|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Anti-Russian sentiment (or Russophobia) is a fear and/or dislike for Russia, Russians and/or Russian culture. A variety of mass culture clichés about Russia and Russians exist. Many of these stereotypes were originally developed in the Western world during the Cold War, and were primarily used as elements of political war against the Soviet Union. Some of these prejudices are still observed in the discussions of the relations with Russia. Negative representation of Russia and Russians in modern popular culture is also often described as functional, as stereotypes about Russia may be used for framing reality, like creating an image of an enemy, or an excuse, or an explanation for compensatory reasons. Hollywood has been sometimes criticised for its excessive and continuous use of Russians as the villains.
On the other hand, Russian nationalists and apologists of Russian politics are sometimes criticised for using allegations of "Russophobia" as a form of propaganda to counter criticism of Russia.
- 1 Statistics
- 2 History
- 3 By country
- 3.1 Within Russia
- 3.2 Former Soviet Union
- 3.3 Former Eastern Bloc
- 3.4 Former Yugoslavia
- 3.5 Western world
- 3.6 Rest of the world
- 4 Business
- 5 View of Russia in Western media
- 6 Russian response
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In October 2004, the International Gallup Organization announced that according to its poll, anti-Russia sentiment remained fairly strong throughout Europe and the West in general. It found that Russia was the least popular G-8 country globally. The percentage of population with a "very negative" or "fairly negative" perception of Russia was 73% in Kosovo, 62% in Finland, 57% in Norway, 42% in the Czech Republic and Switzerland, 37% in Germany, 32% in Denmark and Poland, and 23% in Estonia. Overall, the percentage of respondents with a positive view of Russia was only 31%.
According to a 2014 survey by Pew Research Center, attitudes towards Russia in most countries worsened considerably during Russia's involvement in the 2014 crisis in Ukraine. From 2013 to 2014, the median negative attitudes in Europe rose from 54% to 75%, and from 43% to 72% in the United States. Negative attitudes also rose compared to 2013 throughout the Middle East, Latin America, Asia and Africa.
There is the question of whether or not negative attitudes towards Russia and frequent criticism of the Russian government in western media contributes to negative attitudes towards Russian people and culture. In a Guardian article, British academic Piers Robinson claims that "Indeed western governments frequently engage in strategies of manipulation through deception involving exaggeration, omission, and misdirection". In a 2012 survey, the percentage of Russian immigrants in the EU that indicated that they had experienced racially motivated hate crimes was 5%, which is less than the average of 10% reported by several groups of immigrants and ethnic minorities in the EU. 17% of Russian immigrants in the EU said that they had been victims of crimes the last 12 months, for example, theft, attacks, frightening threats or harassment, as compared to an average of 24% among several groups of immigrants and ethnic minorities.
On 19 October 1797 the French Directory received a document from a Polish general, Michał Sokolnicki, entitled "Aperçu sur la Russie". This became known as the so-called "Testament of Peter the Great" and was first published in October 1812, during the Napoleonic wars, in Charles Louis-Lesur's much-read Des progrès de la puissance russe: this was at the behest of Napoleon I, who ordered a series of articles to be published showing that "Europe is inevitably in the process of becoming booty for Russia". Subsequent to the Napoleonic wars, propaganda against Russia was continued by Napoleon's former confessor, Dominique Georges-Frédéric de Pradt, who in a series of books portrayed Russia as a "despotic" and "Asiatic" power hungry to conquer Europe. With reference to Russia's new constitutional laws in 1811 the Savoyard philosopher Joseph de Maistre wrote the now famous statement: "Every nation gets the government it deserves" ("Toute nation a le gouvernement qu'elle mérite").
In the 1815-1840 period, British commentators began complaining about the extreme conservatism of Russia and its efforts to stop or reverse reforms. Fears grew that Russia had plans to cut off communications between Britain and India and was looking to conquer Afghanistan to pursue that goal. This led to the British policies known as the "Great Game" to stop Russian expansion in Central Asia. However, historians with access to the Russian archives have concluded that Russia had no plans involving India, as the Russians repeatedly stated.
In 1867, Fyodor Tyutchev, a Russian poet, diplomat and member of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery, introduced the actual term of "russophobia" in a letter to his daughter Anna Aksakova on 20 September 1867, where he applied it to a number of pro-Western Russian liberals who, pretending that they were merely following their liberal principles, developed a negative attitude towards their own country and always stood on a pro-Western and anti-Russian position, regardless of any changes in the Russian society and having a blind eye on any violations of these principles in the West, "violations in the sphere of justice, morality, and even civilization". He put the emphasis on the irrationality of this sentiment. Tyuchev saw Western anti-Russian sentiment as the result of misunderstanding caused by civilizational differences between East and West. Being an adherent of Pan-Slavism, he believed that the historical mission of Slavic peoples was to be united in a Pan-Slavic and Orthodox Christian Russian Empire to preserve their Slavic identity and avoid cultural assimilation; in his lyrics Poland, a Slavic yet Catholic country, was poetically referred to as Judas among the Slavs. The term returned into political dictionaries of the Soviet Union only in the middle 1930s. Further works by Russian academics, such as Igor Shafarevich's Russophobia or the treaty from the 1980s attributed the spread of russophobia to Zionists.
In 1843 the Marquis de Custine published his hugely successful 1800-page, four-volume travelogue La Russie en 1839. Custine's scathing narrative reran what were by now clichés which presented Russia as a place where "the veneer of European civilization was too thin to be credible". Such was its huge success that several official and pirated editions quickly followed, as well as condensed versions and translations in German, Dutch, and English. By 1846 approximately 200 thousand copies had been sold.
The influential British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote controversially on Russia, that the oppression in the country, rooted in the Red Revolution, perhaps was "the fruit of some beastliness in the Russian nature", also attributing "cruelty and stupidity" to tyranny in both the "Old Russia" (tsarist) and "New Russia" (Soviet).
Hitler stated in Mein Kampf his belief that the Russian state was the work of German elements in the country and not of the Slavs:
Here, Fate itself seems desirous of giving us a sign. By handing Russia to Bolshevism, it robbed the Russian nation of that intelligentsia which previously brought about and guaranteed its existence as a state. For the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only an excellent example of the state-forming efficacity of the German element in an inferior race.
A secret Nazi plan, the Generalplan Ost called for the enslavement, expulsion or extermination of most Slavic peoples in Europe. Approximately 2.8 million Soviet POWs died of starvation, mistreatment, or executions in just eight months of 1941–42.
Need, hunger, lack of comfort have been the Russians' lot for centuries. No false compassion, as their stomachs are perfectly extendible. Don't try to impose the German standards and to change their style of life. Their only wish is to be ruled by the Germans. [...] Help yourselves, and may God help you!— "12 precepts for the German officer in the East", 1941
This is an ideological battle and a struggle of races. Here in this struggle stands National Socialism: an ideology based on the value of our Germanic, Nordic blood. ... On the other side stands a population of 180 million, a mixture of races, whose very names are unpronounceable, and whose physique is such that one can shoot them down without pity and compassion. These animals, that torture and ill-treat every prisoner from our side, every wounded man that they come across and do not treat them the way decent soldiers would, you will see for yourself. These people have been welded by the Jews into one religion, one ideology, that is called Bolshevism... When you, my men, fight over there in the East, you are carrying on the same struggle, against the same sub-humanity, the same inferior races, that at one time appeared under the name of Huns, another time— 1000 years ago at the time of King Henry and Otto I— under the name of Magyars, another time under the name of Tartars, and still another time under the name of Genghis Khan and the Mongols. Today they appear as Russians under the political banner of Bolshevism.
Heinrich Himmler's speech at Posen on October 4, 1943:
What happens to a Russian, to a Czech, does not interest me in the slightest. What the nations can offer in good blood of our type, we will take, if necessary by kidnapping their children and raising them with us. Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our culture; otherwise, it is of no interest to me. Whether 10,000 Russian females fall from exhaustion while digging an anti-tank ditch interest me only in so far as the anti-tank ditch for Germany is finished. We shall never be rough and heartless when it is not necessary, that is clear. We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude towards animals, will also assume a decent attitude towards these human animals.
The editors of the journal Kritika argue that an extreme interpretation of George F. Kennan’s “X article” was exploited by American politicians in the Cold War to advance aggressive “containment” policy towards Russia (in spite of Kennan later denouncing this interpretation). Russophobic stereotypes of an illiberal tradition were also favored by Cold War historiographers, even as scholars of early Russia debunked such essentialist notions.
In a report by the Jamestown Foundation, dealing with the topic of the (extremely positive according to the report) reception of American Republican senator John McCain's statements about Russia's "double standards in the Caucasus" (referring to how Russia recognized South Ossetia but would not let Chechnya go), one Chechen stated that Chechnya "cannot exist within the borders of Russia because every 50 years... Russia kills us Chechens".
Journalist Fatima Tlisova released an article in 2009 discussing the frequent occurrences of Russian Orthodox crosses being sawed off buildings and thrown off mountains in Circassia, due to the cross being associated with the people who initiated the mass expulsions of Circassians.
In April 2015, Chechnya's leader Ramzan Kadyrov ordered Chechen security forces to “shoot to kill” if they encountered police officers from other parts of Russia on the territory of the Chechen Republic.
As a polemic device
In 2006, poet and essayist Lev Rubinstein wrote that similarly to the term "fascism", the term "Russophobia" has become a political sticker slapped onto people who disagree with words or actions of people or organizations who position themselves as "Russian ones" in the ideological, rather than ethnic or geographical sense.
Former Soviet Union
Although not widespread, anti-Russian sentiment has been expressed in Armenia on several occasions, particularly in response to real or perceived anti-Armenian actions by Russia. In June 1903, Nicholas II issued a decree ordering the confiscation of all Armenian Church properties (including church-run schools) and its transfer to the Russian Interior Ministry. The decision was perceived by Armenians to be an effort of Russification, and it met widespread popular resistance by the Russian Armenian population and led by the Dashnak and Hunchak parties. This included attacks on Russian authorities in attempts to prevent the confiscation. The decree being eventually canceled in 1905.
In more recent times, in July 1988, during the Karabakh movement, the killing of an Armenian man and the injury of tens of others by the Soviet army in a violent clash at Zvartnots Airport near Yerevan sparked anti-Russian and anti-Soviet sentiment in the Armenian public. An anti-Russian wave occurred following the mass murder of an Armenian family of 7 in Gyumri by a Russian serviceman stationed at the Russian base there. The sale of weaponry to Azerbaijan by Russia (worth some $4 billion) has caused some anti-Russian sentiments within Armenia. In April 2016 hundreds of protesters demonstrated near the Russian embassy in Yerevan to demand Russia to stop weapons sales to Azerbaijan and "fulfill its obligations as a strategic ally."
Azerbaijanis, in general, have a strong anti-Russian sentiment, particularly due to Russian occupation for almost 200 years, and as Soviet Union, behind the brutal 1990 Black January massacre prior to Azerbaijani independence; or even its complicated role over the Nagorno-Karabakh War between her and Armenia. Under Abulfaz Elchibey, the relations between Russia and Azerbaijan were strained due to his anti-Russian policies.
According to veteran German author, journalist and Russia-correspondent Gabriele Krone-Schmalz, there is deep disapproval of everything Russian in Estonia. A poll conducted by Gallup International suggested that 34% Estonians have a positive attitude towards Russia, but it is supposed that survey results were likely impacted by a large ethnic Russian minority in country. However, in a 2012 poll only 3% of the Russian minority in Estonia reported that they had experienced a racially motivated hate crime (as compared to an average of 10% among ethnic minorities and immigrants in EU).
According to Estonian philosopher Jaan Kaplinski, the birth of anti-Russian sentiment in Estonia dates back to 1940, as there was little or none during the czarist and first independence period, when anti-German sentiment predominated. Kaplinski states the imposition of Soviet rule under Joseph Stalin in 1940 and subsequent actions by Soviet authorities led to the replacement of anti-German sentiment with anti-Russian sentiment within just one year, and characterized it as "one of the greatest achievements of the Soviet authorities". Kaplinski supposes that anti-Russian sentiment could disappear as quickly as anti-German sentiment did in 1940, however he believes the prevailing sentiment in Estonia is sustained by Estonia's politicians who employ "the use of anti-Russian sentiments in political combat," together with the "tendentious attitude of the [Estonian] media." Kaplinski says that a "rigid East-West attitude is to be found to some degree in Estonia when it comes to Russia, in the form that everything good comes from the West and everything bad from the East"; this attitude, in Kaplinski's view, "probably does not date back further than 1940 and presumably originates from Nazi propaganda."
Ever since Latvia regained its independence in 1991 various Russian officials, journalists, academics and pro-Russian activists have criticised Latvia for its Latvian language law and Latvian nationality law and repeatedly accused it of "ethnic discrimination against Russians", "anti-Russian sentiment" and "Russophobia". In 1993 Boris Yeltsin, President of Russian Federation and Andrei Kozyrev, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, declared that Latvia is preparing for an ethnic cleansing. However, not a single Russian has ever been killed for political, nationalistic or racist reasons in Latvia since it regained its independence. In 2019 co-chairman of the Latvian Russian Union and former MEP Tatjana Ždanoka likened the situation of Russians and Russian speakers and their alleged persecution in Latvia to Jews before the World War II.
In April 2015 an online petition "To Stop the Russian Fifth Column in Our Motherland" was posted at a Latvian online petition website, calling to establish a ghetto for non-citizens and Russian nationals named "the fifth column". Articles about the ghetto began to circulate on Russian media, including Sputnik and Moskovsky Komsomolets. There is considerable evidence that it was a fake petition with fake signatories aimed at fomenting an opinion about the degree of Russophobia in Latvia.
In a 2004 research titled "Ethnic tolerance and integration of the Latvian society" conducted by the Baltic Institute of Social Sciences Latvian respondents on average rated their relations with Russians 7.8 out of 10, whereas non-Latvian respondents rated their relationships with Latvians 8.4 out of 10. Both respondent groups believed the ties between them were satisfactory, had not changed in the last five years and were to either remain the same or improve in the next five years. Respondents did mention some conflicts on an ethnic basis, but all of them were classified as psycholinguistic, i.e., verbal confrontations. Most or 66% of non-Russian respondents would also support their son or daughter marrying a person of Russian ethnicity. Furthermore, in a 2012 poll, only 2% of the Russian minority in Latvia reported that they had experienced a 'racially' motivated hate crime (as compared to an average of 10% among immigrants and minorities in EU).
On the other hand, results of a yearly poll carried out by the research agency "SKDS" showed that the population of Latvia was more split on its attitude towards the Russian Federation. In 2008 47% percent of respondents had a positive view of Russia, while 33% had a negative one, but the rest (20%) found hard to define their opinion. It reached a high in 2010 when 64% percent of respondents felt positive towards Russia, in comparison with the 25 percent that felt negative. In 2015, following the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, however, it dropped to the lowest level since 2008 and for the first time the people with a negative attitude towards Russia (46%) surpassed people with a positive attitude (41%). In 2017 the respondents having a positive view of Russia slightly increased and reached 47%, but the respondents having a negative view of Russia decreased to 38%. The data wasn't differentiated between the respondent nationalities, so it has to be noted that between 2008 and 2017, ethnic Russians made up more than a quarter of the population of Latvia.
According to The Moscow Times, Latvia's fears of Russia are rooted in history, including conflicting views on whether Latvia and other Baltic States were occupied by the USSR or joined it voluntary, as well as the 1940–1941 June and 1949 March deportations that followed and most recently the annexation of Crimea that fueled a fear that Latvia could also be annexed by Russia. While Russian-American journalist and broadcaster Vladimir Posner also believed the fact that many Russians in the Latvian SSR did not learn Latvian also contributed to accumulation of an "anti-Russian sentiment".
On a political level, Russians in Latvia have sometimes been targeted by an anti-Russian rhetoric from some of the more radical members of both the mainstream and radical right parties in Latvia. In November 2010 correspondence from 2009 between Minister for Foreign Affairs of Latvia Ģirts Valdis Kristovskis and Latvian American doctor and member of the Civic Union Aivars Slucis was released by journalist Lato Lapsa. In one of the letters titled "Do Latvians Surrender?" (Vai latviesi padodas?), Slucis complained of the current situation in Latvia and being unable to return and work in Latvia, because he "would not be able to treat Russians in the same way as Latvians". (nevaretu arstet krievus vienlidzigi latviesiem Latvija) Kristovskis allegedly responded with "I agree with your opinion and evaluation" (Piekrītu tavam redzējumam un vērtējumam), but warned against hysterical responses, cautioning party members to avoid discussions counterproductive to the party's political goals. After the leak the Civic Union ousted Slucis from the party for views “unacceptable to the party” and returned his financial contributions, while the opposition parties Harmony Centre and For a Good Latvia initiated an unsuccessful vote of no confidence against Kristovskis.
Lithuanians have long experienced conflicts with Russia in history. Begin with growing Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars; the Lithuanian state was radically weakened by repeated Muscovite invasions from the entity. To rescue, Grand Duchy of Lithuania decided to merge with the Kingdom of Poland and formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against the unstable Muscovy. After successfully occupied Moscow in 1610, the Lithuanians, as part of Commonwealth Army was repelled, and Lithuania, being part of Poland, was antagonized together. After three partitions of Poland, the growing Russian Empire occupied Lithuania. Under Russian rule in early days, Lithuania was left alone, and even Lithuanians formed parts of Imperial Russian Army, yet became increasingly under target of Russification process. However, it was the Lithuanian press ban that put anti-Russian resistance to grow in Lithuania, and Lithuanians successfully resisted Russian attempt to Cyrillizing and Russifying Lithuania.
Lithuania would soon be freed from Russia after the end of World War I, but it had to face invasions from Soviet Russia. But with Poland became the largest threat, Lithuania backed down and accepted several Soviet demands to fight the Poles, although Soviet intention was to restore Russian domination of Lithuania. With the Soviet defeat in the battle of Warsaw, the Poles occupied Vilnius, the spiritual capital of Lithuania. Increasing tensions between Lithuania and Poland resulted with the warming tie between Russia, then turned Soviet Union, and Lithuania. However, Soviet intention only became real when the World War II broke out. After invading Poland, the Soviets returned Vilnius to Lithuania, only to later occupied Lithuania later and established Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, which would continue Russian iron-fist on Lithuania since 1795. The Lithuanians led the anti-Soviet resistance once again, but it was only at 1990 that saw Soviet occupation ended in Lithuania, contributed to the collapse of USSR.
Due to historical experiences, there is a fear prevailed in Lithuania that Russia has never stopped wanting to consolidate power over the Baltics, including fears of Russian plans for an eventual invasion of Lithuania like it did in Crimea. There are also concerns over Russia's increasing military deployment, such as in Kaliningrad, an exclave of Russia bordering Lithuania.
While the anti-Russian sentiment is not widely practiced in Belarus, sporadic tensions also occurred between two nations, as for the tensions dated back from historical oppression by the Soviet Union, since there was little to none of the anti-Russian sentiment from the Tsarist rule. In 2014, during UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying, Belarusian and Ukrainian fans were seen chanting anti-Russian rhetorics. Meanwhile, there has been concerns over anti-Belarusian disinformation in Russian media.
According to a 2012 poll, 35% of Georgians perceive Russia as Georgia's biggest enemy, while the percentage was significantly higher in 2011, at 51%. In a February 2013 poll, 63% of Georgians said Russia is Georgia's biggest political and economic threat as opposed to 35% of those who looked at Russia as the most important partner for Georgia. The main reason behind this is due to long historical grievances dated back at 1990s, when Russia supported the independence of Abkhazia, causing the Abkhaz–Georgian conflict and later war with Russia in 2008.
According to the Jamestown Foundation, while previously not known for being anti-Russian, Kazakhstan since independence has grown increasingly hostile to both Russia and China. Russian commentator Yaroslav Razumov alleges that "anti-Russian articles are a staple of the Kazakh media". Recently, Kazakhs have begun criticizing people who prefer speaking in Russian than Kazakh despite being one of the two official languages in the country.
In 2014, ethnic Kazakhs were enraged with the statement of Russian president Vladimir Putin that "Kazakhs never had any statehood" and that former Kazakhstani president Nursultan Nazarbayev "established a country that never had any statehood". Though indirectly influenced with these statements and with the recent annexation of Crimea by Russia, Kazakhstan pushed through with changing the Kazakh language's alphabet from the Cyrillic script to Latin in 2017.
Ever since the independence of Moldova, Russia has been repeatedly accused by various local politicians and elected officials of meddling in Moldovan politics, notably from Andrian Candu, a Moldovan senator. On the other side, Russia's involvement on the pro-Russian separatists in Transnistria further strained the relations between Russia and Moldova, and Prime Minister of Moldova Pavel Filip has demanded Russia to quit the region.
In 2018, the Parliament of Moldova “unanimously” adopted a declaration condemning the attacks coming from the Russian Federation upon the national informational security and the abusive meddling in political activity in the Republic.
In a poll held by Kiev International Institute of Sociology in May 2009 in Ukraine, 96% of respondents were positive about Russians as an ethnic group, 93% respected the Russian Federation and 76% respected the Russian establishment.
According to the statistics released on October 21, 2010 by the Institute of Sociology of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, positive attitude towards Russians have been decreasing since 1994. In response to a question gauging tolerance of Russians, 15% of Western Ukrainians responded positively. In Central Ukraine, 30% responded positively (from 60% in 1994); 60% responded positively in Southern Ukraine (from 70% in 1994); and 64% responded positively in Eastern Ukraine (from 75% in 1994). Furthermore, 6-7% of Western Ukrainians would banish Russians entirely from Ukraine, and 7-8% in Central Ukraine responded similarly. This level of sentiment was not found in Southern or Eastern Ukraine.
The right-wing political party "Svoboda", has invoked radical Russophobic rhetoric and has electoral support enough to garner majority support in local councils, as seen in the Ternopil regional council in Western Ukraine. Analysts explained Svoboda's victory in Eastern Galicia during the 2010 Ukrainian local elections as a result of the policies of the Azarov Government who were seen as too pro-Russian by the voters of "Svoboda". According to Andreas Umland, Senior Lecturer in Political Science at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Svoboda's increasing exposure in the Ukrainian media has contributed to these successes. According to British academic Taras Kuzio the presidency of Viktor Yanukovich (2010–2014) fabricated this exposure in order to discredit the opposition.
The leader of Svoboda Oleh Tyahnybok urged his party to fight "the Moscow-Jewish mafia" ruling Ukraine. For these remarks Tyahnybok was expelled from the Our Ukraine parliamentary faction in July 2004. While the former Right Sector's leader for West Ukraine, Oleksandr Muzychko has talked about fighting "communists, Jews and Russians for as long as blood flows in my veins."
After Ukraine regained its independence, only a small minority of nationalists expressed strong anti-Russian views; the majority hoped to have good relations with Russia. In 2014, after the Russian annexation of Crimea, the attitude to Russia changed sharply. In April 2017 Sociological group "RATING" public opinion survey 57% expressed a "very cold" or "cold" attitude toward Russia, 17% expressed a "very warm" or "warm" attitude.
Former Eastern Bloc
Czech people themselves tend to be[specify] distrustful of Russia due to the 1968 invasion led by the Soviet Union, and tend to[specify] have a negative opinion of Russians. Russia remains continuously among the most negatively perceived countries among Czechs in polls conducted since 1991, and just 26% of Czechs responded that they had a positive opinion about Russia in November 2016.
According to Boris Makarenko, deputy director of the Moscow-based think tank Center for Political Technologies, much of the modern anti-Russian feelings in Poland is caused by grievances of the past. One contentious issue is the massacre of 22,000 Polish officers, priests and intellectuals in Katyn Forest in 1940, and deportation of around 250,000 mostly Polish civilians and others including soldiers to Siberia and Kazakhstan where approximately 100,000 died, even though the Russian government has officially acknowledged and apologized for the atrocity.
Jakub Boratyński, the director of international programs at the independent Polish think tank Stefan Batory Foundation, said in 2005 that anti-Russian feelings have substantially decreased since Poland joined the EU and NATO, and that Poles feel more secure than before, but he also admitted that many people in Poland still look suspiciously at Russian foreign-policy moves and are afraid Russia is seeking to "recreate an empire in a different form."
In 2015, two Polish experts, Jolanta Darczewska and Piotr Żochowski, criticized Russia's aggressive behavior following Euromaidan in neighboring Ukraine, saying it was used to define “the zone of the Russian Empire’s domination” as well as to present a “vision of a distinct ‘Russian world’ constructed in opposition to the consumerist, ‘decaying’ West,” two themes that continue to echo to the present day and warned Russia would only end up with their destruction, further leading to higher tensions between the two countries. In 2017, Poland was accused by Russia for "attempting to impose its own version of history" after Moscow was not allowed to join an international effort to renovate a World War II museum in Poland and destroyed monument honoring Soviet soldiers fallen in the war. Tensions between the two ran high when in 2018, Ukrainian officials discovered two pro-Russian and pro-Yanukovych loyalists blew up a cemetery in Lviv as an anti-Polish acts, leading to angers among Polish population over Russia.
Anti-Russian sentiment dates back to the conflict between the Russian and Ottoman empires in the 18th and early 19th centuries and the ceding of part of the Moldavian principality to Russia by the Ottoman Empire in 1812 after its de facto annexation, and to the annexations during World War II and after by the Soviet Union of Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia and the policies of ethnic cleansing, Russification and deportations that have taken place in those territories against ethnic Romanians. Following WWII, Romania, an ally of Nazi Germany, was occupied by Soviet forces. Soviet dominance over the Romanian economy was manifested through the so-called Sovroms, exacting a tremendous economic toll ostensibly as war-time reparations.
The emergence of anti-Russian sentiment in the Danubian Principalities, the precursors to unified Romania which became independent of the Ottoman Empire with the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople concluding the 1828-1829 Russo-Turkish War, arose from the post-1829 relationship of the Danubian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia to Russia, and was caused by mutually economic and political grievances of two influential classes that were often odds also with each other. As per the 1829 treaty, Russia was named the protector of the two principalities, allowed to occupy them, and also drafted a quasi-constitution known as the Organic Regulations which formed a powerful assembly of 800 boyars (the local landowning economic elite) nominally under the authority of the less nominal prince, the document crafted with strong support from the boyars. The boyars, a "reactionary oligarchy" as described by Misha Glenny, stopped short any hint of liberal reform, and the growing urban elite began to associate Russia with the slow progress of reform and the obstacles they faced in building an industrial base. On the other hand, the boyars themselves began to sour on Russia during the 1830s and 1840s due to their economic conflict of interest with Russia. After the Ottomans withdrew from the three forts along the Danube basin, the boyars exploited the highly fertile land to drastically increase Romanian wheat production, such that eventually future Romania consisting of Wallachia unified with Moldavia would become the fourth-largest wheat producer in the world. Whereas before 1829 Wallachian and Moldavian wheat had been limited to Ottoman markets, Russia increasingly felt threatened by growing competition in its jurisdiction that it feared could drive down the price of Russian wheat. Accordingly, Russia exploited its role as protector of the Principalities to let the Danube silt up, sabotaging the possible market competitor. As a result of this as well as "Russian foot-dragging on the economy", the boyars too became increasingly resentful of Russian domination. The rapid erosion of public relations with Russia led to a revolution in 1848, in which the newly emerging Romanian intellectual and political class sought the help of the Ottomans, their old hegemon, to drive out Russian influence—although, after pressure applied by Russia, the Russian and Ottoman armies joined forces to squash the movement.
Bulgaria is seen as friendlier toward Russia, but the relations between Russia and Bulgaria are mixed between historical ties and distrusts. Following the independence of Bulgaria, Russia was accused of supporting its rival Serbia against Bulgaria in the Balkan Wars. This was followed by an era of turbulent relations, during which Bulgaria went against Russia in both World War I and World War II on the side of Germany, although some say that Bulgaria tried to avoid direct conflict with Russia. During much of 20th century, the Russians were blamed for Bulgaria's economic downfall, resulting in Russophobia sentiment that persists to this day. Since the end of communist rule, Bulgarians view on Russia is divided between cooperation and skepticism.
In 2017, Bulgarian national security named Russia as a direct threat for Bulgaria's security.
Hungary's relations with Russia is also described with skepticism and hostility due to Russia's imperial and communist legacies in the country. Hungarians had twice risen up against dictatorship and oppression at 1848 and 1956; and in each occasions, Russia sent troops to suppress it brutally. The brutality of the Russian army toward Hungarians become the national wound among the people of Hungary. While current Government of Viktor Orbán is seen as friendlier toward Russia, majority of Hungarians express a strong negative opinion toward Russia, compared Russia a dictatorship.
Croatia is a popular destination for Russian tourists, but Croatia's tie with Russia is marred with issues, somewhat friendly but somewhat wary. The issues behind tensions between Croatia and Russia are mainly based by previous Russian political aspiration in the Balkans and Russia's support for Serbia, a fellow Orthodox country, against Catholic Croatia. Croatian fans were seen chanting anti-Russian rhetorics during 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying with Ukrainian fans in Kiev; Croatia's participation on sanctions against Russia over Ukrainian conflict; and Domagoj Vida's controversial praise to Ukraine against Russia following Croatia's penalty win against Russia in 2018 FIFA World Cup.
In 1997 a Canadian parliamentary committee characterized Russia as a "giant jigsaw puzzle of paradoxes, contradictions, ambiguities, and uncertainties." There are disputes over Antarctica and the Russian invasion of Georgia and Ukraine. There is a large, influential Ukrainian-Canadian ethnic community in Prairie Canada that cares deeply about their old homeland. Canadian discussions have included "saber-rattling rhetoric, much of it generated by alarmist readings of Russia's increased military activities in the polar region and its alleged intentions to demarcate and defend its borders unilaterally."
Russia has characterized Canadian participation in NATO drills as "act of aggression" and Arctic disputes continue over ownership between Russia and Canada, even as the warming of the Arctic causes much more tanker traffic.
The Swedish words russofob (Russophobe) and russofobi (Russophobia) were first recorded in 1877 and 1904 respectively and its more frequent synonym rysskräck (fear of Russia or Russians) in 1907. Older synonyms were rysshat (hatred of Russia or Russians) from 1846 and ryssantipati (antipathy against Russia or Russians) from 1882.
The Russian state is said to have been organized in the 9th century AD at Novgorod by Rurik, supposedly coming from Sweden. In the 13th century, Stockholm was founded to stop foreign navies from invading lake Mälaren. Both events are signs that hostile naval missions across the Baltic Sea go a long way back, temporarily ending with the peace treaty of Nöteborg 1323 between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic (which later became Russia), soon to be broken by another Catholic Swedish crusade into Greek-orthodox Novgorod. Russia has been described as Sweden's "archenemy" (a title also given to Denmark). The two countries have often been at war, most intensively during the Great Northern War (1700–1721) and the Finnish War (1808–1809), when Sweden lost that third of its territory to Russia that now is Finland. Sweden defeated a Russian army in the Battle of Narva (1700), but was defeated by Russia in the Battle of Poltava 1709. In 1719 Russian troops burnt most Swedish cities and industrial communities along the Baltic sea coast to the ground (from Norrköping up to Piteå in the north) in what came to be called "Rysshärjningarna" (the Russian ravages, a term first recorded in 1730). "The Russians are coming" (ryssen kommer) is a traditional Swedish warning call. After the death of king Charles XII in 1718 and the peace in 1721, Swedish politics was dominated by a peace-minded parliament, with a more aggressive opposition (Hats and Caps). When Swedish officer Malcolm Sinclair was murdered in 1739 by two Russian officers, the anti-Russian ballad Sinclairsvisan by Anders Odel became very popular.
After 1809, there have been no more wars between Russia and Sweden, partly due to Swedish neutrality and nonalignment foreign policy since then. Peaceful relationships and the Russian capital being Saint Petersburg, many Swedish companies ran large businesses in Imperial Russia, including Branobel and Ericsson. Many poets still grieved the loss of Finland and called for a military revenge, ideas that were refueled by the Crimean War in the 1850s. With the increasing cultural exchange between neighboring countries (Scandinavism) and the nationalist revival in Finland (through Johan Ludvig Runeberg and Elias Lönnrot), contempt with the attempts of Russification of Finland spread to Sweden. Before World War I, traveling Russian saw filers were suspected of espionage by Swedish proponents of increased military spending. After the Russian Revolution in the spring of 1917 and the abdication of the Tsar, great hope was vested in the new provisional government, only to be replaced with despair after the so-called October Revolution. Old anti-Russian sentiments were compounded by a new element of anti-communism, to last for the duration of the existence of the Soviet Union. Many Swedes voluntarily joined the Finnish side in the Winter War between Finland and Soviet Union 1939–1940. When the Sino-Soviet split erupted in the 1960s, the pro-Chinese far left concentrated on anti-Russian rhetoric. evoking fears of a threatening, imperialistic power next-door. When the Soviet state was finally dissolved in 1991, anti-communism became irrelevant. However, the poor record of the new Russian state on Human rights in Russia remained disquieting. Only 31% of Swedes stated that they liked Russia in 2011, and 23% in 2012, and only 10% have confidence in Russian elections.
In June 2014, political scientist Sergey Markov complained about Russophobia in Sweden and Finland, comparing it to antisemitism. "Would you want to be part of starting a Third World War? Antisemitism started the Second World War, Russophobia could start a third.", he commented. The retired Swedish history professor and often cited expert on Russia Kristian Gerner said he was "almost shocked" by Markov's claim, and described his worldview as "nearly paranoid".
While Norway has not experienced historical conflicts with Russia, it shares historical and socio-cultural ties with the Nordic nations of Sweden, Finland, Iceland and Denmark which have. Norway is also a NATO member, an organization which has historically been in opposition with Russia's Warsaw Pact. Norway and NATO were allied with Finland and Sweden during the Cold War against the Soviet Union, and Norway's diplomatic and cultural ties with the West have complicated continuing relations with Russia. A 2017 poll of Norwegians found that 58% believe that Vladimir Putin and Russia pose a security threat.
Russian officials escalated the tensions. A Russian deputy foreign minister stated in Oslo that Russia views the October 2018 Trident Juncture NATO military exercises in Norway to be "anti-Russian" in nature. Russian expansion in the arctic has contributed to increasing mutual distrust between Russia and Norway. Norway's perceptions of Russian militarism and regional antagonism, as well as Norway's hosting of the US Marine Corps in the country, have contributed to the deterioration of relations between Norway and Russia.
In Finland, anti-Russian sentiment has been studied since the 1970s. The history of anti-Russian sentiment has two main theories. One of them claims that Finns and Russians have been archenemies throughout history. The position is considered to have been dominated at least the 1700s since the days of the Greater Wrath when the Russians "occupied Finland and raped it." This view largely assumes that through the centuries, "Russia is a violent slayer and Finland is an innocent, virginal victim".
Much anti-Russian sentiment was created at the time of civil war 1917–1918. The anti-Russian battle was led by White Finland. The bitterly fought civil War in 1918 between the Reds and the Whites—won by the Whites—left behind a popular wave of anti-Russian and anti-Communist feelings in Finland.
According to polls in 2004, 62% of Finnish citizens had a negative view of Russia. Deportation of Ingrian Finns, indigenous to St. Petersburg, Ingria, and other Soviet repressions against its Finnish minorities have contributed to negative views of Russia. In a 2012 poll, 12% of Russian immigrants in Finland reported that they had experienced a racially motivated hate crime (as compared to an average of 10% of immigrants in the EU).
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party regarded Slavic peoples (especially Poles and East Slavs) as non-Aryan Untermenschen (subhumans). As early as 1925, Hitler suggested in Mein Kampf that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space") to achieve German expansion eastwards (Drang nach Osten) at the expense of the inferior Slavs. Hitler believed that "the organization of a Russian state formation was not the result of the political abilities of the Slavs in Russia, but only a wonderful example of the state-forming efficacity of the German element in an inferior race."
After the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler expressed his plans for the Slavs:
As for the ridiculous hundred million Slavs, we will mold the best of them as we see fit, and we will isolate the rest of them in their pig-styes; and anyone who talks about cherishing the local inhabitants and civilizing them, goes straight off into a concentration camp!
Plans to eliminate Russians and other Slavs from Soviet territory to allow German settlement included starvation. American historian Timothy D. Snyder maintains that there were 4.2 million victims of the German Hunger Plan in the Soviet Union, "largely Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians," including 3.1 million Soviet POWs and 1.0 million civilian deaths in the Siege of Leningrad. According to Snyder, Hitler intended eventually to exterminate up to 45 million Slavs by planned famine as part of Generalplan Ost.
The war against Russia is an important chapter in the German nation's struggle for existence. It is the old battle of the Germanic against the Slavic people, of the defense of European culture against Muscovite-Asiatic inundation and the repulse of Jewish Bolshevism. The objective of this battle must be the demolition of present-day Russia and must, therefore, be conducted with unprecedented severity. Every military action must be guided in planning and execution by an iron resolution to exterminate the enemy remorselessly and totally. In particular, no adherents of the contemporary Russian Bolshevik system are to be spared.
The history of early anti-Russian sentiment in New Zealand was analyzed in Glynn Barratt's book Russophobia in New Zealand, 1838-1908, expanded to cover the period up to 1939 in an article by Tony Wilson.
According to Wilson, negative attitude towards the Russian Empire had no roots in the country itself but was fueled by the attitude of the British Empire, at a time when New Zealand was still a British colony. It was aggravated by lack of information about Russia and contacts with it due to the mutual remoteness. Various wars involving the Russian Empire fueled the "Russian scare". The new negative attitude was brought by Jewish immigration after Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire. That immigration was halted as a combined result of Russophobia and anti-Semitism. As of 1916, there were 1242 settlers of Russian origin in the country, including 169 Jews. During World War I anti-Russian sentiment was temporarily supplanted by anti-German sentiment for evident reasons; however, soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the fear of Marxism and Bolshevism revived Russophobia in the form of "Red Scare". Notably, local Russians had no issues with Russophobia. By late 1920s pragmatism moderated anti-Russian sentiment in official circles, especially during the Great Depression. Sympathetic views were propagated by visitors to the Soviet Union, such as George Bernard Shaw, impressed by Soviet propaganda.
Not until early 19th century Russia and Russians were traditionally perceived in the United Kingdom with unflattering stereotypes and ignorance; the 1782 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica Russia was described as “a very large and powerful kingdom of Europe” populated with brutal, vicious, drunken savages, with a despotic government. Still, the onset of a significant anti-Russian sentiment, after nearly 300 years of friendly British-Russian relations, is associated with 19th century conflicts, notably the Crimean War[page needed] and the Anglo-Afghan wars, with the latter seen as representing Russia's territorial ambitions regarding the British Empire in the British India. This competition for spheres of influence and colonies (see, e.g. The Great Game and Berlin Congress) fueled anti-Russian sentiment in Britain. British propaganda at the time took up the theme of Russians as uncultured Asiatic barbarians.[page needed]
The American professor Jimmie E. Cain Jr has stated that these views were then exported to other parts of the world and were reflected in the literature of late the 19th and early 20th centuries.[page needed]
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2018)
During the Cold War years, there was frequent confusion and conflation of terms "Russians" and "Communists"/"Soviets"; in 1973, a group of Russian immigrants in the US founded the Congress of Russian Americans with the purpose of drawing a clear distinction between Russian national identity and Soviet ideology, and preventing the formation of anti-Russian sentiment on the basis of Western anti-communism. Members of the Congress see the conflation itself as Russophobic, believing "Russians were the first and foremost victim of international Communism".
The difficulty in understanding the Russian is that we do not take cognizance of the fact that he is not a European, but an Asiatic, and therefore thinks deviously. We can no more understand a Russian than a Chinaman or a Japanese, and from what I have seen of them, I have no particular desire to understand them, except to ascertain how much lead or iron it takes to kill them. In addition to his other Asiatic characteristics, the Russian has no regard for human life and is an all out son of bitch, barbarian, and chronic drunk.— Statement (8 August 1945) of George S. Patton, as quoted in General Patton: A Soldier's Life (2002) by Stanley P. Hirshson, p. 650
Recent erosion of relations
Polling has charted that at the end of the Cold War, American views of Russia warmed considerably, with 62% of Americans expressing a positive view of Russia in 1989 and 66% at the turn of the century, as opposed 29% and 27% retaining negative views in those years. Although Russia recovered from brief spikes in negative views in 1999, 2003 and 2008, in 2013 the formerly majority positive view of Russia among American respondents critically declined was replaced by a majority negative view of 60% by 2014. This time, instead of recovery, Russia's public image experienced progressively more severe deterioration. By 2019, a record 73% of Americans had a negative opinion of Russia as a country, and formerly dominant positive opinions had been cut from 66% down to 24%. In 2019, the share of Americans considering Russia to be a "critical" threat to national security reached a majority of 52% for the first time. Whereas in 2006 only 1% of Americans listed Russia as "America's worst enemy" by 32% of Americans, including a plurality of 44% of Democrats, with a partisan split having emerged in 2017. The sharper distaste among the Democrat population stands in contrast to the prior history of American public opinion on Russia, as Republicans were formerly more likely to view Russia as a greater threat.
According to a 2013 Poll, 59% of Americans had a negative view of Russia, 23% had a favorable opinion, and 18% were uncertain. According to a survey by Pew Research Center, negative attitudes towards Russia in the United States rose from 43% to 72% from 2013 to 2014.
Recent events such as the Anti-Magnitsky bill, the Boston Marathon bombings Russia's actions following the Ukrainian crisis, the Syrian Civil War, the allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and the allegations of collusion between Donald Trump's presidential campaign and Russia are deemed to have caused a rising negative impression about Russia in the United States.
In May 2017, former Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said on NBC's Meet The Press that Russians were "almost genetically driven" to act deviously. Freelance journalist Michael Sainato criticized the remark as xenophobic.
In a 2014 news story, Fox News reported, "Russians may also be unimpressed with Hollywood’s apparent negative stereotyping of Russians in movies. "The Avengers" featured a ruthless former KGB agent, "Iron Man 2" centers on a rogue Russian scientist with a vendetta, and action thriller "Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit" saw Kenneth Branagh play an archetypal Russian bad guy, just to name a few."
Rest of the world
Rudolph P. Matthee (Munroe Chaired Professor of History at the University of Delaware) noted in his book The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600-1730, dealing with the Safavid period (1501–1736), that the Iranians "had long despised Russians for their uncouthness".
In the first half of the 19th century, Russia annexed large parts of Iranian territory in the Caucasus; by the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), Iran was forced to cede what is present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, eastern Georgia and southern Dagestan to Russia. These territories had made part of the concept of Iran for centuries. As a result of the subsequent rampant anti-Russian sentiment, on 11 February 1829, an angry mob stormed the Russian embassy in Tehran and slaughtered almost everyone inside. Among those killed in the massacre was the newly appointed Russian ambassador to Iran, Aleksander Griboyedov, a celebrated playwright. Griboyedov had previously played an active role in negotiating the terms of the treaty of 1828. Russia was seen as an invader who destroyed, forcefully converted and demolished Iranian heritage in occupied territories.
During the 20th century, Russia as USSR had involved in Azerbaijani and Kurdish separatist movements, making Russophobia grew rapidly in Iran. This remains high since despite recent Islamic Government tried to silence its dissidents over it.
While modern relations between China and Russia are described as friendly and close, both face problems over their historical legacies and distrusts from smaller neighbors, because previous historical relations between two were tense.
Conflicts between Russia and China started from the Tsardom of Russia, with the Sino-Russian border conflicts. By the end of the conflict at 1689, China, then under Qing dynasty, gained the upper hand and the border of Russia and Qing China remained quiet until the Opium Wars launched by Britain in the 19th century. At this point, with the Qing dynasty plagued by its own civil wars, Russia expanded and asserted their hegemony by conquering Outer Manchuria which is the heartland of Manchu people whom founded the Qing dynasty following the Treaty of Aigun. Russia would continue to meddle and interfere on Chinese political affairs, sponsoring various groups, both pro- and anti-Chinese, and destabilized China, began with the Dungan rebellion, Kashgaria and Russian occupation of Ili. Toward the collapse of Qing dynasty, Russia invaded Manchuria and was among a major participant that crushed Boxer Rebellion. This caused heavy resentment against Russia among Chinese population and was the main reason behind Chinese popular support to Japan during the Russo-Japanese War, although Japanese role wasn't better than Russian. Russia was later accused behind the independence of Mongolia at 1911, after the Qing dynasty collapsed, further deepened anti-Russian resentment in China.
With the collapse of the Tsarist Empire in Russia, the Soviet Union was founded. Nonetheless, tensions between Russia under USSR and China remained high, with a strong anti-Russian sentiment arose between Chinese population. Soviet Russia waged the 1929 war against China, which ended in Soviet favors. Soviet Union would continue following traditional Imperial Russian expansion of influence, sponsored a number of various militia groups destabilizing China, especially in Xinjiang which resulted to Kumul Rebellion, Soviet invasion of Xinjiang, followed by Islamic rebellion and Ili Rebellion in 1937 and 1944. Even at the World War II when USSR and China were allies, their relations remained tense with Russia's ruthless actions in Xinjiang and other parts of China. At 1945, seeing the need to gain grip in Asia, the Soviet Union launched a military operation in Manchuria with the aim to liberate Manchuria from the Japanese. The level of violence of Russian armies toward Chinese citizens was recorded by British and US reports, indicate that the Soviet troops that occupied Manchuria (about 700,000) looted and terrorized the people of Mukden, and were not discouraged by Soviet authorities from "three days of rape and pillage". This fueled anti-Russian sentiment, and in Harbin, Chinese posted slogans such as "Down with Red Imperialism!" Soviet forces ignored protests from Chinese Communist Party leaders on the mass rape and looting, fed the future tensions between newly-established People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union.
In the 1960s, tensions between two communist nations had emerged into a border conflict, in which almost resulted with Soviet Union attempt to use nuclear bombs to nuke China. The conflict would only last at 1989 and ended at 1991 with the collapse of USSR, however there is still a modern sense of resentment against Russia by a minority of Chinese, who see Russia as the perpetrator for crimes within the country.
According to a 2013 survey 73% of Turks look at Russia unfavorably against 16% with favorable views.
Historically, Russia and Turkey fought several wars and had caused great devastation for each nation. During the old Tsardom of Russia, the Ottomans often raided and attacked Russian villagers. With the transformation into Russian Empire, Russia started to expand and clashed heavily with the Turks; which Russia often won more than lost, and reduced the Ottoman Empire heavily. The series of wars had manifested the ideas among the Turks that Russia wanted to turn Turkey into a vassal state, leading to a high level of Russophobia in Turkey. In the 20th century, anti-Russian sentiment in Turkey was so great that the Russians refused to allow a Turkish military attache to accompany their armies. After the World War I, both Ottoman and Russian Empires collapsed, and two nations went on plagued by their civil wars; during that time Soviet Russia (who would later become Soviet Union) supported Turkish Independence Movement led by Mustafa Kemal, leading to a warmer relations between two states, as newly established Turkish Republic maintained a formal tie with the Soviet Union. But their warm relations didn't last long; after the World War II, the Bosphorus crisis occurred at 1946 due to Joseph Stalin's demand for a complete Soviet control of the straits led to resurgence of Russophobia in Turkey.
Anti-Russian sentiment started to increase again since 2011, following the event of the Syrian Civil War. Russia supports the Government of Bashar al-Assad, while Turkey supports the Free Syrian Army and had many times announced their intentions to overthrow Assad, once again strained the relations. Relations between two further went downhill after Russian jet shootdown by Turkish jet, flaring that Russia wanted to invade Turkey over Assad's demand; and different interests in Syria. Turkish media have promoted Russophobic news about Russian ambitions in Syria, and this has been the turning point of remaining poor relations although two nations have tried to re-approach their differences. Turkish military operations in Syria against Russia and Assad-backed forces also damage the relations deeply.
Most Japanese interaction with Russian individuals – besides in major cities such as Tokyo – happens with seamen and fishermen of the Russian fishing fleet, therefore Japanese people tend to carry the stereotypes associated with sailors over to Russians. According to a 2012 Pew Global Attitudes Project survey, 72% of Japanese people view Russia unfavorably, compared with 22% who viewed it favorably, making Japan the most anti-Russian country surveyed. Despite this, harassment against Russians is seen as less common in Japan, with most Russian individuals express very little to none of the anti-Russian violence in the country.
Relationships between Korea and Russia are complicated. Prior to the Korean War, Terentii Shtykov, a Soviet advisor, was the sole architect behind the rise of the Kim dynasty, and inflamed the later Korean War. This was the reason behind strong anti-Russian sentiment in Korea, especially the South, due to historical ties between Russia and the North, South Korea's tie with the U.S. and the tragic shoot-down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by Soviet army.
In May and June 2006, Russian media cited discrimination against Russian companies as one possible reason why the contemplated merger between the Luxembourg-based steelmaker Arcelor and Russia's Severstal did not finalize. According to the Russian daily Izvestiya, those opposing the merger "exploited the 'Russian threat' myth during negotiations with shareholders and, apparently, found common ground with the Europeans", while Boris Gryzlov, speaker of the State Duma observed that "recent events show that someone does not want to allow us to enter their markets." On 27 July 2006, The New York Times quoted the analysts as saying that many Western investors still think that anything to do with Russia is "a little bit doubtful and dubious" while others look at Russia in "comic book terms, as mysterious and mafia-run."
View of Russia in Western media
Some Russian and Western commentators express concern about a far too negative coverage of Russia in Western media (some Russians even describe this as a "war of information"). In April 2007, David Johnson, founder of the Johnson's Russia List, said in interview to the Moscow News: "I am sympathetic to the view that these days Putin and Russia are perhaps getting too dark a portrayal in most Western media. Or at least that critical views need to be supplemented with other kinds of information and analysis. An openness to different views is still warranted."
In February 2007, the Russian creativity agency E-generator put together a "rating of Russophobia" of Western media, using for the research articles concerning a single theme—Russia's chairmanship of G8, translated into Russian by InoSmi.Ru. The score was composed for each edition, negative values granted for negative assessments of Russia, and positive values representing positive ones. The top in the rating were Newsday (−43, U.S.), Financial Times (−34, Great Britain), The Wall Street Journal (−34, U.S.), Le Monde (−30, France), while editions on the opposite side of the rating were Toronto Star (+27, Canada) and "The Conservative Voice" (+26, U.S.).
California-based international relations scholar Andrei Tsygankov has remarked that anti-Russian political rhetoric coming from Washington circles has received wide echo in American mainstream media, asserting that "Russophobia's revival is indicative of the fear shared by some U.S. and European politicians that their grand plans to control the world's most precious resources and geostrategic sites may not succeed if Russia's economic and political recovery continues."
In practice, anti-Russian political rhetoric usually puts emphasis on highlighting policies and practices of the Russian government that are criticised internally - corruption, abuse of law, censorship, violence and intervention in Ukraine. Western criticism in this aspect goes in line with Russian independent anti-government media such as (TV Rain, Novaya Gazeta, Ekho Moskvy, The Moscow Times) and opposition human rights activists (Memorial). In defence of this rhetoric, some sources critical of the Russian government claim that it is Russian state-owned media and administration who attempt to discredit the "neutral" criticism by generalizing it into indiscriminate accusations of the whole Russian population - or Russophobia. Some have argued, however, that the Western media doesn't make enough distinction between Putin's government and Russia and the Russians, thus effectively vilifying the whole nation.
Glenn Greenwald of The Intercept wrote on February 2017 that the "East Coast newsmagazines" in the United States are "feeding Democrats the often xenophobic, hysterical Russophobia for which they have a seemingly insatiable craving." Yuliya Komska in The Washington Post took note of a Russiagate-awareness media project featuring Morgan Freeman and James Clapper and wrote that its "hawkish tenor stokes blanket Russophobia that is as questionable as the Russian state media’s all-out anti-Americanism." 
Russian responses to outside anti-Russian criticism has intensified the growth of contemporary Russian nationalist ideology. Sociologist Anatoly Khazanov states that there's a national-patriotic movement which believes that there's a "clash of civilizations, a global struggle between the materialistic, individualistic, consumerist, cosmopolitan, corrupt, and decadent West led by the United States and the idealist, collectivist, morally and spiritually superior Eurasia led by Russia." In their view, the United States want to break up Russia and turn it into a source of raw materials. The West being accused of Russophobia is a major part of their belief. In January 2018, during the International Holocaust Remembrance Day at Moscow's Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center, Russian President Vladimir Putin likened Russophobia to anti-Semitism.
- Anti-Slavic sentiment
- Persecution of Eastern Orthodox Christians
- German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
- Soviet Empire
- Russian irredentism
- Sinophobia (Anti-Chinese sentiment)
- "Художник Елена Хейдиз и ее цикл «Химеры», возмутивший шовинистов", Radio Liberty, Russian edition, May 7, 2008
- "Russophobia". thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- "Envoy complains Britons mistreat Russians". Reuters. July 8, 2007. Archived from the original on February 21, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
- Steele, Jonathan (June 30, 2006). "The west's new Russophobia is hypocritical - and wrong". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 2, 2007.
- Forest, Benjamin; Johnson, Juliet; Till, Karen (September 2004). "Post-totalitarian national identity: public memory in Germany and Russia" (PDF). Social & Cultural Geography. Taylor & Francis. 5 (3): 357–380. doi:10.1080/1464936042000252778.
- Macgilchrist, Felicitas (January 21, 2009). "Framing Russia: The construction of Russia and Chechnya in the western media". Europa-Universitat Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder). Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Le, E´lisabeth (2006). "Collective Memories and Representations of National Identity in Editorials: Obstacles to a renegotiation of intercultural relations" (PDF). Journalism Studies. 7 (5): 708–728. doi:10.1080/14616700600890372.
- Mertelsmann, Olaf. "How the Russians Turned into the Image of the 'National Enemy' of the Estonians" (PDF). Estonian National Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Luostarinen, Heikki (May 1989). "Finnish Russophobia: The Story of an Enemy Image". Journal of Peace Research. 26 (2): 123–137. doi:10.1177/0022343389026002002. JSTOR 423864.
- Khruscheva, Nina (August 27, 2014). "As if things weren't Badenov: Even in good times, Russians are villains in Hollywood". Reuters.
- Kurutz, Steven (January 17, 2014). "Russians: Still the Go-To Bad Guys". The New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Queenan, Joe (November 14, 2014). "Comrades in arms: why big-screen bad guys are always Russian". The Guardian.
- Donald, Ella (July 28, 2017). "From Russia, With Love: the Sudden Resurgence of the Soviet Villain". Vanity Fair.
- Umland, Andreas (January 21, 2016). "The Putinverstehers' Misconceived Charge of Russophobia: How Western Apology for the Kremlin's Current Behavior Contradicts Russian National Interests". Harvard International Review. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Darczewska, Jolanta; Żochowsky, Piotr (October 2015). "Russophobia in the Kremlin's strategy: A weapon of mass destruction" (PDF). Point of View. OSW Centre for Eastern Studies (56). ISBN 978-83-62936-72-4. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Superpowers and Country Reputations" (PDF). YouGov. 31 August 2019.
- "Image of Putin, Russia Suffers Internationally". Pew Research Center. December 6, 2018.
- "BBC World Service poll" (PDF). BBC. 26 April 2018.
- Helsingin Sanomat, October 11, 2004, International poll: Anti-Russian sentiment runs very strong in Finland. Only Kosovo has more negative attitude
- World Doesn't Like Russia or the U.S., Survey Shows, Moscow Times, October 13, 2014
- "Survey: Respondents' Views on Other Countries Shift or Remain Static". Transatlantic Trends. Archived from the original on December 14, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- "Russia's Global Image Negative amid Crisis in Ukraine". Pew Research Center. 2014-07-09. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Robinson, Piers (August 2, 2016). "Russian news may be biased – but so is much western media". the Guardian.
- Pressrelase and Fact sheet for the study "Hate crime in the European Union" by EU Fundamental Rights Agency November 2012
- EU-MIDIS, European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey: Minorities as Victims of crime (PDF). European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- Lloyd S. Kramer (2000). Lafayette in Two Worlds: Public Cultures and Personal Identities in an Age of Revolutions. p. 283. ISBN 9780807862674.
- Neumann, Iver B. (2002). Müller, Jan-Werner (ed.). Europe's post-Cold War memory of Russia: cui bono?. Memory and power in post-war Europe: studies in the presence of the past. Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-5210-0070-3.
- McNally, Raymond T. (April 1958). "The Origins of Russophobia in France: 1812-1830". American Slavic and East European Review. 17 (2): 173–189. doi:10.2307/3004165. JSTOR 3004165.
- Neumann (2002), p. 133.
- Latham, Edward (1906). Famous Sayings and Their Authors: A Collection of Historical Sayings in English, French, German, Greek, Italian, and Latin. Swan Sonnenschein. p. 181.
- Bartlett's Roget's Thesaurus. Little Brown & Company. 2003. ISBN 9780316735872.
- John Howes Gleason, The Genesis Of Russophobia In Great Britain (1950) pp 16-56.
- Barbara Jelavich, St. Petersburg and Moscow: Tsarist and Soviet Foreign Policy, 1814–1974 (1974) p 200
- Ширинянц А.А., Мырикова А.В. «Внутренняя» русофобия и «польский вопрос» в России XIX в. Проблемный анализ и государственно-управленческое проектирование. № 1 (39) / том 8 / 2015. С. 16
- Ширинянц А.А., Мырикова А.В. «Внутренняя» русофобия и «польский вопрос» в России XIX в. Проблемный анализ и государственно-управленческое проектирование. № 1 (39) / том 8 / 2015. С. 15
- Odesskii, Mikhail Pavlovich (2015). Антропология культуры [Anthropology of culture] (in Russian) (3rd ed.). LitRes. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-5-457-36929-0. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- Shafarevich, Igor (Mar 1990). Russophobia. Joint Publications Research Service.
- Fisher, David C. "Russia and the Crystal Palace 1851" in Britain, the Empire, and the World at the Great Exhibition of 1851 ed. Jeffery A. Auerbach & Peter H. Hoffenberg. Ashgate, 2008:pp. 123-124.
- A Short View of Russia, Essays in Persuasion, (London 1932) John Maynard Keynes, 297-312
- "The So-Called Russian Soul"
- R. J. Overy (2004). The dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. W. W. Norton. p. 537. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4.
- Wette, Wolfram (2009). The Wehrmacht: history, myth, reality. Harvard University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-674-04511-8.
- Müller, Rolf-Dieter, Gerd R. Ueberschär, Hitler's War in the East, 1941–1945: A Critical Assessment, Berghahn Books, 2002, ISBN 1-57181-293-8, page 244
- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume One - A Reckoning, Chapter XIV: Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy
- Adam Jones (2010), Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (2nd ed.), p.271. – "'" Next to the Jews in Europe," wrote Alexander Werth,' "the biggest single German crime was undoubtedly the extermination by hunger, exposure and in other ways of . . . Russian war prisoners." The murder of at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs is one of the least-known of modern genocides; there is still no full-length book on the subject in English. It also stands as one of the most intensive genocides of all time: "a holocaust that devoured millions," as Catherine Merridale acknowledges. The large majority of POWs, some 2.8 million, were killed in just eight months of 1941–42, a rate of slaughter matched (to my knowledge) only by the 1994 Rwanda genocide."
- Russian: Политика геноцида, Государственный мемориальный комплекс «Хатынь»
- Stein, George H (1984). The Waffen SS: Hitler's Elite Guard at War, 1939–1945. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-8014-9275-4.
- "Remarks By Heinrich Himmler"
- David-Fox, Michael; Holquist, Peter.; Poe, Marshall. (2001). "Russophobia and the American Politics of Russian History". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 2 (3): 465–467. doi:10.1353/kri.2008.0106. ISSN 1538-5000.
- "McCain's Call to Recognize Chechen Independence Has Inspired Chechens". The Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Tlisova, Fatima (21 August 2009). "The Role of the Russian Orthodox Church in the North Caucasus". Eurasia Daily Monitor. 6 (162). Archived from the original on December 26, 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- "'Pro-Russia' Chechen leader threatens to kill Russian cops on his turf". Csmonitor.com. 23 April 2016.
- "Chechen leader Kadyrov 'threatens whole of Russia', opposition says". The Guardian. 26 February 2016.
- Lev Rubuinstein, "РуСССкие на марше" ("RuSSSians are Marching"), Grani.ru
- Batalden, Stephen K.; Batalden, Sandra L. (1997). The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics (2nd ed.). Phoenix: Oryx. p. 99. ISBN 9780897749404.
- Cohen, Ariel (1998). Russian Imperialism: Development and Crisis. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 135. ISBN 9780275964818.
At his funeral, the Armenians erupted in anti-Russian and anti-Soviet demonstrations.
- Nikoghosyan, Alina (13 January 2015). "Shock and Questions: Gyumri mourns murders as it looks for reasons". ArmeniaNow. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015.
- Grigoryan, Armen (16 January 2015). "Murder of Armenian Family by Russian Soldier Severely Strains Moscow-Yerevan Relations". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Washington, DC: The Jamestown Foundation.
- "Armenians Protest Against Russian Arms Sales To Azerbaijan". RFE/RL. 13 April 2016.
- "Protests at Russian Embassy in Armenia Over Arms Sales to Azerbaijan". The Moscow Times. 14 April 2016.
- "Betwixt and between: the reality of Russian soft-power in Azerbaijan". Böll SOUTH CAUCASUS.
- Cornell, Svante (1 December 2000). Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203988879. Retrieved 29 September 2016 – via Google Books.
- Krone-Schmalz, Gabriele (2008). "Zweierlei Maß". Was passiert in Russland? (in German) (4 ed.). München: F.A. Herbig. pp. 45–48. ISBN 978-3-7766-2525-7.
- Subrenat, Jean-Jacques, ed. (2004). Estonia: Identity and Independence. Rodopi. p. 273. ISBN 978-90-420-0890-8. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- Tsygankov, Andrei (2009). Russophobia: Anti-Russian Lobby and American Foreign Policy. Palgrave MacMillan. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-230-61418-5.
- "Latvia Continues Discrimination of Russians Despite 'Normalization' Claims". Sputnik. August 23, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Aven: no anti-Latvian sentiment in Russia, but anti-Russian sentiment can be observed in Latvia". The Baltic Times. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Russian Official: Latvia Shows Russophobia By Rejecting Non-Citizen Status Draft". Sputnik. September 21, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Bausman, Kristine (July 15, 2016). "Russophobia in Latvia: To Be Modern Is to Hate Russia! (Video)". Russia Insider. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Latvia blamed for Russophobia". Baltic News Network. March 22, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Opinion: Russophobia in Latvia crosses all "red lines"" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. April 3, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Latvia; Yeltsin Accuses Latvia of Preparing for 'Ethnic Cleansing'; Talks BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, April 29, 1993
- Human Rights and Democratization in Latvia. Implementation of the Helsinki Accords. United States Congress, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 1993. p. 6.
Russian officials, including Yeltsin and Kozyrev, have even used the term "ethnic cleansing" to describe Latvian and Estonian policies, despite the total absence of inter-ethnic bloodshed.
- Rislakki, Jukka (2008). The Case for Latvia: Disinformation Campaigns Against a Small Nation. Rodopi. p. 37. ISBN 978-90-420-2424-3.
Not a single Russian or Jew has ever been wounded or killed for political, nationalistic or racist reasons during the new independence of Latvia.
- Clemens Jr., Walter C. (2001). The Baltic Transformed: Complexity Theory and European Security. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 978-08-476-9858-5.
But no one died in the Baltics in the 1990s from ethnic or other political fighting, except for those killed by Soviet troops in 1990–1991.
- "Security Service starts case over Ždanoka's remarks in EP discussion". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. LETA. March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- "State Security Service starts criminal procedure over Zdanoka's remarks in European Parliament discussion". The Baltic Times. March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- "Vaidere turns to State Security Service over Zdanoka's statements during an EP discussion". The Baltic Times. February 25, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- "Fake: Latvians Want to Establish "Ghetto" for Russians". Stop Fake. April 28, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- "Ethnic tolerance and integration of the Latvian society" (PDF). Baltic Institute of Social Sciences. 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Latvians' Negativity Toward Russia Reaches 7-Year High". The Moscow Times. October 19, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Latvia's Russia Fears Rooted in History". The Moscow Times. June 14, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- "Posner explained the anti-Russian sentiment in Latvia". The Quebec Post. July 8, 2018. Archived from the original on July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Wodak, Ruth; Mral, Brigitte; Khosravinik, Majid (2013). Comparing Radical-Right Populism in Estonia and Latvia. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse. London/New York: Bloomsbury Academic. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-78093-245-3.
- "Standing by their man". The Baltic Times. November 10, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Lato Lapsa (November 3, 2010). "Kristovskis agrees with Slucis, "As a doctor I would not be able to treat Russians in the same way as Latvians"" (in Latvian). pietiek.com. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Strautmanis, Andris (November 10, 2010). "Doctor at center of political scandal faces repercussions in Minnesota". Latvians Online. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
- Senn, Alfred Erich (1966). The Great Powers: Lithuania and the Vilna Question, 1920–1928. Studies in East European history. Brill Archive. LCC 67086623.
- Ready, J. Lee (1995). World War Two. Nation by Nation. London: Cassell. p. 191. ISBN 1-85409-290-1.
- Graham-Harrison, Emma; Boffey, Daniel (April 3, 2017). "Lithuania fears Russian propaganda is prelude to eventual invasion". the Guardian.
- ERR (February 5, 2018). "Lithuania: Russia permanently stationing Iskander missiles in Kaliningrad".
- EndPlay (February 5, 2018). "Lithuania: Russia deploying more missiles into Kaliningrad".
- "Football fans jailed for Putin chant". BBC News. 10 October 2014 – via www.bbc.com.
- "The BPF Party » Anti-Belarus disinformation in Russian media: Trends, features, countermeasures".
- Kempe, Iris, ed. (June 17, 2013). "The South Caucasus Between The EU And The Eurasian Union" (PDF). Caucasus Analytical Digest. Forschungsstelle Osteuropa, Bremen and Center for Security Studies, Zürich (51–52): 20–21. ISSN 1867-9323. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- "Georgian National Study February 18 – 27, 2013" (PDF). International Republican Institute, Baltic Surveys Ltd., The Gallup Organization, The Institute of Polling And Marketing. February 2013. p. 35. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- Levy, Clifford J. "Russia Backs Independence of Georgian Enclaves".
- Goble, Paul. "Kazakhs Increasingly Hostile to Both Russians and Chinese". The Jamestown Foundation (July 24, 2018).
- "Ukrainian nationalism splashes out on Kazakhstan". Pravda.ru (November 9, 2018).
- "Kazakhstan's troubles switching from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet". TRT World (February 7, 2019).
- "Putin Downplays Kazakh Independence, Sparks Angry Reaction". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (September 3, 2014).
- "Can Merkel End Russian Meddling in Moldova?".
- "Senior Official Accuses Russia Of Meddling In Moldovan Politics". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- "Moldovan PM Renews Call For Russia To Quit Transdniester". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- "Moldova Parliament condemns Russia's attacks on national informational security, meddling in internal politics - Moldova.org". www.moldova.org.
- The Christian Science Monitor (2007-09-28). "Ukraine's orange-blue divide". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Sewall, Elisabeth (16 November 2006). "David Duke makes repeat visit to controversial Kyiv university". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008.
- "Россияне об Украине, украинцы о России - Левада-Центр". Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
- "Institute of Sociology: Love for Russians dwindling in Western Ukraine". zik. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Tiahnybok considers 'Svoboda' as the only right-wing party in Ukraine", Hazeta po-ukrainsky, 06.08.2007. edition Archived 2008-11-18 at the Wayback Machine, edition
- UKRAINIAN APPEALS TO ANTI-SEMITISM IN ELECTION WIN, Internet Centre Anti-Racism Europe (November 4, 2010)
- (in Ukrainian) Вибори: тотальне домінування Партії регіонів, BBC Ukrainian (November 6, 2010)
- (in Ukrainian) Генеральна репетиція президентських виборів: на Тернопільщині стався прогнозований тріумф націоналістів і крах Тимошенко, Ukrayina Moloda (March 17, 2009)
- Nationalist Svoboda scores election victories in western Ukraine, Kyiv Post (November 11, 2010)
- (in Ukrainian) Підсилення "Свободи" загрозою несвободи, BBC Ukrainian (November 4, 2010)
- On the move: Andreas Umland, Kyiv – Mohyla Academy, Kyiv Post (September 30, 2010)
- Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (January 3, 2011)
- Kuzio, Taras (23 June 2015). Ukraine: Democratization, Corruption, and the New Russian Imperialism: Democratization, Corruption, and the New Russian Imperialism. ABC-CLIO. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-4408-3503-2.
- The Ukrainian Nationalism at the Heart of ‘Euromaidan’, The Nation (January 21, 2014)
- (in Ukrainian) Олег Тягнибок, Ukrinform
Yushchenko Finally Gets Tough On Nationalists, The Jamestown Foundation (3 August 2004)
- "Blind eye turned to influence of far-right in Ukrainian crisis: critics". Global News. March 7, 2014.
- How Ukraine views Russia and the West, Brookings Institution (October 18, 2017)
- "In Eastern Europe, Pact With Russians Raises Old Specters". The New York Times. 7 April 2010.
- "Rusové přicházejí!" (the title is the popular phrase "The Russians are coming!"), Oskar Krejčí, February 26, 2008
- Milan Tuček. Sympatie české veřejnosti k některým zemím – listopad 2016 (in Czech). CVVM. Published on 5 January 2017.
- "BBC 2013 World Service Poll: Views of China and India Slide While UK's Ratings Climb: Global Poll" (PDF). BBC. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Radio Free Europe. Eastern Europe: Russian-Polish Tensions Rise Over Attack On Russian Children In Warsaw, by Valentinas Mite. 3 August 2005; last accessed on 14 July 2007
- The Saint Petersburg Times. Lingering Bitterness Over May 9. 26 April 2005. retrieved on 14 July 2007
- Bernstein, Richard (July 4, 2005). "For Poland and Russia, old enmity persists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 2, 2005.
- "Polish experts: Kremlin's campaign against "Russophobia" threatens both Russia and the West -- EUROMAIDAN PRESS". Euromaidan Press. November 11, 2015.
- "Moscow accuses Warsaw of Russophobia for barred access to WWII museum renovation project".
- "Twice a victim: Poland destroying monuments honoring Soviet soldiers' war sacrifice". RT International.
- "Russia linked to anti-Polish attacks in Ukraine: report".
- Olga Popescu: Ion Iliescu pentru presa rusa: Nu stim cine a tras la Revolutie, este o enigma. Probabil au fost oameni extrem de devotati lui Ceausescu"
- George Roncea: Realitatea TV, ecoul Moscovei în România contra lui Băsescu Archived 2011-06-17 at the Wayback Machine
- Popa, Liliana (22 January 2010). "Traian Basescu tuna impotriva Rusiei, dar apropiatii sai obtin contracte grase de la Gazprom" [Traian Basescu thunders against Russia, but his friends get fat contracts from Gazprom] (in Romanian). Fin.ro. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
- Dan Tapalaga: Cortina de vorbe goale (in Romanian)
- Glenny, Misha (1999). The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers, 1804-1999. Pages 60-63.
- Editors, History com. "Bulgaria enters World War I". HISTORY.
- "Bulgaria - WORLD WAR II". countrystudies.us.
- "Bulgaria - The early communist era". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- "Bulgaria - Late communist rule". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- "Ghosts of Soviets Past: Do Bulgaria's Historical Russian Ties Spell Trouble for NATO on the Black Sea Coast?". 27 April 2017.
- "Bulgarian national security report naming Russia as threat causes storm in Parliament" (PDF). The Sofia Globe. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "The Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-1849". www.5percangol.hu.
- "Introduction: The 1956 Hungarian uprising". Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.
- Szabolcs, Panyi (23 November 2018). "Lord of War in Budapest: The DEA busted two Russian arms dealers, and Hungary extradited them to Moscow".
- "Poll: Hungarians favor America over Russia". Budapest Business Journal.
- Albert, -Ákos (31 August 2017). "Putin now visits Hungary as often as he does Asian dictatorships".
- Zeveleva, Sherie Ryder and Katherine (12 July 2018). "Croatians' #GloryToUkraine message: is it helpful?". BBC News – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- netbite.cz. "Croatia". European Values Think-Tank.
- "Croatian player addresses Ukrainians after knocking Russia out of World Cup (video)". www.unian.info.
- Franklyn Griffiths; Rob Huebert; P. Whitney Lackenbauer (2011). Canada and the Changing Arctic: Sovereignty, Security, and Stewardship. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 250.
- "Canadian troops take part in Latvia invasion drill as Russia tensions flare - National - Globalnews.ca". globalnews.ca. 24 August 2018.
- "Canada risks tensions with Russia by claiming ownership of North Pole". NBC News.
- Svenska Akademiens Ordbok
- "Alla ha rätt". 'Alla ha rätt samt andra uppsatser med anledning av världskriget. 1917 – via Project Runeberg.
- Bernhard Elis Malmström (1866–1869). "Carelius och Odel". Bernhard Elis Malmströms samlade skrifter. 1 – via Project Runeberg.
- "Sjuttonhundratal". Bonniers litterära magasin. 1943 – via Project Runeberg.
- Grimberg, Carl (1913–1939). "Esaias Tegnér". Svenska folkets underbara öden. VIII – via Project Runeberg.
1809 års män, Karl Johans och Oskar I:s tid samt Vårt näringsliv och kommunikationsväsen under teknikens tidevarv 1809-1859
- Grimberg, Carl (1913–1939). "Oskar I". Svenska folkets underbara öden. VIII – via Project Runeberg.
1809 års män, Karl Johans och Oskar I:s tid samt Vårt näringsliv och kommunikationsväsen under teknikens tidevarv 1809-1859
- M. Klimke; J. Scharloth (2008). 1968 in Europe: A History of Protest and Activism, 1956–1977. Springer. p. 244. ISBN 9780230611900.
- Winter, Jan (8 June 2014). "Putins sändebud varnar för tredje världskrig". Dagens Nyheter. TT. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Rysslandskännare "chockad" över Markovs uttalanden, Svenska Dagbladet, 9 June 2014.
- "Vanliga ryssar är arga på västs dubbelmoral och rysshat", Svenska Dagbladet, 10 June 2014.
- Holtsmark, Sven G.; (Norway), Institutt for forsvarsstudier (September 22, 1988). "Between "russophobia" and "bridge-building": the Norwegian government and the Soviet Union, 1940-1945". Institutt for forsvarsstudier – via Google Books.
- "Norwegians Believe Vladimir Putin Is Threat to World Peace". The Nordic Page. 2017-07-18. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
- Clem, Ralph. "Today, NATO begins a huge military exercise. Here's what you need to know". Washingtonpost.com. Amazon. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- Luhn, Alec (2018-10-25). "Nato holds biggest exercises since Cold War to counter Russia's growing presence around the Arctic". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
- Wintour, Patrick (March 13, 2017). "Troubled waters: Norway keeps watch on Russia's Arctic manoeuvres". the Guardian.
- Knudsen, Camilla (2018-11-17). "Russia vows consequences after Norway invites more U.S. Marines". Reuters. Thomson Reuters.
- Osmo Kuusi; Hanna Smith; Paula Tiihonen (eds.). "Venäjä 2017: Kolme skenaariota" (in Finnish). Eduskunnan tulevaisuusvaliokunta. Archived from the original on 2013-05-20. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
- Jussi M. Hanhimäki (1997). Containing Coexistence: America, Russia, and the "Finnish Solution". Kent State UP. p. 4.
- McNally, T. (1958). "The Origins of Russophobia in France: 1812 - 1830". American Slavic and East European Review. 17 (2): 173–189. doi:10.2307/3004165. JSTOR 3004165.
- Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.
- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1925
- H. R. Trevor-Roper; Gerhard L. Weinberg (18 October 2013). Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944: Secret Conversations. Enigma Books. p. 466. ISBN 978-1-936274-93-2.
- Snyder (2010), Bloodlands,p. 411. Snyder states "4.2 million Soviet citizens starved by the German occupiers"
- Snyder (2010), Bloodlands, p. 160
- Burleigh, Michael (2001). The Third Reich: A New History. Pan Macmillan. p. 521. ISBN 978-0-330-48757-3.
- Barratt, Glynn (1981). Russophobia in New Zealand, 1838-1908. Dunmore Press. ISBN 978-0-908564-75-0.
- TONY WILSON, Russophobia and New Zealand-Russian Relations, 1900s to 1939, New Zealand Slavonic Journal, (1999), pp. 273-296
- Gleason , pp. 11-13
- John Howes Gleason, The Genesis of Russophobia in Great Britain: A Study of the Interaction of Policy and Opinion, 1971, p.1
- Jimmie E. Cain Jr. (15 May 2006), Bram Stoker and Russophobia: Evidence of the British Fear of Russia in Dracula and The Lady of the Shroud, McFarland & Co Inc., U.S., ISBN 978-0-7864-2407-8
- Peter Hopkirk. The Great Game, Kodansha International, 1992, ISBN 4-7700-1703-0
- Gleason , p. 13
- Steven Ferry (1995). Russian Americans. Benchmark Books. p. 42. ISBN 9780761401643. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- "History". June 20, 2015.
- Saad, Lydia (February 27, 2019). "Majority of Americans Now Consider Russia a Critical Threat". GALLUP News. Gallup Inc.
- "Climate Change and Russia Are Partisan Flashpoints in Public's Views of Global Threats". Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. July 30, 2019.
- "BBC World Service poll: Views of China and India Slide While UK's Ratings Climb: Global Poll" (PDF). BBC. May 22, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
- Russia blacklists more U.S. citizens from entry under "anti-Magnitsky" bill 19 January 2013
- What Boston Bombers' Chechen Ties May Mean for U.S.-Russia Relations April 9, 2013
- "Why the Russia Story Is a Minefield for Democrats and the Media". Rolling Stone. March 8, 2017.
- "James Clapper on Trump-Russia Ties: 'My Dashboard Warning Light Was Clearly On". NBC News. 28 May 2017.
- "James Clapper Tells NBC's Chuck Todd That Russians Are 'Genetically Driven' to Co-opt". Yahoo News. 30 May 2017.
- "James Clapper Tells NBC's Chuck Todd That Russians Are 'Genetically Driven' to Co-opt". The Observer. 30 May 2017.
- "Russian film industry and Hollywood uneasy with one another." Fox News. October 14, 2014
- Matthee 1999, p. 221.
- Kazemzadeh 1991, pp. 328–330.
- See Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. New York: Kodansha Globe, 1997, ISBN 1-56836-022-3
- Bitis, Alexander (November 30, 2006). The Origins and Conduct of the Russo-Persian War, 1826–1828. doi:10.5871/bacad/9780197263273.001.0001. ISBN 9780197263273.
- "Iran and the Cold War: The Azerbaijan Crisis of 1946". January 28, 2009.
- For Iran’s Opposition, ‘Death to Russia’ Is the New ‘Death to America’, 20 July 2009
- "Sino-Russian border conflicts". www.onwar.com.
- Denisov, Igor. "Aigun, Russia, and China's "Century of Humiliation"". Carnegie Moscow Center.
- Kim, Kwangmin (28 March 2018). "Xinjiang Under the Qing". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. 1. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.13 – via oxfordre.com.
- PhD, Alena N. Eskridge-Kosmach (12 March 2008). "Russia in the Boxer Rebellion". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 21 (1): 38–52. doi:10.1080/13518040801894142.
- RBTH; Kamalakaran, Ajay (30 March 2017). "How a Russia-China political game resulted in Mongolian independence". www.rbth.com.
- "The 1929 Sino-Soviet War". kansaspress.ku.edu.
- "The Soviets in Xinjiang (1911-1949)". www.oxuscom.com.
- Jones, FC (1949). "XII. Events in Manchuria, 1945–47" (PDF). Manchuria since 1931. London, Oxford University Press: Royal Institute of International Affairs. pp. 224–5 and pp.227–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- Christian Science Monitor, 12 October 1945,
Japanese armies were guilty of appalling excesses, both in China and elsewhere, and had the Russians dealt harshly with only Japanese nationals in Manchuria this would have appeared as just retribution. But the indiscriminate looting and raping inflicted upon the unoffending Chinese by the Russians naturally aroused the keenest indignation.
- Pakula, Hannah (2009). The last empress: Madame Chiang Kai-Shek and the birth of modern China. Simon & Schuster. p. 530. ISBN 978-1-4391-4893-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Heinzig, Dieter (2004). The Soviet Union and communist China, 1945–1950: the arduous road to the alliance. ME Sharpe. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7656-0785-0. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- Lim, Robyn (2003). The geopolitics of East Asia: the search for equilibrium. Psychology Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-415-29717-2. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- Spector, Ronald H (2008). In the Ruins of Empire: The Japanese Surrender and the Battle for Postwar Asia. Random House. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8129-6732-6. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
- Osborn, Andrew (13 May 2010). "USSR planned nuclear attack on China in 1969" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Poushter, Jacob (31 October 2014). "The Turkish people don't look favorably upon the U.S., or any other country, really". Pew Research Center.
- "Russo-Turkish wars - Russo-Turkish history".
- Towle, Philip (1980). "British Assistance to the Japanese Navy during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5". The Great Circle: Journal of the Australian Association for Maritime History. Australian Association for Maritime History. 2 (1): 44–54.
- "Soviet Financial Aid to Turkey during Independence War | History Forum". Historum.com. 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
- "7 August 1946: Turkish Straits crisis reaches its climax - MoneyWeek". August 7, 2014.
- Stack, Liam. "Turkey Shelters Anti-Assad Group, the Free Syrian Army".
- "Turkey's downing of Russian warplane - what we know". December 1, 2015 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Turkish troops have entered Syria in a major operation to support anti-Assad rebels".
- Otaru onsen lawsuit, hearing 7: oral testimonies by the plaintiffs, March 11, 2002, Sapporo district court
- Letman, Jon (31 March 2000). "Russian visitors boiling over Japanese bathhouses". Vladivostok News. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
- "Opinion of Russia". Pew Research Center. 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "(24) Terenti Shtykov: the other ruler of nascent N. Korea". koreatimes. 25 January 2012.
- "Russia's Role on North Korea: More Important than You Might Think". Council on Foreign Relations.
- Morley, Daniel (20 April 2017). "A Forgotten Soviet Shoot-Down: The Story of Korean Air 902".
- Nikolaeva, Evgenia (26 June 2006). Как закалялась "Северсталь" [How "Severstal" was hardened] (in Russian). Izvestija. Archived from the original on July 2, 2006.
- Russian: Председатель Госдумы Борис Грызлов, комментируя пропагандистскую кампанию против слияния российской "Северстали" и европейской "Arcelor", заявил, что Россию не хотят пускать на мировые рынки, by Rossijskaya Gazeta 27 June 2006
- Russian Politicians See Russophobia in Arcelor's Decision to Go With Mittal Steel, by The New York Times 27 July 2006
- "Pravda" on Potomac Archived December 29, 2005, at the Wayback Machine, by Edward Lozansky, Johnson's Russia List, December 2005
- Why are the American media, both liberal and conservative, so unanimously anti-Russian? Archived January 26, 2005, at the Wayback Machine, by Ira Straus, Johnson's Russia List, January 2005
- Interview with David Johnson Archived February 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine by the Moscow News, April 2007
- "The Conservative Voice". conservativevoice.us. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013.
- Belousov, Konstantin; Natalia Zelianskaia (27 February 2007). Рейтинг русофобии: "Newsday" опережает "The Financial Times" на 9 очков [Rating Russophobia: "Newsday" ahead of "The Financial Times" by 9 points] (in Russian). e-generator.ru. Archived from the original on May 9, 2007.
- Matveeva, Anna (13 December 2008). "Anna Matveeva: The western media must not spoil the vital relationship between Russia and the west". The Guardian. London.
- Tsygankov, Andrei. "The Russophobia Card". Archived 2008-10-10 at the Wayback Machine Atlantic Community. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
- "Kremlin's Campaign against Russophobia Threatens both Russia and the West, Polish Experts Say". www.interpretermag.com. Retrieved 2015-11-15.
- "Four Types of Russian Propaganda". Aspen Institute. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Bruk, Diana (19 June 2017). "Russophobia Isn't Just Hurting Donald Trump—It's Helping Vladimir Putin". Observer.
- Lind-Guzik, Anna (7 June 2017). "American Russophobia is real—and it's helping Putin". Medium.
- "The New Yorker’s Big Cover Story Reveals Five Uncomfortable Truths About U.S. and Russia". The Intercept. February 28, 2017.
- "Morgan Freeman is educating Americans on Russia. That's a problem". The Washington Post. September 29, 2017.
- Horvath, Robert (2005). The legacy of Soviet dissent: dissidents, democratisation and radical nationalism in Russia. Psychology Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-415-33320-7.
- Khazanov, Anatoly (2012). "Contemporary Russian Nationalism between East and West". Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Khazanov, Anatoly M. (2003). "A State without a Nation? Russia after Empire". In Paul, T.V. (ed.). The nation-state in question. G. John Ikenberry, John A. Hall. Princeton University Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0691115092.
- "PA Chairman Abbas to meet Russia's President Putin". Israel National News. 12 February 2018.
- "Netanyahu lashes out at Iran in talks with Putin". Hürriyet Daily News. 30 January 2018.
- "Putin Speaks Against Holocaust Denial and Anti-Semitism". The Moscow Times. 30 January 2018.
- Feklyunina, Valentina. "Constructing Russophobia." in Ray Taras, ed. Russia's Identity in International Relations (Routledge, 2012). 102-120. online
- Gleason, John Howes. The Genesis Of Russophobia In Great Britain (1950) online
- Kazemzadeh, Firuz (1991). "Iranian relations with Russia and the Soviet Union, to 1921". In Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles (eds.). The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol. 7). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521200950.
- Lieven, Anatol. "Against Russophobia." World Policy Journal 17.4 (2000): 25-32; a review of a modern Russophobia in international politics. online
- Luostarinen, Heikki. "Finnish Russophobia: The story of an enemy image." Journal of Peace Research 26.2 (1989): 123-137.
- McNally, Raymond T. "The Origins of Russophobia in France: 1812-1830." American Slavic and East European Review 17.2 (1958): 173-189. online
- Matthee, Rudolph P. (1999). The Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran: Silk for Silver, 1600–1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-64131-9.
- Nitoiu, Cristian. "Towards conflict or cooperation? The Ukraine crisis and EU-Russia relations." Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 16.3 (2016): 375-390. online
- Taras, Raymond. "Russia resurgent, Russophobia in decline? Polish perceptions of relations with the Russian Federation 2004–2012." Europe-Asia Studies 66.5 (2014): 710-734.
- Tsygankov, Andrei. Russophobia: Anti-Russian lobby and American foreign policy (Springer, 2009).
- Wilson, Tony. "Russophobia and New Zealand-Russian Relations, 1900s to 1939." New Zealand Slavonic Journal (1999): 273-296. online
- (in Polish)/(in Russian) ed. Jerzy Faryno, Roman Bobryk, "Polacy w oczach Rosjan — Rosjanie w oczach Polaków. Поляки глазами русских — русские глазами поляков. Zbiór studiów" - conference proceedings; in Studia Litteraria Polono-Slavica; Slawistyczny Ośrodek Wydawniczy Instytutu Slawistyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Warszawa 2000, ISBN 83-86619-93-7.