Ruth Simmons

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Ruth Simmons
Simmons in 2001
8th President of Prairie View A&M University
In office
December 4, 2017
Interim: July 1, 2017 – December 4, 2017
Preceded byGeorge Wright
18th President of Brown University
In office
October 14, 2001 – June 30, 2012
Preceded byGordon Gee
Succeeded byChristina Paxson
9th President of Smith College
In office
Preceded byMary Maples Dunn
Succeeded byCarol T. Christ
Personal details
Ruth Jean Stubblefield

(1945-07-03) July 3, 1945 (age 77)
Grapeland, Texas, U.S.
SpouseNorbert Alonzo
EducationDillard University (BA)
Harvard University (MA, PhD)
Academic background
ThesisThe poetic language of Aime Cesaire (1973)
Academic work
DisciplineRomance literature

Ruth Simmons (born Ruth Jean Stubblefield,[1][2] July 3, 1945) is an American professor and academic administrator. She is president of Prairie View A&M University, a historically black university.

Simmons previously served as the 18th president of Brown University from 2001 to 2012, where she was the first African American president of an Ivy League institution. Prior to Brown University, she headed Smith College, one of the Seven Sisters and the largest women's college in the United States, beginning in 1995. In 2017, she was called out of retirement and named the eighth president of Prairie View A&M University in her home state of Texas. On March 11, 2022, she announced that she would step down as president when the university names her successor.[3] She will continue serving at Prairie View A&M University in other capacities.[4]

Simmons is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and an honorary fellow of Selwyn College, Cambridge.

Early life and education[edit]

Simmons was born in Grapeland, Texas, the last of 12 children of Fanny (née Campbell) and Isaac Stubblefield.[5][6] Her father was a sharecropper[7] until the family moved to Houston during her school years. Her paternal grandfather descends partly from the Benza and Kota people, enslaved people from Gabon,[8][9] while her maternal line is traced back to the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean[10] who were enslaved by the Spaniards.

She earned her bachelor's degree, on scholarship, from Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1967. She earned her master's and a doctorate in Romance literature from Harvard University in 1970 and 1973, respectively.[11]

Early academic positions[edit]

Simmons was an assistant professor of French at the University of New Orleans (UNO) from 1973-1976 and Assistant Dean of the UNO's College of Liberal Arts from 1975–76. She moved to California State University, Northridge in 1977 as administrative coordinator of its NEH Liberal Studies Project. From 1978–79, she was acting director of CSU-Northridge's International Programs and visiting associate professor of Pan-African Studies.[12]

Simmons moved to the University of Southern California in 1979 as assistant dean of graduate studies, and then as associate dean of graduate studies.[13] She moved to Princeton University in 1983 and served as assistant dean of faculty and then associate dean of faculty from 1986 to 1990. Simmons served as provost at Spelman College from 1990 to 1991 and returned to Princeton as its vice provost from 1992 to 1995.[12]

Smith College presidency[edit]

In 1995, Simmons was selected as president of Smith College, which she led until 2001. As president of Smith College, Simmons started the first engineering program at a U.S. woman's college.[14]

Brown University presidency[edit]

Simmons in 2008 during her tenure as President of Brown University

In November 2000, Simmons became the first African American woman to head an Ivy League school,[15][16] assuming the office in October 2001, succeeding Gordon Gee. She also held appointments as a professor in the Departments of Comparative Literature and Africana Studies. In 2002, Newsweek selected her as a Ms. Woman of the Year, while in 2001, Time named her as America's best college president.[17]

At Brown, she completed a $1.4 billion initiative – the largest in Brown's history – known as Boldly Brown: The Campaign for Academic Enrichment to enhance Brown's academic programs. In 2004, former Brown student Sidney E. Frank made the largest aggregate monetary contribution to Brown in its history in the amount of $120 million. The Frank gifts were principally devoted to scholarship assistance to Brown students and Brown's programs in the sciences.[18]

By early 2007, philanthropist Warren Alpert made a similarly generous contribution to strengthening the programs of The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in the amount of $100 million, matching the core portion of the Sidney Frank gift to Brown. As reported in a May 22, 2009, press release, Brown Chancellor Thomas J. Tisch announced the early attainment of the $1.4 billion fundraising campaign and the continued pursuit of specific subsidiary goals in support of endowments for student scholarships, the Brown faculty and internationalization programs through the originally planned campaign completion date of December 31, 2010.[19]

In a 2006 orientation meeting with parents, Simmons denied interest in the presidency of Harvard University, headed by an interim president, Derek Bok. Nevertheless, a 2007 New York Times article featuring a photograph of Simmons reported that the Harvard Corporation, responsible for selecting the university's replacement for former president Lawrence Summers, had been given a list of "potential candidates" that included her name.[20]

In August 2007, Simmons was invited to deliver the 60th Annual Reading of the historic 1790 George Washington Letter to Touro Synagogue at the Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, in response to Moses Seixas on the subject of religious pluralism.[21] According to a March 2009 poll by The Brown Daily Herald, Simmons had more than an 80% approval rating among Brown undergraduates.[22]

In September 2011, Simmons announced that she would step down from her position as Brown President at the end of the 2011–12 academic year, initially saying she would remain at Brown as a professor of comparative literature and Africana studies. She was succeeded as the Brown President on June 30, 2012, by Christina Paxson.[23]

Goldman Sachs role and compensation[edit]

Simmons earned annual compensation of over $300,000 from Goldman Sachs (on top of her annual salary from Brown of over $500,000) while serving on the Goldman board of directors during the late-2000s financial crisis; in addition, she left the Goldman board (which she had joined in 2000) in 2009 with over $4.3 million in Goldman stock.[24][25] During her term on Goldman's board, she also served on the compensation committee of Goldman's ten-person board, which decided how large Goldman executives' post-crash bonuses would be; these bonuses included a $68 million bonus for the company's chairman and CEO, Lloyd C. Blankfein, in 2007 and a $9 million bonus in 2009 after Goldman received money in the federal TARP bailout.[24][25] The revelations of Simmons's role received intense criticism from both alumni and students, with a then-sophomore stating that Simmons's actions "brought shame on the university."[24] Simmons was cited in the 2010 film Inside Job, as an example of the conflicts of interest between university economics departments and deregulation of financial institutions.[26]

Transnational initiatives at Brown[edit]

As the wealth that the founding Brown family contributed to the university was based in part on the triangular slave trade, in 2003, Simmons established the University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice to examine this complex history and make recommendations for how the university might approach the relevant issues.[27][28] The Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice was subsequently published.[29] On February 16, 2007, at an event celebrating the 200-year anniversary of the passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807 and the involvement of Cambridge University alumni William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson and William Pitt the Younger, Simmons delivered a lecture at St. John's College, Cambridge, entitled Hidden in Plain Sight: Slavery and Justice in Rhode Island.[30] Also in February 2007, Brown University published its official Response to the Report of the Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice following completion of the historic inquiry undertaken by the committee appointed by Simmons.[31]

In October 2007, Simmons appointed David W. Kennedy, the former Manley O. Hudson Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, as vice president for international affairs. In addition to supporting the leadership of the Watson Institute for International Studies, the new university officer will lead a multidisciplinary advanced research project in the field of global law, governance and social thought to strengthen the University's international work in the social sciences.[32]

As an additional element of Simmons' leadership of Brown's international efforts, Brown and Banco Santander of Spain inaugurated an annual series of International Advanced Research Institutes to convene younger scholars from emerging and developing countries at Brown in a signing ceremony on November 13, 2008, at the John Hay Library between Brown provost David Kertzer and Emilio Botin, chairman of Banco Santander.[33] As noted by Simmons: "To be at the forefront of research today means being in conversation with global peers. The Brown Institutes provide exciting opportunities to encounter new ideas, build collegiate relationships and enrich faculty development for young scholars and teachers from around the world".[34]

In March 2010, Simmons traveled to India as part of a major program, called the Year of India, which is dedicated to the improvement of understanding of Indian history, politics, education and culture among Brown students and faculty.[35][36]

On September 15, 2011, Simmons announced that she would step down from the Brown presidency at the end of the academic year, June 30, 2012. She retired to Texas.

Prairie View A&M University presidency[edit]

After five years of retirement from Brown University, Simmons was invited to take on the presidency of Prairie View A&M University, an HBCU in Texas. Following several meetings with TAMUS Chancellor John Sharp and the Board of Regents, on June 19, 2017, she agreed to step in as the interim president of Prairie View, assuming the office on July 1, 2017.[37] On December 4, 2017, she was officially named the eighth president of Prairie View A&M University. She is the first woman selected to serve as president of Prairie View A&M.[38][39]

At Prairie View A&M, Simmons focused her efforts on improving the financial stability of the university, particularly on fundraising tens of millions dollars for the Panther Success Grants. Her vision for the university: “I plan to ensure that Prairie View A&M University sustains excellence in teaching, research and service for another 140-plus years. We will promote throughout the country a narrative of a Prairie View that is strong, and we will raise funds in a new and vital way so that the University will have the flexibility it needs to advance and make more visible its reach.”[7][40] On March 11, 2022, Simmons announced that she will step down as president when the university names her successor.[41] In 2022, the university announced that during Simmons presidency scholarships had increased and donations to the university had grown by 40%.[4]

Civic activities and honors[edit]

Honoris causa degrees[edit]

An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived all of the usual requirements. It is also known by the Latinphrases honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honored ("to the honor"). <ref>Honorary degree</ref>

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Listed as "Ruth Geary Stubblefield" on the Texas Birth Records, could be a typo; According to the Texas Birth Index, 1903-1997 -
  2. ^ Barry Beckham, "Dr Ruth J. Simmons - Precedent-setting president", The Crisis, March–April 2001, p. 24.
  3. ^ "Dr. Ruth J. Simmons to Step Down as President of Prairie View A&M". Diverse: Issues In Higher Education. 2022-03-12. Retrieved 2022-04-02.
  4. ^ a b McGee, Kate (2022-03-30). "Outgoing Prairie View A&M President Ruth Simmons will remain at university, create new leadership diversity program". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2022-04-02.
  5. ^ Stated on Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., PBS, April 29, 2012
  6. ^ Biography Today: Profiles of People of Interest to Young Readers – Google Books
  7. ^ a b Lorin, Janet (19 March 2021). "Ivy League Star, a Sharecropper's Child, Revives a Black College". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  8. ^ Sarah Rodman, "Brown president Ruth Simmons traces ‘Roots’", The Boston Globe.
  9. ^ Your genetic
  10. ^ ""Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr." - DNA in the Seventh Episode".
  11. ^ Simmons, Ruth Jean (1973). The Poetic Language Of Aime Cesaire (Ph.D. thesis). Harvard University. OCLC 32414601. ProQuest 302720917.
  12. ^ a b 21, 2017
  13. ^ USC Perspectives 10/08/01.
  14. ^ "The Simmons Years". Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  15. ^ Wan, William (April 22, 2016). "First Black Heroes - Successful African Americans". Washington Post.
  16. ^ "A New President for Brown University", New York Times, November 11, 2000.
  17. ^ "Ruth J. Simmons: 2001-2012 - Office of the President - Brown University". Retrieved 2022-07-06.
  18. ^ "The Giver". Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  19. ^ "‘Boldly Brown’ Campaign Crosses the $1.4-Billion Mark; Work Continues". Press Release from Brown University, May 22, 2009.
  20. ^ Alan Finder, "Headhunters at Harvard May Pick a Woman", The New York Times, January 8, 2007.
  21. ^ "Brown President Ruth J. Simmons to Speak at Touro Synagogue". Press Release from Brown University, August 15, 2007.
  22. ^ Hannah Moser and Seth Motel, "Students support 'Fall Weekend'", The Brown Daily Herald, March 30, 2009.
  23. ^ Patricia Daddona, "R.I. college leaders paid well compared to peers", Providence Business News, June 14, 2014.
  24. ^ a b c Graham Bowley, "Questions at Brown on Ruth Simmons's Role at Goldman", New York Times, March 1, 2010.
  25. ^ a b Simmons defends Goldman ties
  26. ^ Inside Job, Charles Ferguson, 2010.
  27. ^ Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice from Brown University.
  28. ^ Frances FitzGerald, “Peculiar Institutions", The New Yorker, September 12, 2005, p. 68.
  29. ^[bare URL PDF]
  30. ^ "Slavery: Then and Now" Archived 2009-08-15 at the Wayback Machine. Anti-Slavery Conference at St John's College, February 2007
  31. ^[bare URL PDF]
  32. ^ "David Kennedy Named Vice President for International Affairs". Press Release on International Affairs from Brown University, October 13, 2007.
  33. ^ Watson Institute
  34. ^ Brown International Advanced Research Institutes (BIARI)
  35. ^ Ruth J. Simmons | We want our students to be aware of India Live Mint, March 30, 2010.
  36. ^ Year of India, Brown University's Year of India.
  37. ^ Allan, Sammy (2018-04-22). "Simmons' Presidency Ushers in New Era for Prairie View". Diverse.
  38. ^ "Ruth Simmons, Ph.D. Named Interim President of Prairie View A&M University : PVAMU News". Archived from the original on 2017-06-19. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
  39. ^ "Back on Texas Soil".
  40. ^ "Prairie View A&M University Receives $10,000,000 Gift for Financial Aid" (PDF). Prairie View A&M University (Press release). November 9, 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  41. ^ "Dr. Ruth J. Simmons to Step Down as President of Prairie View A&M". Diverse: Issues In Higher Education. 2022-03-12. Retrieved 2022-04-02.
  42. ^ "Ruth Simmons". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  43. ^ "APS Member History". Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  44. ^ "Emeritus Fellows". Selwyn College. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  45. ^ Ross Frazier, "Simmons to step down from Pfizer board", The Brown Daily Herald, April 4, 2007.
  46. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement.
  47. ^ "President Obama Announces Appointments to the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships" Archived 2010-04-11 at the Wayback Machine, The White House, June 17, 2009.
  48. ^ Skocpol, Michael (2010-01-18). "Honored by BET, Simmons rubs elbows with the stars". Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  49. ^ "EIHS Medalists". Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  50. ^ Gross, Elana Lyn; Voytko, Lisette; McGrath, Maggie (2021-06-02). "The New Golden Age". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
  51. ^ Wesconnect – Wesleyan University Alumni – [root] Home Navigation Archived 2011-01-05 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]

Academic offices
Preceded by 9th President of Smith College
Succeeded by
Preceded by 18th President of Brown University
Succeeded by
Preceded by 8th President of Prairie View A&M University