Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome

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Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome
Autosomal dominant - en.svg
Autosomal dominant
Classification and external resources
OMIM 153480
DiseasesDB 31337
MeSH D006223

Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is a rare overgrowth syndrome and hamartomatous disorder with occurrence of multiple subcutaneous lipomas, macrocephaly and hemangiomas.The disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant form.[1] The disease belongs to a family of hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, which also includes Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis and Cowden syndrome. Mutation of the PTEN gene underlies this syndrome, as well as Cowden syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Proteus-like syndrome, these four syndromes are referred to as PTEN Hamartoma-Tumor Syndromes (PHTS).[2]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome is entails an enlarged head, and benign mesodermal hamartomas ( multiple hemangiomas, and intestinal polyps). Dysmorphy as well as delayed neuropsychomotor development can also be present.[3][2]The head enlargement does not cause widening of the ventricles or raised intracranial pressure; these individuals have a higher risk of developing tumors, as the gene involved in BRRs is phosphatase and tensin homologue.[medical citation needed]

Some individuals have thyroid issues consistent with multinodular goiter, thyroid adenoma, differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer, most lesions are slowly growing. Visceral as well as intracranial involvement may occur in some cases, and can cause bleeding and symptomatic mechanical compression[4][5]

Genetics[edit]

PTEN

The genetics of Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome is determined, in the majority of cases, via the PTEN gene which offers about 30 mutations in this condition. This gene which regulates cell growth, when not working properly can lead to hamartomas. PTEN chromosomal location is 10q23.31, while the molecular location is 87,863,438 to 87,971,930 [6][5] There are many syndromes that are linked to PTEN aside from Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba Syndrome.[7]

The syndrome combines Bannayan–Zonana syndrome, Riley–Smith syndrome, and Ruvalcaba–Myhre–Smith syndrome.[8]Bannayan–Zonana syndrome is named for George A. Bannayan and Jonathan Zonana[9]

Diagnosis[edit]

In terms of diagnosing Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome there is no current method outside the physical characteristics that may be present as sings/symptoms. [10]There are multiple molecular genetics tests(and cytogenetic test) to determine Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome.[11]

Differential diagnosis[edit]

The differential diagnosis for BRRS consists of the following:[12]

Treatment[edit]

Kidney

In terms of treatment/management one should observe what signs or symptoms are present and therefore treat those as there is no other current guideline. The affected individual should be monitored for cancer of:[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reference, Genetics Home. "Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Eng, Charis (1 January 1993). "PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome". GeneReviews(®). University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved 9 December 2016. update 2016
  3. ^ Disorders, ed. by the National Organization for Rare (2003). NORD guide to rare disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 240. ISBN 9780781730631. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  4. ^ Hobert, Judith A; Eng, Charis (6 August 2009). "PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome: An overview". Genetics in Medicine. 11 (10): 687–694. doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181ac9aea. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "OMIM Entry - # 153480 - BANNAYAN-RILEY-RUVALCABA SYNDROME; BRRS". www.omim.org. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  6. ^ Reference, Genetics Home. "PTEN gene". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  7. ^ Edmondson, Andrew C.; Kalish, Jennifer M. (9 December 2016). "Overgrowth Syndromes". Journal of Pediatric Genetics. 4 (3): 136–143. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1564440. ISSN 2146-4596. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  8. ^ Hannigan, Steve, ed. (2007). Inherited Metabolic Diseases: A Guide to 100 Conditions. Radcliffe Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 1-84619-099-1. 
  9. ^ Bannayan, G. A. (1 July 1971). "Lipomatosis, angiomatosis, and macrencephalia. A previously undescribed congenital syndrome". Archives of Pathology. 92 (1): 1–5. ISSN 0363-0153. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  10. ^ a b "Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center(GARD) – an NCATS Program". rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  11. ^ "Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome - Conditions - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  12. ^ RESERVED, INSERM US14 -- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Bannayan Riley Ruvalcaba syndrome". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 

Further reading[edit]