Ruth Brown

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For other people named Ruth Brown, see Ruth Brown (disambiguation).
Ruth Brown
Ruth Brown cropped.jpg
Brown performing at the 2005
Bull Durham Blues Festival
Background information
Birth name Ruth Alston Weston
Born (1928-01-12)January 12, 1928[1]
Portsmouth, Virginia, U.S.
Died November 17, 2006(2006-11-17) (aged 78)
Henderson, Nevada, U.S.
Genres Pop, R&B, jazz, soul, gospel, funk
Occupation(s) Actress, singer-songwriter
Instruments Vocals, piano, keyboards
Years active 1949–2006
Labels Atlantic, Philips, Fantasy

Ruth Brown (January 12, 1928[2][3][4] – November 17, 2006) was an American singer-songwriter and actress, sometimes known as the "Queen of R&B". She was noted for bringing a pop music style to R&B music in a series of hit songs for Atlantic Records in the 1950s, such as "So Long", "Teardrops from My Eyes" and "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean".[5] For these contributions, Atlantic became known as "The house that Ruth built" (alluding to the popular nickname for Old Yankee Stadium).[6][7]

Following a resurgence that began in the mid-1970s and peaked in the 1980s, Brown used her influence to press for musicians' rights regarding royalties and contracts, which led to the founding of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation.[8] Her performances in the Broadway musical Black and Blue earned Brown a Tony Award, and the original cast recording won a Grammy Award.

Early life[edit]

Born Ruth Alston Weston in Portsmouth, Virginia, she was the eldest of seven siblings.[9] She attended I. C. Norcom High School, which was then legally segregated. Brown's father was a dockhand who directed the local church choir, but the young Ruth showed more interest in singing at USO shows and nightclubs. She was inspired by Sarah Vaughan, Billie Holiday, and Dinah Washington.[10]

In 1945, aged 17, Brown ran away from her home in Portsmouth along with the trumpeter Jimmy Brown, whom she soon married, to sing in bars and clubs. She then spent a month with Lucky Millinder's orchestra.[5]

Career[edit]

Blanche Calloway, Cab Calloway's sister, also a bandleader, arranged a gig for Brown at the Crystal Caverns, a nightclub in Washington, D.C., and soon became her manager. Willis Conover, the future Voice of America disc jockey, caught her act with Duke Ellington and recommended her to Atlantic Records bosses Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Brown was unable to audition as planned because of a car crash, which resulted in a nine-month stay in the hospital. She signed with Atlantic Records from her hospital bed.[11]

In 1948, Ertegün and Abramson drove from New York City to Washington, D.C., to hear Brown sing. Her repertoire was mostly popular ballads, but Ertegün convinced her to switch to rhythm and blues.[12]

In her first audition, in 1949, she sang "So Long," which became a hit. This was followed by "Teardrops from My Eyes" in 1950. Written by Rudy Toombs, it was the first upbeat major hit for Brown. Recorded for Atlantic Records in New York City in September 1950 and released in October, it was Billboard's R&B number one for 11 weeks. The hit earned her the nickname "Miss Rhythm", and within a few months she became the acknowledged queen of R&B.[13]

She followed up this hit with "I'll Wait for You" (1951), "I Know" (1951), "5-10-15 Hours" (1953), "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" (1953), "Oh What a Dream" (1954),[12] "Mambo Baby" (1954), and "Don't Deceive Me" (1960), some of which were credited to Ruth Brown and the Rhythm Makers. Between 1949 and 1955, her records stayed on the R&B chart for a total of 149 weeks, with sixteen Top 10 records, including five number ones. Brown played many racially segregated dances in the southern states, where she toured extensively and was immensely popular. Brown claimed that a writer had once summed up her popularity by saying, "In the South Ruth Brown is better known than Coca Cola."[citation needed]

Her first pop hit came with "Lucky Lips", a song written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and recorded in 1957. The single reached number 6 on the R&B chart and number 25 on the US pop chart.[14] The 1958 follow-up was "This Little Girl's Gone Rockin'", written by Bobby Darin and Mann Curtis. It reached number 7 on the R&B chart and number 24 on the pop chart.[15]

She had further hits with "I Don't Know" in 1959 and "Don't Deceive Me" in 1960, which were more successful on the R&B chart than on the pop chart.

Later life[edit]

During the 1960s, Brown faded from public view to become a housewife and mother. She returned to music in 1975 at the urging of Redd Foxx, followed by a series of comedic acting jobs. These included roles in the sitcom Hello, Larry, the John Waters film Hairspray, and the Broadway productions of Amen Corner and Black and Blue. The latter earned her a Tony Award as Best Actress in a Musical. She also won a Grammy award as Best Female Jazz Artist for her album Blues on Broadway, which featured hits from the show.

Brown's fight for musicians' rights and royalties in 1987 led to the founding of the Rhythm and Blues Foundation. She was inducted as a recipient of the Pioneer Award in its first year, 1989. She was also inducted into the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame in 1992 and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1993.

Brown recorded and sang with the rhythm-and-blues singer Charles Brown. She also toured with Bonnie Raitt in the late 1990s. Her 1995 autobiography, Miss Rhythm,[16] won the Gleason Award for music journalism. She also appeared on Bonnie Raitt's 1995 live DVD Road Tested singing the song "Never Make Your Move Too Soon."[17] She was nominated for another Grammy in the Traditional Blues category for her 1997 album, R + B = Ruth Brown.

She hosted the radio program BluesStage, carried by over 200 NPR affiliates, for six years, starting in 1989.[18]

Brown was still touring at the age of 78.[11] She had completed pre-production work on the Danny Glover film, Honeydripper, which she did not live to finish, but her recording of "Things About Comin' My Way" was released posthumously on the soundtrack CD. Her last interview was in August 2006.[19]

Death[edit]

Brown died in a Las Vegas–area hospital on November 17, 2006, from complications following a heart attack and stroke she suffered after surgery in the previous month. She was 78 years old.[20] A memorial concert for her was held on January 22, 2007, at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York.[citation needed]

Brown is buried at Roosevelt Memorial Park, Chesapeake City, Virginia.[21]

Discography[edit]

Albums[edit]

Compilations[edit]

  • 2006: Rockin' in Rhythm: The Best of Ruth Brown (Atlantic/Rhino)
  • 2006: Jukebox Hits (Acrobat)
  • 2007: The Definitive Soul Collection (2 CDs, Atlantic/Rhino)
  • 2015: The Very Best of Ruth Brown (2 CDs, One Day Music)

Singles[edit]

Year Single Peak chart positions Album
US R&B US Pop
1949 "So Long" 4
1950 "Teardrops from My Eyes" 1 Rockin' with Ruth
1951 "I'll Wait for You" 3
"I Know" 7
1952 "5-10-15 Hours" 1
"Daddy Daddy" 3 Ruth Brown
1953 "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" 1 23
"Wild, Wild Young Men" 3
"Mend Your Ways" 7 Ruth Brown & Her Rhythmakers: Sweet Baby of Mine
1954 "Oh What a Dream" (with the Drifters) 1 Ruth Brown
"Mambo Baby" 1
1955 "As Long As I'm Moving" 4 Rockin' with Ruth
"Bye Bye Young Men" 13
"I Can See Everybody's Baby" 7
"It's Love Baby (24 Hours a Day)" 4 The Best of Ruth Brown
"Love Has Joined Us Together" 8
1956 "I Want to Do More" 3 Sweet Baby of Mine
"Sweet Baby of Mine" 10
1957 "Lucky Lips" 6 25 The Best of Ruth Brown
1958 "This Little Girl's Gone Rockin'" 7 24 Rockin' with Ruth
"Why Me" 17 Miss Rhythm
1959 "I Don't Know" 5 64
"Jack'O Diamonds" 23 96
1960 "Don't Deceive Me" 10 62 Rockin' with Ruth
"Taking Care of Business/Honey Boy"
1962 "Shake a Hand" 97
"Mama (He Treats Your Daughter Mean)" 99

References[edit]

  1. ^ Obituary, nytimes.com, November 18, 2006; accessed January 29, 2016.
  2. ^ Dates of birth and death, death-records.mooseroots.com; accessed January 29, 2016.
  3. ^ Profile with dates of birth and death, biography.com; accessed January 29, 2016
  4. ^ Obituary, washingtonpost.com; accessed January 29, 2016.
  5. ^ a b Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books Limited. p. 96. ISBN 1-85868-255-X. 
  6. ^ Dahl, Bill. "Ruth Brown: music biography, credits and discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  7. ^ Bob Gulla (2008). Icons of R&B and Soul. ABC-CLIO. p. 76. Retrieved 2015-09-07. 
  8. ^ Heatley, Michael (2007). The Definitive Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock. London, UK: Star Fire. ISBN 978-1-84451-996-5. 
  9. ^ Bernstein, Adam (November 18, 2006). "Ruth Brown, 78; R&B Singer Championed Musicians' Rights". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  10. ^ Bogdanov, et al. All Music Guide to the Blues: The Definitive Guide to the Blues p. 79. Backbeat Books; ISBN 0-87930-736-6
  11. ^ a b "Suzi Quatro's Pioneers of Rock: Ruth Brown". BBC Radio 2. February 9, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  12. ^ a b Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 3 – The Tribal Drum: The Rise of Rhythm and Blues. [Part 1]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. 
  13. ^ Dawson, Jim; Propes, Steve (1992). What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record. Boston & London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-12939-0. 
  14. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–2004. Record Research. p. 54. 
  15. ^ Rockin' with Ruth by Ruth Brown. Popular Music, Vol. 5, Continuity and Change (1985), pp. 225–234.
  16. ^ Brown, Ruth; Yule, Andrew (1996). Miss Rhythm.
  17. ^ Ruhlmann, William (1995-11-07). "Road Tested – Bonnie Raitt: Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 
  18. ^ "Felix Hernandez". Wbgo.org. Retrieved 2015-09-07. 
  19. ^ Randy Rice (August 29, 2006). "Interview: Miss Ruth Brown: Better Late, Than Never". broadwayworld.com. Retrieved August 20, 2013. 
  20. ^ Notice of death of Ruth Brown, broadwayworld.com; accessed June 17, 2014.
  21. ^ "Ruth Brown (1928–2006) profile". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 2013-03-18. 

External links[edit]