São Joaquim

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São Joaquim
Municipality
Municipality of São Joaquim
Blizzard of the 1988
Blizzard of the 1988
Flag of São Joaquim
Flag
Official seal of São Joaquim
Seal
Location of São Joaquim
Location of São Joaquim
Coordinates: 28°17′38″S 49°55′55″W / 28.29389°S 49.93194°W / -28.29389; -49.93194Coordinates: 28°17′38″S 49°55′55″W / 28.29389°S 49.93194°W / -28.29389; -49.93194
CountryBrazil
RegionSouth
StateSanta Catarina
FoundedApril 7, 1887
Government
 • MayorGiovani Nunes (PSDB)
Area
 • Total1,885.608 km2 (728.037 sq mi)
Elevation1,360 m (4,460 ft)
Population (2016)
 • Total26,447
 • Density14/km2 (36/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-2 (UTC-2)
HDI (2000)0.865 – high
WebsiteCity Hall Website

São Joaquim is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina, situated in southern Brazil. It is located at latitude 28° 17' 38" south and longitude 49° 55' 54" west, with an altitude of 1,360 meters (4,460 ft). Its population in 2004 was 23,114 inhabitants. Located in the Planalto Serrano, it is located 136 km (85 miles) from Tubarão, 81 km (50 miles) from Lages and 227 km (141 miles) from Florianópolis. The town is home to a variety of ethnic groups, including Italian, Portuguese, Japanese and Afro- Brazilians, though composed mainly of descendants of German and Swedish immigrants.[citation needed] There is also a large proportation of the population from other states in Brazil, especially from Rio Grande do Sul.

Economy[edit]

The town's economy was once based on livestock, but recently the cultivation of temperate fruits such as apples has become more prominent. Today, São Joaquim is the largest producer of fruit in the state, with over 1000 small producers. Tourism is also important for the town, as it is one of the coldest places in Brazil and sometimes receives snowfall, a rather uncommon occurrence for the majority of Brazil (although refreezed snow, that by itself is not present in most of Brazil, seldom happens in many tropical areas as it does in about half of Southeastern Brazil). The town is also known for its wines, such as Villa Francioni, Joaquim, Quinta da Neve, Núbio and Suzin, which are reaching international recognition, especially in East Asia.

Geography[edit]

Situated 1360 meters above sea level, São Joaquim (located at a latitude of 28°17'38" south and at a length of 49°55'54" west[2]) is one of the highest cities in the country, as altitude of the seat of the municipality. Its year-round mild climate and cold winter to Brazilian standards (but not strict to certain temperate species) allows apple cultivation as in other similar climate areas. Being promoted the National Festival of Apple, fruit that does not adapt easily in most regions of Brazil.[3] EPAGRI, the state's agricultural agency, has an Experimental Station where the cultivation of Fuji brought by Fumio Hiragami brought from Curitibanos is perfected in this place. The plants come from Japan.[4]

Its population was of 24,812 inhabitants in the census of 2010.[5] The municipality has an area of 1,892.26 km².[6] It is part of the microregion of Campos de Lages[7], in the mesoregion of Serrana of Santa Catarina.[8] But since mid-2017 it is in the immediate region of Lages.[9]

Climate[edit]

City hall sign indicating an absolute (unofficial) minimum temperature of 6.8 °F (-14 °C)

Due the altitude above 3280 ft (1000 m) and a few degrees below the tropics, the climate of the city is subtropical of the highland modified for precipitation sufficiently moist in every month, more abundant throughout the year (Koppen: Cfb instead of Cwb as in Campos do Jordão), with cool summers and low temperatures in winter, but not so below freezing point. Winter precipitations can occur at crucial times in the seasonbut tend not to be plentiful and cumulative, except in few occasions. Sometimes it can be compared to the true moderate oceanic climate as the south west England different from the "Cfb" climates found in lower portions and to the north that is confused with the subtropical. In a difference of 22 parallels the city of Plymouth, UK has a very similar climate, although the precipitation is less concentrated (rainy days) and in a smaller amount, the famous British "drizzle".[10] Together with Urupema and Bom Jardim da Serra, SC and São José dos Ausentes, RS. São Joaquim is considered the coldest city in Brazil (loses to Urupema and Bom Jardim in absolute minimums). During the winter months, frost is common - every month they are subject to the phenomenon, being more common from March to November.[citation needed] Frost can occur even in midsummer[11] and are 40,8 days on average per year where the freezing of soil and plants occurs between the years of 1980 and 2003 registered by the meteorological station in the place.[12]

Occasionally, in the days of more intense cold, precipitations occur in the form of snow, being one of the few Brazilian cities that receives snow almost every year, a rare phenomenon in the average cities of the south of the country. However, it does not appear many times a year, with an average of 5 to 7 days in the region in normal winters, and is rarely intense, since the latitude of the city is relatively low to provide more abundant and more frequent snowfall precipitations. In the 1990 and 2013 winters 12 days of snow were recorded in the region, with a large accumulation in a few days. The snow was already registered from April to October, with the earliest occurring on April 16 and 17, 1999, and the later on October 3 of the same year, in the Cruzeiro district (in the city on September 30, 1980). The most favorable period is in July and August.[citation needed]

São Joaquim covered with snow in 1968, 11 years after the state's biggest blizzard

According to data from the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), from 1961 to 1983, 1988 to 1989, 1992 to 1998 and from 2000 to 2017, the lowest temperature recorded in São Joaquim (conventional station) was 15.8 °F (-9 °C) in July 14, 2000.[13] Since 1961 there have been 10 times where the minimum temperatures reached 19.4 °F (-7 °C) or less. For the same period until October 10, 2018 were 435 times when the temperature was at 30.2 °F (-1 °C) or less below zero at 57 years.[14] The highest reached 88.5 °F (31.4 °C) on December 20, 1971.[15] Temperature records above 86 °F (30 °C) also occurred on December 19, 1971 (87.8 °F or 31 °C), January 4, 1963 (87.1 °F or 30.6 °C), January 6, 1963 (86.7 °F or 30.4 °C), February 1973 (86.2 °F or 30.1 °C) and 17 December 1995 (86 °F or 30 °C). [15] All in just 4 occasions the temperature has surpassed 86 °F (30 °C) since 1961, which is rare for a city in the 28th parallel or even for elevation.[16] On July 13, 2000, the temperature did not exceed 28.4 °F (-2 °C), which was the lowest recorded in the period.[15]

The largest accumulated precipitation in 24 hours was 4.889 in (124.2 mm) on July 6, 1983. Other large accumulations were 4.846 in (123.1 mm) on August 17, 1983, 4.843 in (123 mm) on July 4, 1993, 4.415 in (112 mm) on October 1, 2001, 4.394 in (111.6 mm) on August 9, 2011, 4.386 in (111.4 mm) on September 19, 2015, 4.303 in (109.3 mm) on November 6, 1974, 4.282 in (108.8 mm_ on August 19, 1965, 4.232 in (107.5 mm) on September 28, 2009, 4.154 in (105.5 mm) on February 21, 1994, 4.004 in (101.7 mm) on May 28, 1992 and 3.992 in (101.4 mm) on February 22, 1961.[17] The month of greatest precipitation was July 1983, with 28.992 in (736.4 mm).[18] The lowest relative air humidity was on August 30, 1976 with 19.5%. With a value below 20% there was another occasion on June 12, 1996 with 19.75% relative humidity, which is confused with the driest season of the year.[19]

The highest accumulated precipitation in 24 hours recorded in São Joaquim (INMET) for months[17]
Month Accumulated Date Month Accumulated Data
January 3.406 in (86.5 mm) 01/01/1979 July 4.889 in (124.2 mm) 07/06/1983
February 4.154 in (105.5 mm) 02/21/1994 August 4.846 in (123.1 mm) 08/17/1983
March 3.020 in (76.7 mm) 03/25/1964 September 4.386 in (111.4 mm) 09/19/2015
April 3.295 in (83.7 mm) 04/28/1998 October 4.480 in (113.8 mm) 10/14/2014
May 4.480 in (101.7 mm) 05/28/1992 November 4.303 in (109.3 mm) 11/06/1974
June 3.244 in (82.4 mm) 06/25/2014 December 2.803 in (71.2 mm) 12/01/1976
Period: 01/01/1961 a 12/31/1983, 01/01/1988 a 12/31/1989, 01/01/1992 a 12/31/1998 e 01/01/2000 a 05/31/2017

Snow and features[edit]

In a country free from freezing, even in the south, except for the frosts, São Joaquim is one of the few Brazilian cities where you can observe snow guaranteed in at least in the most of the years, in quantity and variable frequency. For this reason the city is tourist attraction for the majority of Brazilians who will never come snow or who only saw in childhood. In the elevated portion it is an urban area with the highest number of snowy days, despite its power in relation to the higher rural areas.[20] On July 20, 1957 the city was taken by which it was the second largest blizzard in the country and the largest in Santa Catarina with 1.3 m of accumulated snow, unthinkable for a country of the tropical imaginary. The city was isolated for a week that received supplies by air.[21] It was 7 uninterrupted hours of snow, but it continued in the days following before it stopped the highways.[22]

Studies show the increase of the precipitation frequency with the warm phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and its decrease during the El Niño and La Ninã episodes. The average is 2.7 days per year in São Joaquim (value close to that of Greenville in the South Carolina) with the majority coming from polar anticyclones with an extratropical cyclone.[23] The maximum gap in the monthly range of snowfall was between April and September, ie between the fall and the first weeks of spring, considering the years 1980 to 2013. In the same interval the year with the most frequency was in 1990, at the same time that there were years without any occurrence. In descending order July and August are the snowiest months, period most affected by cold air masses.[24] Between 1980 and 2010, the city had 103 cases of snow, if the distribution were even, this would mean that in each year there were at least 3 days with this type of precipitation. In 36% of the cases, there is a causal relationship with the arrival of cold waves.[25] A few years ago they never received snow like 1971, 1986 and 2005.[20] Although other sources consider that flakes fall in the last year quoted previously and mark 1991 with no snowy day.[25]

Climate data for São Joaquim (Bandeira), elevation: 1415 m or 4642.4 ft, 1961–1990[a] and 1981-2010 normals[b], extremes 1961-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
30.1
(86.2)
28.0
(82.4)
26.9
(80.4)
25.2
(77.4)
22.8
(73)
24.1
(75.4)
27.7
(81.9)
28.4
(83.1)
28.9
(84)
28.1
(82.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
Average high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.5
(70.7)
19.1
(66.4)
15.8
(60.4)
14.7
(58.5)
14.5
(58.1)
16.7
(62.1)
16.6
(61.9)
18.9
(66)
20.5
(68.9)
22.2
(72)
18.8
(65.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
16.1
(61)
13.8
(56.8)
10.9
(51.6)
10.0
(50)
9.5
(49.1)
11.1
(52)
11.2
(52.2)
13.5
(56.3)
14.9
(58.8)
16.4
(61.5)
13.5
(56.3)
Average low °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
13.6
(56.5)
12.7
(54.9)
10.4
(50.7)
7.6
(45.7)
6.8
(44.2)
6.0
(42.8)
7.1
(44.8)
7.2
(45)
9.6
(49.3)
10.8
(51.4)
12.3
(54.1)
9.8
(49.6)
Record low °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.2
(39.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−7.2
(19)
−9.0
(15.8)
−8.2
(17.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−9.0
(15.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 185.7
(7.311)
182.6
(7.189)
126.1
(4.965)
106.7
(4.201)
144.0
(5.669)
127.2
(5.008)
199.8
(7.866)
143.2
(5.638)
186.1
(7.327)
182.5
(7.185)
166.5
(6.555)
137.1
(5.398)
1,887.5
(74.311)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm (0.04 in)) 14 14 12 10 8 10 10 8 11 12 12 12 133
Average snowy days (≥ 0.25 cm (0.1 in)) 0 0 0 trace 0.4 0.4 1.0 0.7 0.2 0 0 0 2.7
Average relative humidity (%) 85.5 86.5 85.9 84.8 84.5 81.9 79.9 74.9 80.6 82.8 81.2 81.8 82.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.6 142.7 170.2 158.0 149.7 128.9 151.0 150.2 141.3 148.8 178.4 179.4 1,865.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.9 5.9 7.1 6.6 6.2 5.4 6.3 6.3 5.9 6.2 7.4 7.5 6.5
Source #1: INMET (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunny days[c] and sunshine hours)[26]
Source #2: Schimtz (snowy days)[27]

Open climate chart for this city

Panorama[edit]

Panoramic view of a snowy winter afternoon, on the outskirts of São Joaquim in August 2010

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Snowy days only
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1961-1990 and 1981-2010.
  3. ^ Deduced from the number of sunshine hours. Days of average monthly sun = hours of average monthly sun * n° of days of the month / n° of monthly hours

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "São Joaquim, Santa Catarina - SC. Latitude 28º 17' 38" S. Longitude 49º 55' 54" W. Altitude e Área em Km2 Cidade Localizada na Região Região Sul do Brasil. Coordenadas Geográficas Município Brasileiro São Joaquim". www.geografos.com.br. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  3. ^ "São Joaquim - Santa Catarina - A Cidade mais fria do Brasil - EcoViagem". ecoviagem.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  4. ^ "São Joaquim - Exponeve e a Estação Experimental da Epagri | Meus Roteiros de Viagem". www.meusroteirosdeviagem.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  5. ^ "População total de Santa Catarina por município" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Panorama - São Joaquim". cidades.ibge.gov.br. IBGE. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  7. ^ "MRG - Campos de Lages" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Mesorregião Serrana - Informações sobre as cidades desse grupo de municípios". www.cidade-brasil.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  9. ^ "Regiões Geográficas". www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  10. ^ Office, Met. "Plymouth climate". www.metoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  11. ^ "Geada em pleno verão. Frente fria muda paisagem de SC com registro de 1,4°C - Notícias - Meio Ambiente". Meio Ambiente (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  12. ^ "Climatologia das geadas em Santa Catarina" (PDF).
  13. ^ "Série Histórica INMET- temperatura mínima".
  14. ^ "Série Histórica INMET - temperatura mínima".
  15. ^ a b c "Série histórica INMET - temperatura máxima".
  16. ^ "Série Histórica INMET - temperatura máxima".
  17. ^ a b "Série Histórica INMET - Precipitação diária".
  18. ^ "Série Histórica INMET - Precipitação mensal".
  19. ^ "Série histórica INMET - Umidade relativa".
  20. ^ a b "São Joaquim é a cidade que mais neva no Brasil, diz autor – CLMais | Correio Lageano". clmais.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  21. ^ "Trabalhador rural relembra maior nevasca já registrada em SC, há 60 anos: 'Foi emocionante e lindo'". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  22. ^ "Maior nevasca de SC e 2ª maior do Brasil faz 57 anos neste domingo". Santa Catarina (in Portuguese). 2014-07-20. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  23. ^ "Dinâmica e padrões da precipitação de neve no Brasil" (PDF).
  24. ^ "A CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE AS ONDAS DE FRIO E NEVASCAS EM SÃO JOAQUIM/SC E OS IMPACTOS NA POPULAÇÃO" (PDF).
  25. ^ a b "ONDAS DE FRIO EM SÃO JOAQUIM - SANTA CATARINA - BRASIL: A SAÚDE COMO FATOR DEPENDENTE DA QUALIDADE DE VIDA" (PDF).
  26. ^ "NORMAIS CLIMATOLÓGICAS DO BRASIL 1961-1990" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  27. ^ "A PRECIPITAÇÃO DA NEVE NO BRASIL MERIDIONAL" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Programa de pós-graduação em Geografia - UFRGS. Retrieved October 10, 2018.

External links[edit]