Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II)

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Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II)
Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II).png
ECHA InfoCard 100.120.143
Molar mass 1,664.54 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II) (Na4Ru(bps)3) is a coordination compound containing a ruthenium center. In this form, it is the salt of a sulfonic acid. This compound is an extension of the well known phenanthroline series of coordination compounds. Ruthenium(II) tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate), referring to the anionic fragment, is used as a protein dye in biochemistry for differentiating and detecting different proteins in laboratory settings.

In recent years, 2-D electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a standard procedure to separate complex protein mixtures in proteome studies (Proteomics). Protein visualisation by Ruthenium(II) tris(bathophenthroline disulfonate) has become a firmly established and widely used method in proteomic analysis [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] and a crucial step in gene expression profiling.

For protein detection, it is advantageous to use fluorescent labels containing chromophores which have longer excitation wavelength and emission wavelength than the aromatic amino acids. The dyes used for this important step should combine attributes like good signal to background ratio (contrast), broad linear dynamic range, broad application range, photochemical stability and compatibility to protein identification techniques, e.g. mass spectrometry (MS) or Western blotting.

Originally, the ruthenium transition metal complex, ruthenium(II) tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonate) also termed as ruthenium(II) tris(bathophentroline disulfonate) (RuBPS) was synthesized by Bannwarth [17] as a precursor molecule for a dye that was used as a non-radioactive label for oligo nucleotides.[18] Later, Rabilloud et al.[19] used RuBPS as a fluorescent label for protein detection in polyacrylamide gels.[20] The fact that RuBPS is not only easy to synthesize but also easy to handle, induced further developments in this field.

Lamanda et al. improved the RuBPS staining protocol by selectively destaining the polyacrylamide matrix while the protein content remained tinctured. This new technique entailed a variety of advantages like strong signals, ameliorated signal to background ratio, better linearity and advanced baseline resolution.[21]


  1. ^ Miller, I.; Crawford, J.; Gianazza, E. (October 2006). "Protein stains for proteomic applications: Which, when, why?". Proteomics. 6 (20): 5385–5408. doi:10.1002/pmic.200600323. PMID 16991193.
  2. ^ Bryborn, Malin; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars-Olaf (2005). "Psoriasin, one of several new proteins identified in nasal lavage fluid from allergic and non-allergic individuals using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry". Respiratory Research. 6 (1): 118. doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-118. PMC 1282590. PMID 16236163.
  3. ^ Clerk, Angela; Cullingford, Timothy E.; Kemp, Timothy J.; Kennedy, Robert A.; Sugden, Peter H. (2005). "Regulation of gene and protein expression in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis". Advances in Enzyme Regulation. 45 (1): 94–111. doi:10.1016/j.advenzreg.2005.02.007. PMID 16084574.
  4. ^ Schaller, A.; Troller, R.; Molina, D.; Gallati, S.; Aebi, C.; Stutzmann Meier, P. (January 2006). "Rapid typing ofMoraxella catarrhalis subpopulations based on outer membrane proteins using mass spectrometry". Proteomics. 6 (1): 172–180. doi:10.1002/pmic.200500086. PMID 16317771.
  5. ^ Stasyk, T.; Morandell, S.; Bakry, R.; Feuerstein, I.; Huck, C. W.; Stecher, G.; Bonn, G. K.; Huber, L. A. (July 2005). "Quantitative detection of phosphoproteins by combination of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and phosphospecific fluorescent staining". Electrophoresis. 26 (14): 2850–2854. doi:10.1002/elps.200500026. PMID 15966015.
  6. ^ Berger, K.; Wissmann, D.; Ihling, C.; Kalkhof, S.; Beck-Sickinger, A.; Sinz, A.; Paschke, R.; Führer, D. (November 2004). "Quantitative proteome analysis in benign thyroid nodular disease using the fluorescent ruthenium II tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) stain". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 227 (1–2): 21–30. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2004.08.001. PMID 15501581.
  7. ^ Görg, A.; Weiss, W.; Dunn, M. J. (December 2004). "Current two-dimensional electrophoresis technology for proteomics". Proteomics. 4 (12): 3665–3685. doi:10.1002/pmic.200401031. PMID 15543535.
  8. ^ Smejkal, G. B.; Robinson, M. H.; Lazarev, A. (August 2004). "Comparison of fluorescent stains: Relative photostability and differential staining of proteins in two-dimensional gels". Electrophoresis. 25 (15): 2511–2519. doi:10.1002/elps.200406005. PMID 15300770.
  9. ^ Junca, H.; Plumeier, I.; Hecht, H. J. R.; Pieper, D. H. (December 2004). "Difference in kinetic behaviour of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase variants from a polluted environment". Microbiology. 150 (12): 4181–4187. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27451-0. PMID 15583170.
  10. ^ Tang, H. Y.; Speicher, D. W. (June 2005). "Complex proteome prefractionation using microscale solution isoelectrofocusing". Expert Review of Proteomics. 2 (3): 295–306. doi:10.1586/14789450.2.3.295. PMID 16000077.
  11. ^ Piette, André; Derouaux, Adeline; Gerkens, Pascal; Noens, Elke E. E.; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Vion, Sébastien; Koerten, Henk K.; Titgemeyer, Fritz; De Pauw, Edwin; Leprince, Pierre; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Galleni, Moreno; Rigali, Sébastien (2005). "From Dormant to Germinating Spores of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2):  New Perspectives from the crp Null Mutant". Journal of Proteome Research. 4 (5): 1699–1708. doi:10.1021/pr050155b. PMID 16212423.
  12. ^ Quaglino, Daniela; Boraldi, Federica; Bini, Luca; Volpi, Nicola (April 2004). "The Protein Profile of Fibroblasts: The Role of Proteomics". Current Proteomics. 1 (2): 167. doi:10.2174/1570164043379424.
  13. ^ Hjernø, K.; Alm, R.; Canbäck, B. R.; Matthiesen, R.; Trajkovski, K.; Björk, L.; Roepstorff, P.; Emanuelsson, C. (2006). "Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant". Proteomics. 6 (5): 1574–1587. doi:10.1002/pmic.200500469. PMID 16447153.
  14. ^ Gerber, Isak B.; Laukens, Kris; Witters, Erwin; Dubery, Ian A. (2006). "Lipopolysaccharide-responsive phosphoproteins in Nicotiana tabacum cells". Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 44 (5–6): 369–379. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2006.06.015. PMID 16889970.
  15. ^ Chevallet, M.; Diemer, H. L. N.; Luche, S.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Rabilloud, T.; Leize-Wagner, E. (2006). "Improved mass spectrometry compatibility is afforded by ammoniacal silver staining". Proteomics. 6 (8): 2350–2354. arXiv:q-bio/0611083. doi:10.1002/pmic.200500567. PMC 2797540. PMID 16548061.
  16. ^ Lamanda, Andreas; Cheaib, Zeinab; Turgut, Melek Dilek; Lussi, Adrian (2007). Imhof, Axel, ed. "Protein Buffering in Model Systems and in Whole Human Saliva". PLoS ONE. 2 (2): e263. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..263L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000263. PMC 1803027. PMID 17327922. open access publication – free to read
  17. ^ http://www.chemie.uni-freiburg.de/orgbio/w3bann/index.html
  18. ^ Bannwarth, W.; Schmidt, D.; Stallard, R. L.; Hornung, C.; Knorr, R.; Müller, F. (December 1988). "Bathophenanthroline-ruthenium(II) complexes as non-radioactive labels for oligonucleotides which can be measured by time-resolved fluorescence techniques". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 71 (8): 2085. doi:10.1002/hlca.19880710826.
  19. ^ Rabilloud, T.; Strub, J. M.; Luche, S.; Dorsselaer, A.; Lunardi, J. L. (2001). "A comparison between Sypro Ruby and ruthenium II tris (bathophenanthroline disulfonate) as fluorescent stains for protein detection in gels" (PDF). Proteomics. 1 (5): 699–704. doi:10.1002/1615-9861(200104)1:5<699::AID-PROT699>3.0.CO;2-C. PMID 11678039. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-04-01.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-05-29. Retrieved 2007-04-26.
  21. ^ Lamanda, A.; Zahn, A.; Röder, D.; Langen, H. (March 2004). "Improved Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate) staining and destaining protocol for a better signal-to-background ratio and improved baseline resolution". Proteomics. 4 (3): 599–608. doi:10.1002/pmic.200300587. PMID 14997483.

External links[edit]

More information about ruthenium(II) tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate) staining can be found on [1]