Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)

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Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)

Clockwise, from top left: The Battle of Kinburn, The Siege of Ochakov, The Battle of Rymnik, The Siege of Izmail
Date19 August 1787 – 9 January 1792
Location
Result Russian victory
Territorial
changes
Russian annexation of Ottoman Sanjak of Özi (Yedisan or Ochacov Oblast)
Local Black Sea Cossack Host deported to Kuban as a "reward"
Belligerents
Montenegro
Holy Roman Empire Habsburg monarchy
Sheikh Mansur Movement
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Catherine II
Russian Empire Grigory Potemkin
Russian Empire Pavel Potemkin
Russian Empire Alexander Suvorov
Russian Empire Ivan Saltykov
Russian Empire Pyotr Rumyantsev
Russian Empire Mikhail Kamensky
Russian Empire Nicholas Repnin
Russian Empire Mikhail Kutuzov
Russian Empire Marko Voinovich
Russian Empire Ivan Gudovich
Russian Empire Fyodor Ushakov
Russian Empire Nikolay Mordvinov
Russian EmpireSpain José de Ribas
Russian EmpireUnited States John Paul Jones
Koča Anđelković (POW)
Sydir Bily (WIA)
Abdul Hamid I
(1787–1789)
Selim III
(1789–1792)
Yusuf Pasha
Hasan Pasha 
Aydoslu Pasha
Cenaze Pasha
Süleyman Bey
Şahbaz Giray
Bakht Giray
Sheikh Mansur
Strength
Russian Empire 100,000[1]
10,000+
280,000[2][notes 1]
25,000[3]
Casualties and losses
Russian Empire 59,000–72,000 killed[4]
3,000–4,000 killed[4]
116,000–130,000 killed[4]

The Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). It took place concomitantly with the Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791), Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790) and Theatre War.

During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789, a detachment of the Imperial Russian Army under Alexander Suvorov and Ivan Gudovich, took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire. In 1794, Odesa was founded by a decree of the Russian Empress Catherine the Great.

Russia formally gained possession of the Sanjak of Özi (Ochakiv Oblast) in 1792 and it became a part of Yekaterinoslav Viceroyalty. The Russian Empire took full control of Crimea, as well as land between the Southern Bug and the Dniester.

Background[edit]

In May and June 1787, Catherine II of Russia made a triumphal procession through Novorossiya and the annexed Crimea in company with her ally, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor.[5] These events, the rumors about Catherine's Greek Plan,[6] and the friction caused by the mutual complaints of infringements of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, which had ended the previous war, stirred up public opinion in the Ottoman capital Constantinople, while the British and French ambassadors lent their unconditional support to the Ottoman war party.

War[edit]

Course of the war (in Russian).

In 1787, the Ottomans demanded that the Russians evacuate the Crimea and give up their holdings near the Black Sea,[7] which Russia saw as a casus belli.[7] Russia declared war on 19 August 1787, and the Ottomans imprisoned the Russian ambassador, Yakov Bulgakov.[8] Ottoman preparations were inadequate and the moment was ill-chosen, as Russia and Austria were now in alliance. The Ottomans mustered forces throughout their domain, and Süleyman Bey from Anatolia went himself to the front at the head of 4000 soldiers.[9][10][11]

The Ottoman Empire opened their offensive with an attack on two fortresses near Kinburn, in southern Ukraine.[12] Russian General Alexander Suvorov held off these two Ottoman sea-borne attacks in September and October 1787, thus securing the Crimea.[13][7] In Moldavia, Russian troops captured the Ottoman cities of Chocim and Jassy.[12] Ochakov, at the mouth of the Dnieper, fell on 6 December 1788 after a six-month siege by Prince Grigory Potemkin and Suvorov.[12][7] All civilians in the captured cities were massacred by order of Potemkin.[14]

Although suffering a series of defeats against the Russians, the Ottoman Empire found some success against the Austrians, led by Emperor Joseph II, in Serbia and Transylvania.[14]

By 1789, the Ottoman Empire was being pressed back in Moldavia by Russian and Austrian forces.[15] To make matters worse, on 1 August the Russians under Suvorov attained a victory against the Ottomans led by Osman Pasha at Focsani,[7] followed by a Russian victory at Rymnik (or Rimnik) on 22 September, and drove them away from near the Râmnicul Sărat river.[15] Suvorov was given the title Count Rymniksky following the battle.[7] The Ottomans suffered more losses when the Austrians, under General Ernst Gideon von Laudon repelled an Ottoman invasion of Croatia, while an Austrian counterattack took Belgrade.[16]

A Greek revolt, which further drained the Ottoman war effort, brought about a truce between the Ottoman Empire and Austria.[17] Meanwhile, the Russians continued their advance when Suvorov captured the reportedly "impenetrable" Ottoman fortress of Izmail at the entrance of the Danube, in December 1790.[17] A final Ottoman defeat at Machin (9 July 1791),[18][7] coupled with Russian concerns about Prussia entering the war,[19] led to a truce agreed upon on 31 July 1791.[18] After the capture of the fortress, Suvorov marched upon Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), where the Russians hoped they could establish a Christian empire.[7] However, as Prof. Timothy C. Dowling states, the slaughters that were committed in the ensuing period somewhat defiled Suvorov's reputation in many eyes, and there were allegations at the time that he was drunk at the Siege of Ochakov.[7] Persistent rumors about his actions were spread and circulated, and in 1791 he was relocated to Finland.[7]

Aftermath[edit]

Accordingly, the Treaty of Jassy was signed on 9 January 1792, recognizing Russia's 1783 annexation of the Crimean Khanate. Yedisan (Odessa and Ochakov) was also ceded to Russia,[17] and the Dniester was made the Russian frontier in Europe, while the Russian Asiatic frontier—the Kuban River—remained unchanged.[18] The Ottoman war goal to reclaim the Crimea had failed, and if not for the French Revolution, the Ottoman Empire's situation could have been much worse.[18]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This includes the Ottoman troops fighting in the Austro-Turkish War.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Антон Антонович Керсновский (1992). История русской армии. Голос. ISBN 978-5-7117-0059-3.
  2. ^ According to Andrey Nikolaevich Petrov, campaign of 1788
  3. ^ "Новая страница (1)". runivers.ru.
  4. ^ a b c "Victimario Histórico Militar".
  5. ^ Stone 1994, p. 134.
  6. ^ Dowling 2015, p. 744.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dowling 2014, p. 841.
  8. ^ Cunningham 1993, p. 2.
  9. ^ Yonca Köksal (2019). The Ottoman Empire in the Tanzimat Era Provincial Perspectives from Ankara to Edirne. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-429-81251-4.
  10. ^ ÖZCAN MERT. "ÇAPANOĞULLARI". İslâm Ansiklopedisi. Archived from the original on 30 August 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  11. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi; Bruce McGowan; Sevket Pamuk (2011). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 671. ISBN 978-0-521-57455-6.
  12. ^ a b c Tucker 2011, p. 959.
  13. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 863.
  14. ^ a b Tucker 2011, pp. 959–960.
  15. ^ a b Tucker 2011, p. 963.
  16. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 964.
  17. ^ a b c Tucker 2011, p. 965.
  18. ^ a b c d Sicker 2001, p. 82.
  19. ^ Tucker 2011, p. 966.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Mayer, Matthew Z. (2004). "The Price for Austria's Security: Part I – Joseph II, the Russian Alliance, and the Ottoman War, 1787–1789". The International History Review. 26 (2): 257–299. doi:10.1080/07075332.2004.9641031.

External links[edit]

Media related to Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) at Wikimedia Commons