Ryzen

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AMD Ryzen
AMD ryzen stylized.svg
Produced From February 2017 to present
Marketed by AMD
Designed by AMD
Common manufacturer(s)
Max. CPU clock rate 3.0 GHz to 4.35 GHz
Min. feature size 14 nm to 12 nm
Instruction set AMD64/x86-64, MMX(+), SSE1, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4a, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, CVT16/F16C, ABM, BMI1, BMI2, SHA
Microarchitecture Zen
Zen+
Cores Up to 16 cores/32 threads
Transistors 4.8 billion (8 cores)[1]
Socket(s)
Predecessor FX
Product code name(s)
  • Summit Ridge (Desktop)
  • Whitehaven (HEDT)
  • Raven Ridge (APU)
  • Pinnacle Ridge (Desktop)

Ryzen (/ˈrzən/ RY-zən)[2] is a brand[3] of central processing units (CPUs) and accelerated processing units (APUs) marketed and designed by AMD (Advanced Micro Devices).

The brand was introduced in 2017 with products implementing the Zen microarchitecture for the CPU, and the first Ryzen-branded products were officially announced during AMD's New Horizon summit on December 13, 2016.[4] The second generation of Ryzen CPUs feature the Zen+ microarchitecture, built with 12nm process technology and were released on April 19, 2018.[5]

Product lineup[edit]

Zen microarchitecture[edit]

History[edit]

In the five years before the release of Ryzen, AMD's direct competitor in the x86-64 consumer-level CPU marketspace, Intel, had continued to grow its market share with the tick-tock cycle of their Intel Core series of chips.[6] Since the release of the Bulldozer microarchitecture in 2011 AMD had fallen behind Intel significantly in both single-core and multi-core CPU performance benchmarks.[citation needed] While AMD had completed a die shrink and revision of the Bulldozer architecture, performance and sales had fallen significantly against competing Intel products.[citation needed] Ryzen is the first consumer-level implementation of the new Zen microarchitecture.[citation needed] Ryzen CPUs offered stronger multi-threaded performance and weaker single-threaded performance relative to comparable Intel CPUs.[citation needed] The Ryzen CPUs returned AMD to the high-end desktop CPU market, offering performance able to compete with Intel's Core i7 series of CPUs.[7] AMD's high-performance x86-core Zen architecture delivers >52% improvement in instructions-per-clock cycle over the previous generation AMD core, without increasing power consumption.[8] Since the release of Ryzen CPUs, AMD's CPU market share has increased.[6]

CPUs: Summit Ridge / Whitehaven[edit]

  • Socket AM4 or Socket TR4 for Threadripper.[9][10]
  • Memory support DDR4-2666 ×2 Single Rank, DDR4-2400 ×2 Dual Rank, DDR4-2133 ×4 Single Rank, or DDR4-1866 ×4 Dual Rank. (With compatible DIMM quantities doubled on Threadripper due to its dual IMCs, and thus quad-channel memory support).[9][11]
  • Instructions Sets: x87, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL, AVX, AVX2, FMA3, CVT16/F16C, ABM, BMI1, BMI2, SHA.[12]
  • Transistors: 4.8 billion per 8-core "Zeppelin" die[1]
  • Die size: 192 mm2[13]
  • Stepping: B1[14]
  • Ryzen CPUs feature unlocked multipliers across the board for overclocking. All Ryzen products also support temperature based auto-overclocking, dubbed "XFR" (eXtended Frequency Range); with "X" branded Ryzen products having twice the potential amount of XFR boost as non-"X" models (100MHz vs 50MHz).[15] This is despite the fact that AMD doesn't list the latter as supporting XFR at all. Also of note, is that these values are doubled on Threadripper; with "X" models having 200MHz, rather than the usual 100MHz of XFR boost.[16]
  • AMD officially revealed their codename "Summit Ridge" Ryzen CPUs on February 22, 2017.[17] "Whitehaven" is planned to be a large, LGA 'S3' socket, HEDT (high-end desktop) variant with 16 cores and 32 threads.[18]
  • Ryzen is launching in conjunction with a line of stock coolers, the "Wraith Spire", "Wraith Stealth" and "Wraith Max". This line succeeds the original "Wraith" cooler, which was positively received when released in mid-2016.[19] The "Wraith Stealth" and "Wraith Spire" are included with certain Ryzen CPUs; the "Stealth" is a low-profile unit meant for the lower-end CPUs and is rated for a TDP of 65W, whereas the "Spire" is the mainstream cooler with a TDP rating of 95W and modest headroom for overclocking, along with optional RGB lighting on certain models. The "Wraith Max" is a larger, aftermarket unit intended to handle more intensive overclocks than the "Spire".
  • AMD's SenseMI Technology, which uses AMD Infinity Control Fabric to offer the following features:[9][20][21]
    • AMD Pure Power reduces the entire ramp of processor voltage and clock speed, for light loads.
    • AMD Precision Boost increases the processor voltage and clock speed by 100–200 MHz if three or more cores are active (five or more, in the case of Threadripper, and by 300 MHz); and significantly further when less than three are active (less than five, in the case of Threadripper).[22][23]
    • AMD XFR ("eXtended Frequency Range") increases the processor voltage and clock speed beyond the maximum Precision Boost, when sufficient cooling is available (described in detail above).[24]
    • Neural Net Prediction and Smart Prefetch use AI inside the processor to optimize instruction workflow and cache management.
Target
segment
Processor
branding & model
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] TDP Socket Memory
support
PCIe Lanes[b] Release
date
Release
price (USD)
Base Precision Boost 3+
(5+ TR)
Precision Boost 1–2
(1–4 TR)
XFR L2 L3
Entry-level Ryzen 3 1300X[27][28] 4 (4)[29] 3.5 TBA 3.7 3.9[30] 512 KB
per core
8 MB 65 W [29] AM4 DDR4-2666
Dual-channel
24 Jul 27, 2017 $129
Pro 1300[31][32] TBA Jun 29, 2017 TBA
1200[27][28][33] 3.1 TBA 3.4 3.45[30] Jul 27, 2017 $109
Pro 1200[31][32] TBA Jun 29, 2017 TBA
Mainstream Ryzen 5 1600X 6 (12) 3.6 3.7 4.0 4.1 512 KB
per core
16 MB 95 W AM4 DDR4-2666
Dual-channel
24 Apr 11, 2017 $249
1600 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.7 65 W $219
Pro 1600[31][32] Jun 29, 2017 TBA
1500X 4 (8) 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.9 Apr 11, 2017 $189
Pro 1500[31][32] Jun 29, 2017 TBA
1400 3.2 TBA 3.4 3.45 8 MB Apr 11, 2017 $169
Performance Ryzen 7 1800X 8 (16) 3.6 3.7 4.0 4.1 512 KB
per core
16 MB 95 W AM4 DDR4-2666
Dual-channel
24[34] Mar 2, 2017 $499
1700X 3.4 3.5 3.8[35] 3.9 $399
Pro 1700X[31][32] Jun 29, 2017 TBA
1700 3.0 3.2 3.7 3.75 65 W Mar 2, 2017 $329
Pro 1700[31][32] Jun 29, 2017 TBA
High-end (HEDT) Ryzen
Threadripper [36][37]
1950X[38][39] 16 (32) 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.2 512 KB
per core [39][40][41]
32 MB [39][40][41] 180 W TR4[42] DDR4-2666
Quad-channel[42][43]
64[44] Aug 10, 2017[45][46] $999
1920X[38][39] 12 (24) 3.5 3.7[47] $799
1900X[39][45][46] 8 (16)[46] 3.8[46] 3.9[48][49] 16 MB[39] Aug 31, 2017[46] $549
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[25]
  2. ^ PCIe lane count includes 4 lanes used for connectivity to the chipset.[26]

APUs: Raven Ridge[edit]

AMD's CEO, Lisa Su, confirmed during a March 2017 Reddit AMA on /r/AMD that Zen-based APUs would also be branded Ryzen.[50] Traditionally, AMD's APUs were branded separately from their CPUs. The branding was later clarified as Ryzen Mobile and AMD stated the products would have higher CPU and GPU performance, and lower power, than the previous generation of APUs.[51]

In May 2017, AMD demonstrated a Ryzen Mobile APU with four Zen CPU cores and Vega based GPU [52], the first Ryzen Mobile APUs were officially released in October 2017.[53] It is the first chip by AMD which features the Video Core Next ASIC.

Mobile[edit]
Model CPU GPU Memory support TDP Release
date
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] Model Config[b]
(cores)
Clock Processing power (GFLOPS)[c]
Base Boost XFR L2 L3
Ryzen 3 2200U[55] 2 (4) 2.5 3.4 Unknown 1 MB 4 MB Vega 3 192:12:4
(3)[56]
1100 MHz 422.4 DDR4-2400 (Dual channel) 12–25 W (configurable) 8 January 2018
Ryzen 3 2300U[57] 4 (4) 2.0 3.4 Unknown 2 MB 4 MB Vega 6 384:24:8
(6)[58]
1100 MHz 844.8 8 January 2018
Ryzen 3 Pro 2300U[59] Unknown Q2 2018 [53]
Ryzen 5 2500U[60] 4 (8) 2.0 3.6 Unknown 2 MB 4 MB Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)[61]
1100 MHz 1126.4 26 October 2017[60]
Ryzen 5 Pro 2500U[62] Unknown Q2 2018 [53]
Ryzen 7 2700U[63] 4 (8) 2.2 3.8 Unknown 2 MB 4 MB RX Vega 10 640:40:16
(10)[64]
1300 MHz 1664 26 October 2017[63]
Ryzen 7 Pro 2700U[65] Unknown Q2 2018 [53]
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[25]
  2. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  3. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
Desktop[edit]

In January 2018, AMD also announced two desktop processors with an integrated Vega GPU under the Raven Ridge codename, which were released in February.[66]

Model CPU GPU Memory
support
TDP Release
date
Release
price
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] Model Config[b]
(cores)
Clock Processing power (GFLOPS)[c]
Base Boost XFR L2 L3
Ryzen 3 2200GE[67][68] 4 (4) 3.2 3.6 Unknown 2 MB 4 MB RX Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)
1100 MHz 1126 DDR4-2933 (Dual channel)[69][70] 35 W 19 April 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 3 Pro 2200GE[71] 10 May 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 3 2200G[70][72] 3.5 3.7 Unknown 45–65 W (configurable) 12 February 2018[73] $99
Ryzen 3 Pro 2200G[74] 10 May 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 5 2400GE[75][68] 4 (8) 3.2 3.8 Unknown 2 MB 4 MB RX Vega 11 704:44:16
(11)[76]
1250 MHz 1760 35 W 19 April 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 5 Pro 2400GE[77] 10 May 2018 Unknown
Ryzen 5 2400G[69][72] 3.6 3.9 Unknown 45–65 W (configurable) 12 February 2018[73][78] $169
Ryzen 5 Pro 2400G[79] 10 May 2018 Unknown
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[25]
  2. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  3. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.


Embedded[edit]

In February 2018, AMD also announced the V1000 series of embedded Zen+Vega APUs with four SKUs.[80]

Model CPU GPU Memory
support
TDP Release
date
Release
price
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] Model Config[b]
(cores)
Clock Processing power (GFLOPS)[c]
Base Boost XFR L2 L3
V1202B 2 (4) 2.3 3.2 Unknown 1 MB Unknown RX Vega 3 192:12:16
(3)
1000 MHz 384 DDR4-2400 (Dual channel) 12-25 W Unknown Unknown
V1605B 4 (8) 2.0 3.6 Unknown 2 MB RX Vega 8 512:32:16
(8)
1100 MHz 1126.4 Unknown Unknown
V1756B 3.25 Unknown Unknown 1300 MHz 1331.2 DDR4-3200 (Dual channel) 35-54 W Unknown Unknown
V1807B 3.35 3.8 Unknown RX Vega 11 704:44:16
(11)
1830.4 Unknown Unknown
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[25]
  2. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  3. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.

Zen+ microarchitecture[edit]

CPUs: Pinnacle Ridge[edit]

The first Ryzen 2000 series of products based on the Zen+ microarchitecture, code named Pinnacle Ridge, were announced for preorder on April 13, 2018[81] and launched six days later.

Target
segment
Processor
Branding & Model
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache[a] TDP Socket Memory
support
PCIe Lanes[b] Release
date
Release
price (USD)
Base PB2 XFR L2 L3
Mainstream Ryzen 5 2600[83][84] 6 (12) 3.4 3.9 TBA 512 kB per core 16 MB 65 W AM4 DDR4-2933
Dual Channel
24 April 19, 2018 $199
2600X[83][84] 3.6 4.2 TBA 95 W $229
Performance Ryzen 7 2700[83][84] 8 (16) 3.2 4.1 TBA 65 W $299
2700X[83][84] 3.7 4.3 TBA 105 W $329
  1. ^ AMD defines 1 kilobyte (KB) as 1024 bytes, and 1 megabyte (MB) as 1024 kilobytes.[25]
  2. ^ PCIe lane count includes 4 lanes used for connectivity to the chipset.[82]

Compatibility[edit]

Although AMD "verified" the ability for computers with Ryzen processors to boot Windows 7 and Windows 10, Microsoft officially supports Ryzen only on computers running Windows 10 per support policies. Windows Update blocks updates from being installed on Ryzen systems running versions older than Windows 10 – although that restriction can be avoided either by not installing its respective update, or be bypassed entirely with an unofficial patch.[85] And while AMD initially stated they would only provide Ryzen chipset drivers for Windows 10,[86] AMD's Ryzen / Threadripper chipset driver package does list and include official drivers for Windows 7.[87] Ryzen processors are compatible with Linux; the full performance of Ryzen is enabled in kernel version 4.10 or newer.[88]

It should also be noted that while the X370 platform is touted to support Windows 7, there are a number of caveats. For example, older copies of the Windows 7 installation DVD has to be slipstreamed with a hotfix to enable support NVMe storage devices if the user wishes to install Windows onto an NVMe SSD[89], and if installing from a USB thumb drive, the installation media also requires slipstreaming AMD's USB3.0 drivers into the boot image as well as the Ryzen USB3.0 chipset is not compatible with the Windows standard EHCI driver[90].

Initial reception[edit]

The first Ryzen 7 1700, 1700X, and 1800X processors debuted in early March 2017 and were generally well received by hardware reviewers.[91][92][93] Ryzen was the first brand new architecture from AMD in five years, and without very much initial fine-tuning or optimization, it ran generally well for reviewers.[94] Initial Ryzen chips ran well with software and games already on the market, performing exceptionally well in workstation scenarios, and well in most gaming scenarios. Compared to Piledriver-powered FX chips, Zen-powered Ryzen chips ran cooler, much faster, and used less power. IPC uplift was eventually gauged to be 52% higher than Excavator, which was two full generations ahead of the architecture still being used in AMD's FX-series desktop predecessors like the FX-8350 and FX-8370.[1] Power consumption and heat were found to be highly competitive with Intel, and the included Wraith coolers were generally competitive with higher-priced aftermarket solutions.

Ryzen's multi-threaded performance, in some cases while using Blender or other open-source software, was around four times the performance of the FX-8370.[95] One reviewer found that Ryzen chips would typically outperform competing Intel i7 processors for a fraction of the price when all eight cores were utilized.[95]

One complaint among a subset of reviewers, however, was that Ryzen processors fell behind their Intel counterparts when running older games, or running certain newer games at mainstream resolutions such as 720p or 1080p.[96] AMD acknowledged the gaming performance deficit at low resolutions during a Reddit "Ask Me Anything Q & A thread", where they explained that updates and patches were being developed.[97] Subsequent updates to Ashes of the Singularity: Escalation and Rise of the Tomb Raider increased frame rates 17–31% on Ryzen systems.[98][99] id Software announced in April 2017 it would optimize its future games to make use of the greater parallelism available on Ryzen CPUs.[100]

It has been suggested that low core utilization resulted in Ryzen processors being underutilized, therefore reflecting lower than expected scores, especially when coupled with the fact that Zen's slightly lower IPC relies on full core utilization.[101][102][103] However, AMD and others have argued thread scheduling is not the fundamental issue to Windows 10 performance.[104][105] There were also issues with AM4 motherboards and their BIOS, which was resulting in many Ryzen chips being underclocked, partially shut off, or generally hindered by BIOS bugs.[citation needed]

Known issues[edit]

Ryzen faced hard system locks when an application executes certain sequences of FMA3 instructions.[106] AMD stated in mid-March 2017 that the issue would be fixed via new microcode included in UEFI updates from motherboard manufacturers.[citation needed]

Some early Ryzen processors produce segmentation faults on certain workloads on Linux, especially while compiling code with GCC.[107] AMD offered to replace the affected processors with newer ones that are not affected by the problem.[108]

Ryzenfall[edit]

In early 2018, an Israeli firm called CTS Labs claimed to have discovered several flaws in the Ryzen components ecosystem: Ryzenfall, which affects the Ryzen desktop CPUs; Fallout, which affects the Epyc CPUs; Masterkey, which affects both CPU classes; and Chimera, which affects the ASMedia-designed USB 3.1 silicon found in the Ryzen desktop SoCs.[109] The unusual behavior of the security firm, disclosing the vulnerabilities without giving AMD time to react, has raised concerns and questions regarding the legitimacy of the exploits.[citation needed]

Further questions were raised when independent investigators dug into the history of the company and analyzed the video they have uploaded to the web.[110] Ultimately, investigators uncovered an article by Viceroy Research condemning AMD on the exploit and noted how the article was published less than half an hour after the exploits were revealed. Given the polish of the article which appears to be written many days in advance, and wording of the article which suggests that it is financially motivated, many were quick to accuse the exploit as a smear campaign engineered by Viceroy to short-sell AMD's stocks.[111]

Additionally, some theorized that the exploit is part of a smear campaign by rival Intel,[112] although no solid proof has been presented for the argument and Intel itself has released a press release stating that it had no involvement in the affair.

AMD had since announced that while the exploits are real, they are severely overplayed as physical access to the server is required to exploit the flaws. AMD has also announced that the flaws can be fixed via microcode updates.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]