecution in Russia, settled in areas then a part of the Swedish empire near the western coast of Lake Peipus.
In the 18th century after the Great Northern War the territories of Estonia divided between the Governorate of Estonia and Livonia became part of the Russian Empire but maintained local autonomy and were administered independently by the local Baltic German nobility through a feudal Regional Council (German: Landtag). The second period of influx of Russians followed the Imperial Russian conquest of the northern Baltic region, including Estonia, from Sweden in 1700–1721. Under Russian rule, power in the region remained primarily in the hands of the Baltic German nobility, but a limited number of administrative jobs was gradually taken over by Russians, who settled in Reval (Tallinn) and other major towns.
A relatively larger number of ethnic Russian workers settled in Tallinn and Narva during the period of rapid industrial development at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. After the First World War, the share of ethnic Russians in the population of independent Estonia was 7.3%. About half of these were indigenous Russians living in Ivangorod, the Estonian Ingria and the Petseri County, which were added to Estonia territory according to the 1920 Peace Treaty of Tartu, but were transferred to the Russian SFSR in 1945.
In the aftermath of World War I Estonia became an independent republic where the Russians, comprising 8% of the total population among other ethnic minorities, established Cultural Self-Governments according to the 1925 Estonian Law on Cultural Autonomy. The state was tolerant of the Russian Orthodox Church and became a home to many Russian émigrés after the Russian October Revolution in 1917.
World War II and the Estonian SSR
After the Occupation and annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union in 1940, repression of ethnic Estonians followed. According to Sergei Isakov, almost all societies, newspapers, organizations of ethnic Estonians were closed in 1940 and their activists persecuted. The country remained annexed to the Soviet Union until 1991 except Nazi Germany occupation between 1941 and 1944. During the era the government initiated a population transfer. Thousands of citizens were deported to inhospitable areas and various Russophone populations were relocated to Estonia. Between 1945–1991 the Russian population in Estonia grew from about 23,000 to 475,000 people and the total Slavic population to 551,000, becoming 35% of the total population.
In 1939 ethnic Russians comprised 8% of the population, however, following the annexation of about 2,000 km2 (772 sq mi) of land to the Russian SFSR in January 1945, including Ivangorod (then the eastern suburb of Narva) and the Petseri County, Estonia lost most of its inter-war ethnic Russian population.
Most of the present-day Russians are migrants from the recent settlement, and their descendants. Following the terms of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed the Baltic States in 1940. The authorities carried out repressions against many prominent ethnic Russians activists and White emigres in Estonia. Many Russians were arrested and executed by different Soviet war tribunals in 1940–1941. After Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, the Baltics quickly fell under German control. Many Russians, especially Communist party members who had arrived in the area with the initial occupation and annexation, retreated; those who fell into the German hands were treated harshly, many were executed.
After the war, Narva's inhabitants previously evacuated by the Germans were for the most part not permitted to return and were replaced by refugees and workers administratively mobilized from western Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. By 1989, ethnic Russians made up 30.3% of the population in Estonia.
During the Singing Revolution, the Intermovement, International Movement of the Workers of the ESSR, organised the indigenous Russian resistance to the independence movement and purported to represent the ethnic Russians and other Russophones in Estonia.
Today most Russians live in Tallinn and the major northeastern cities of Narva, Kohtla-Järve, Jõhvi, and Sillamäe. The rural areas are populated almost entirely by ethnic Estonians, except for Lake Peipus coast, which has a long history of Old Believers communities. In 2011, University of Tartu sociology professor Marju Lauristin found that 21% were successfully integrated, 28% showed partial integration, and 51% were unintegrated or little integrated.
The restored republic recognised the pre-occupation citizens or descendants from such (including the long-term Russian settlers from earlier influxes, such as Lake Peipus coast and the 10,000 residents of the Petseri County) The Citizenship Act provides the following requirements for naturalisation of those people who had arrived in the country after 1940, the majority of whom were ethnic Russians: knowledge of the Estonian language, Constitution and a pledge of loyalty to Estonia. The government offers free preparation courses for the examination on the Constitution and the Citizenship Act, and reimburses up to 380 euros for language studies.
Between 1992 and 2007 about 147,000 people acquired citizenship, bringing the proportion of stateless residents from 32% down to about 8 percent. According to Amnesty International's 2015 report, approximately 6.8% of Estonia's population are not citizens of the country.
In late 2014 an amendment to the law was proposed that would give Estonian citizenship to children of non-citizen parents who have resided in Estonia for at least five years.
The perceived difficulty of the language tests became a point of international contention, as the government of the Russian Federation and a number of human rights organizations objected on the grounds that they made it hard for many Russians who had not learned the language to gain the citizenship in the short term. As a result, the tests were altered somewhat, due to which the number of stateless persons steadily decreased. According to Estonian officials, in 1992, 32% of residents lacked any form of citizenship. In May 2009, the Population register reported that 7.6% of residents have undefined citizenship and 8.4% have foreign citizenship, mostly Russian. As the Russian Federation was recognized as the successor state to the Soviet Union, all former USSR citizens qualified for natural-born citizenship of Russia, available upon mere request, as provided by the law "On the RSFSR Citizenship" in force up to the end of 2000.
Notable Russians from Estonia
Noteworthy modern Russians who at some point lived in Estonia include:
- Alexy II of Moscow was born in Tallinn.
- Sergei Dovlatov lived in Tallinn.
- Anna Levandi (née Kondrashova), a former competitive figure skater, silver medalist at the 1984 World Championships, a four-time European bronze medalist
- Valery Karpin, a former football player, represented Russia national team, was born in Narva. Since 2003 he holds the Estonian citizenship.
- Nikolai Stepulov, silver medal in Men's Boxing, lightweight class in the 1936 Summer Olympics.
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn worked on The Gulag Archipelago in Estonia 1965–1967.
- Igor Severyanin (Igor Lotaryov), poet; lived, married, and died in Estonia.
- Mikhail Veller, writer, lives in Tallinn.
- Tanja Mihhailova, represented Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2014.
- Campbell, Lyle (2004). Historical Linguistics. MIT Press. p. 418. ISBN 0-262-53267-0.
- Bojtár, Endre (1999). Foreword to the Past. Central European University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9789639116429.
- Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Miljan, Toivo. Historical Dictionary of Estonia.
- Mäesalu, Ain (2012). "Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava hill fort?" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Archaeology. 1: 199. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- "Pühtitsa (Pyhtitsa) Dormition Convent".
- Kahk, J.; Palamets, H.; Vahtre, S. (1974), Eesti NSV ajaloost. Lisamaterjali VII-VIII klassi NSV Liidu ajaloo kursuse juurde. 7. trükk, Tallinn: Valgus
- Frucht, Richard (2005). Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. p. 65. ISBN 1-57607-800-0.
- Smith, David James (2005). The Baltic States and Their Region. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-1666-8.
- "EESTI - ERINEVATE RAHVUSTE ESINDAJATE KODU" (in Estonian). miksike.ee.
- Suksi, Markku (198). Autonomy. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 253.
- Kishkovsky, Sophia (6 December 2008). "Patriarch Aleksy II". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- Mälksoo, Lauri (2003). Illegal Annexation and State Continuity: The Case of the Incorporation of the Baltic States by the USSR. Leiden – Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-411-2177-3.
- Chernichenko, S. V. (August 2004). "Об "оккупации" Прибалтики и нарушении прав русскоязычного населения" (in Russian). Международная жизнь».
- Isakov, S. G. (2005). Очерки истории русской культуры в Эстонии, Изд. : Aleksandra (in Russian). Tallinn. p. 21.
- Chinn, Jeff; Kaiser, Robert John (1996). Russians as the new minority. Westview Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-8133-2248-0.
- Smith, David (2001). Estonia: independence and European integration. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-415-26728-1.
- Isakov, S. G. (2005). Очерки истории русской культуры в Эстонии (in Russian). Tallinn. pp. 394–395.
- "Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity" (PDF).
- Batt, Judy; Wolczuk, Kataryna (2002). Region, state, and identity in Central and Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7146-5243-6.
- "Population by Nationality". Estonia.eu.
- Bunce, Valerie; Watts, Steven (2005). "Managing Diversity and Sustaining Democracy: Ethnofederal versus Unitary States in the Postcommunist World". In Philip G. Roeder, Donald Rothchild. Sustainable peace: power and democracy after civil wars. Cornell University Press. p. 151.
- Koort, Katja (July 2014). "The Russians of Estonia: Twenty Years After". World Affairs.
- "Estonian passport holders at risk". The Baltic Times. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
- Ludwikowski, Rett R. (1996). Constitution-making in the region of former Soviet dominance. Duke University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8223-1802-6.
- "Citizenship Act of Estonia".
- "Government to develop activities to decrease the number of non-citizens".
- Puddington, Arch; Piano, Aili; Eiss, Camille; Roylance, Tyler (2007). "Estonia". Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Freedom House. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 248. ISBN 0-7425-5897-5.
- "91,000 stateless people have limited political rights in Estonia, Amnesty 2015 report says". err.ee. 26 February 2015.
- "Riigikogu asub arutama kodakondsuse andmise lihtsustamist" (in Estonian). 12 November 2014.
- "Estonia: Citizenship". vm.ee.
- Gradirovsky, Sergei. "The Policy of Immigration and Naturalization in Russia: Present State and Prospects" (PDF).
- "Population by sex, ethnic nationality and County, 1 January". stat.ee. Statistics Estonia. 2013-01-01. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "Alternative Report for the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination of United Nations" (PDF).
- "The Russian Diaspora in Latvia and Estonia: Predicting Language Outcomes" (PDF).
- "Report on Estonia". Amnesty International. 2007.
- "Linguistic minorities in Estonia: Discrimination must end". Amnesty International. 7 December 2006.
- Lucas, Edward (14 December 2006). "An excess of conscience – Estonia is right and Amnesty is wrong". The Economist.
- Vetik, Raivo (1993). "Ethnic conflict and accommodation in post-communist Estonia". Journal of Peace Research 30.3. pp. 271–280. JSTOR 424806.
- Andersen, Erik André (1997). "The Legal Status of Russians in Estonian Privatisation Legislation 1989–1995". Europe-Asia Studies 49.2. pp. 303–316. JSTOR 153989.
- Park, Andrus (1994). "Ethnicity and Independence: The Case of Estonia in Comparative Perspective". Europe-Asia Studies, 46.1. pp. 69–87. JSTOR 153031.
- Vares, Peeter; Zhurayi, Olga (1998). Estonia and Russia, Estonians and Russians: A Dialogue. 2nd ed. Tallinn: Olof Palme International Center.
- Lauristin, Marju; Heidmets, Mati (2002). The Challenge of the Russian Minority: Emerging Multicultural Democracy in Estonia. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.