Ruth Graves Wakefield
Ruth Graves Wakefield
|Born||June 17, 1903|
Easton, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Died||January 10, 1977 (aged 73)|
Plymouth, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Education||Framingham State Normal School|
Ruth Graves Wakefield (June 17, 1903 – January 10, 1977) was an American chef, best known as the inventor of the Toll House Cookie, the first chocolate chip cookie, which she created. She was also a graduate and educator, a business owner, a chef, and an author.
Wakefield grew up in Easton, Massachusetts, and graduated from Oliver Ames High School in 1920. Wakefield was educated at Framingham State Normal School Department of Household Arts in 1924. There, she worked as a dietitian and lectured about foods. In 1928, she and her husband Kenneth Donald Wakefield (1897–1997) had a son, Kenneth Donald Wakefield Jr. In 1930, she and her husband bought a tourist lodge (the Toll House Inn) in the town of Whitman, Massachusetts in Plymouth County. Located about halfway between Boston and New Bedford, it was a place where passengers had historically paid a toll, changed horses and ate home-cooked meals. When the Wakefields opened their business, they named the establishment the Toll House Inn. Ruth cooked and served all the food and soon gained local fame for her lobster dinners and desserts. The restaurant had many people, including US Ambassador Joseph Kennedy, Sr. Her chocolate chip cookies soon became very popular. She invented chocolate chip cookies around 1938.
She added chopped up bits from a Nestlé semi-sweet chocolate bar into a cookie. It is often incorrectly reported that the cookie was an accident, and that Wakefield expected the chocolate chunks to melt making chocolate cookies. In reality, Wakefield stated that she deliberately invented the cookie. She said, "We had been serving a thin butterscotch nut cookie with ice cream. Everybody seemed to love it, but I was trying to give them something different. So I came up with Toll House cookie."
Wakefield wrote a best selling cookbook, Toll House Tried and True Recipes, that went through 39 printings starting in 1930. The 1938 edition of the cookbook was the first to include the recipe for a chocolate chip cookie, the "Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookie".
As the popularity of the Toll House Chocolate Crunch Cookie increased, the sales of Nestlé's semi-sweet chocolate bars also spiked. Andrew Nestlé and Ruth Wakefield made a business arrangement: Wakefield gave Nestlé the right to use her cookie recipe and the Toll House name for one dollar and a lifetime supply of Nestlé chocolate. Nestlé began marketing chocolate chips to be used especially for cookies and printing the recipe for the Toll House Cookie on its package.
Wakefield solved an immense pain point, the boringness of traditional cookies that left consumers yearning for something much greater. Her invention met this need and went on to be the most popular cookie of all time. Chocolate chip cookies are still consumed today and currently exist in a market space of over $18 billion here in the US.
- Randal W. Oulton. "Ruth Wakefield". Cooksinfo.com. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- "Easton Historical Society hosts open house". Wicked Local Easton. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- "Ruth Graves Wakefield". Nndb.com. 1915-08-30. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- "Ruth Wakefield: Chocolate Chip Cookie Inventor". Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Steave Annear (Sep 27, 2013). "The Chocolate Chip Cookie is Turning 75-Years-Old". Boston Magazine. Retrieved Mar 21, 2014.
- "Chocolate Chip Cookie Day and the accidental origin of this American staple". CNN. 20 October 2017.
- Toll House Tried and True Recipes, 1940. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- "Inventor of the Week Archive: Chocolate Chip Cookie". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Jones, Charlotte Foltz (1991). Mistakes That Worked. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-26246-9.
- "History of Nestlé Toll House". Archived from the original on 2009-02-23.
- "Ruth Wakefield: Chocolate Chip Cookie Inventor". www.women-inventors.com.
- "Cookies & Crackers - United States | Statista Market Forecast". Statista. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
- Staff report (January 11, 1977). Ruth Wakefield, at 73; created toll house cookie. Boston Globe
- Roberts, Sam (21 March 2018). "Overlooked No More: Ruth Wakefield, Who Invented the Chocolate Chip Cookie" – via NYTimes.com.