Ruthenium(IV) oxide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ruthenium(IV) oxide
IUPAC name
Ruthenium(IV) oxide
Other names
Ruthenium dioxide
12036-10-1 YesY
EC Number 234-840-6
Jmol interactive 3D Image
PubChem 82848
Molar mass 133.0688 g/mol
Appearance blue-black solid
Density 6.97 g/cm3
Boiling point 1,200 °C (2,190 °F; 1,470 K) sublimates
Rutile (tetragonal), tP6
P42/mnm, No. 136
Octahedral (RuIV); trigonal planar (O2−)
Safety data sheet See: data page
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
Ruthenium disulfide
Other cations
Osmium(IV) oxide
Ruthenium tetroxide
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Phase behaviour
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Ruthenium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO2. This a black solid is the most common oxide of ruthenium. It is widely used as an electrocatalyst for producing chlorine, chlorine oxides, and O2 catalyst is ruthenium(IV) oxide.[1] Like many dioxides, RuO2 adopts the rutile structure.[2][3]


It is usually prepared by oxidation of ruthenium trichloride. Nearly stoichiometric single crystals of RuO2 can be obtained by chemical vapor transport.[4]

Films of RuO2 can be prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from volatile ruthenium compounds.[5] RuO2 can also be prepared through electroplating from a solution of ruthenium trichloride.[6]


Ruthenium (IV) oxide is being used as the main component in the catalyst of the Sumitomo-Deacon process which produces chlorine by the oxidation of hydrogen chloride.[7][8]

RuO2 can be used as catalyst in many other situations. Noteworthy reactions are the Fischer-Tropsch process, Haber-Bosch process, and various manifestations of fuel cells.

Potential and niche applications[edit]

RuO2 is extensively used for the coating of titanium anodes for the electrolytic production of chlorine and for the preparation of resistors or integrated circuits.[9][10] Ruthenium oxide resistors can be used as sensitive thermometers in the temperature range .02 < T < 4 K. It can be also used as active material in supercapacitor because has very high charge transfer capability. Ruthenium oxide has great capacity to store charge when used in aqueous solutions.[11] Average capacities of ruthenium(IV) oxide have reached 650 F/g when in H2SO4 solution and annealed at temperatures lower than 200 °C.[12] In attempts to optimise its capacitive properties, prior work has looked at the hydration of ruthenium oxide, its crystallinity and particle size.


  1. ^ Mills, A. "Heterogeneous redox catalysts for oxygen and chlorine evolution" Chem. Sot. Rev.,1989, 18, 285-316. doi:10.1039/CS9891800285
  2. ^ Wyckoff, R.W.G.. Crystal Structures, Vol. 1. Interscience, John Wiley & Sons: 1963.
  3. ^ Wells, A.F. (1975), Structural Inorganic Chemistry (4th ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press 
  4. ^ Harald Schäfer, Gerd Schneidereit, Wilfried Gerhardt "Zur Chemie der Platinmetalle. RuO2 Chemischer Transport, Eigenschaften, thermischer Zerfall" Z. anorg. allg. Chem. 1963, 319, 327-336. doi:10.1002/zaac.19633190514
  5. ^ Pizzini, S.; Buzzancae, G.; Mat. Res. Bull., 1972, 7, 449-462.
  6. ^ Lee, S. (2003). "Electrochromism of amorphous ruthenium oxide thin films". Solid State Ionics 165: 217–221. doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2003.08.035. 
  7. ^ Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483
  8. ^ Seki, K; Catal. Surv. Asia, 2010, 14, 168 doi:10.1007/s10563-010-9091-7.
  9. ^ De Nora, O.; Chem. Eng. Techn., 1970, 42, 222.
  10. ^ Iles, G.S.; Platinum Met. Rev., 1967,11,126.
  11. ^ Matthey, Johnson. Platinum Metals Review. 2002, 46, 3, 105
  12. ^ Kim,Il-Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 2001, 4, 5,A62-A64

External links[edit]