São Joaquim

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São Joaquim
Municipality
Municipality of São Joaquim
Blizzard of 1988
Blizzard of 1988
Flag of São Joaquim
Flag
Official seal of São Joaquim
Seal
Location of São Joaquim
Location of São Joaquim
Coordinates: 28°17′38″S 49°55′55″W / 28.29389°S 49.93194°W / -28.29389; -49.93194Coordinates: 28°17′38″S 49°55′55″W / 28.29389°S 49.93194°W / -28.29389; -49.93194
CountryBrazil
RegionSouth
StateSanta Catarina
FoundedApril 7, 1887
Government
 • MayorGiovani Nunes (PSDB)
Area
 • Total1,885.608 km2 (728.037 sq mi)
Elevation
1,360 m (4,460 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total26,447
 • Density14/km2 (36/sq mi)
 [1]
Time zoneUTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-2 (UTC-2)
HDI (2000)0.865 – high
WebsiteCity Hall Website

São Joaquim is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina, situated in southern Brazil. It is located at latitude 28° 17' 38" south and longitude 49° 55' 54" west, with an altitude of 1,360 meters (4,460 ft). Its population in 2004 was 23,114 inhabitants. Located in the Planalto Serrano, it lies 136 km (85 miles) from Tubarão, 81 km (50 miles) from Lages and 227 km (141 miles) from Florianópolis. The town is home to a variety of ethnic groups, including Italian, Portuguese, Japanese and Afro- Brazilians, though composed mainly of descendants of German and Swedish immigrants.[citation needed] There is also a large proportation of the population from other states in Brazil, especially from Rio Grande do Sul.

Economy[edit]

The town's economy was once based on livestock, but recently the cultivation of temperate fruits such as apples has become more prominent. Today, São Joaquim is the largest producer of fruit in the state, with over 1000 small producers. Tourism is also important for the town, as it is one of the coldest places in Brazil and sometimes receives snowfall, a rather uncommon occurrence for the majority of Brazil (although refreezed snow, that by itself is not present in most of Brazil, seldom happens in many tropical areas as it does in about half of Southeastern Brazil). The town is also known for its wines, such as Villa Francioni, Joaquim, Quinta da Neve, Núbio and Suzin, which are reaching international recognition, especially in East Asia.

Geography[edit]

Situated 1360 meters above sea level, São Joaquim (located at a latitude of 28°17'38" south and at a length of 49°55'54" west[2]) is one of the highest cities in the country, as altitude of the seat of the municipality. Its year-round mild climate and cold winter to Brazilian standards (but not strict to certain temperate species) allows apple cultivation as in other similar climate areas. Being promoted the National Festival of Apple, fruit that does not adapt easily in most regions of Brazil.[3] EPAGRI, the state's agricultural agency, has an Experimental Station where the cultivation of Fuji brought by Fumio Hiragami brought from Curitibanos is perfected in this place. The plants come from Japan.[4]

Its population was of 24,812 inhabitants in the census of 2010.[5] The municipality has an area of 1,892.26 km².[6] It is part of the microregion of Campos de Lages[7], in the mesoregion of Serrana of Santa Catarina.[8] But since mid-2017 it is in the immediate region of Lages.[9]

Climate[edit]

City hall sign indicating an absolute (unofficial) minimum temperature of 6.8 °F (-14 °C)

Due the altitude above 3280 ft (1000 m) and a few degrees below the tropics, the climate of the city is highland subtropical (Koppen: Cfb) modified for precipitation sufficiently moist in every month, more abundant throughout the year (usually more distributed than Campos do Jordão), with cool summers and low temperatures in winter, but not so below freezing point. The average annual temperature is 11.4 ° C to 14.3 ° C. Since the maximum average does not exceed 20 ° C. At the same time, the minimum averages are above 7 ° C. The annual precipitation is high from 1450 mm to 1650 mm and about 135 rainy days.[10] Winter precipitations can occur at crucial times in the seasonbut tend not to be plentiful and cumulative, except in few occasions. Sometimes it can be compared to the true moderate oceanic climate as the south west England different from the "Cfb" climates found in lower portions and to the north that is confused with the subtropical. In a difference of 22 parallels the city of Plymouth, UK has a very similar climate, although the precipitation is less concentrated (rainy days) and in a smaller amount, the famous British "drizzle".[11][12] Together with Urupema, Urubici and Bom Jardim da Serra and São José dos Ausentes, São Joaquim is considered the coldest city in Brazil if the maximum average temperature and the number of cold hours are considered (loses to Urupema and Bom Jardim in absolute minimums).[13][14] During the winter months, frost is common - every month they are subject to the phenomenon, being more common from May to September (in years of La Niña from April to October), although strong masses of polar air may enter as early as April. Outside winter, spring and fall may receive frosts due to the prevailing cold and dry air.[15] Frost can occur even in midsummer[16] and are 40.8 days on average per year where the freezing of soil and plants occurs between the years of 1980 and 2003 registered by the meteorological station in the place.[15]

Occasionally, in the days of more intense cold, precipitations occur in the form of snow, being one of the few Brazilian cities that receives snow almost every year, a rare phenomenon in the average cities of the south of the country. However, it does not appear many times a year, with an average of 5 to 7 days (for being above 1200 m) in the region in normal winters, and is rarely intense (normally the temperature rises with when the precipitation ceases), since the latitude of the city is relatively low to provide more abundant and more frequent snowfall precipitations.[17][18][19] In 1990 there were 12 days of snow, one of the snowiest years of the century.[19][20] The snow was already registered from April to October[19], with the earliest occurring on April 16 and 17, 1999 (was the first snowfall this month, the second was in 2016)[21], and the later on October 3 of the same year, in the Cruzeiro district (in the city on September 30, 1980).[22] August is the most snow-favoring month. Between 1999 and 2010 were 10 days.[23] In general from June to August it can snow.[24]

São Joaquim covered with snow in 1968, 11 years after the state's biggest blizzard

According to data from the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), from 1961 to 1983, 1988 to 1989, 1992 to 1998 and from 2000 to 2017, the lowest temperature recorded in São Joaquim (conventional station) was 15.8 °F (-9 °C) in July 14, 2000.[25] Since 1961 there have been 10 times where the minimum temperatures reached 19.4 °F (-7 °C) or less. For the same period until October 10, 2018 were 435 times when the temperature was at 30.2 °F (-1 °C) or less below zero at 57 years.[26] The highest reached 88.5 °F (31.4 °C) on December 20, 1971.[27] Temperature records above 86 °F (30 °C) also occurred on December 19, 1971 (87.8 °F or 31 °C), January 4, 1963 (87.1 °F or 30.6 °C), January 6, 1963 (86.7 °F or 30.4 °C), February 1973 (86.2 °F or 30.1 °C) and 17 December 1995 (86 °F or 30 °C). [27] All in just 4 occasions the temperature has surpassed 86 °F (30 °C) since 1961, which is rare for a city in the 28th parallel or even for elevation.[28] On July 13, 2000, the temperature did not exceed 28.4 °F (-2 °C), which was the lowest recorded in the period.[27]

Largest accumulations of precipitation at
24 hours registered in São Joaquim
by months (INMET, 1961-present[a])[29]
Month Accumulated Date
January 86.5 mm (3.41 in) January 1, 1979
February 105.5 mm (4.15 in) February 21, 1994
March 76.7 mm (3.02 in) March 25, 1964
April 83.7 mm (3.3 in) April 28, 1998
May 101.7 mm (4.480 in) May 28, 1992
June 82.4 mm (3.24 in) June 25, 2014
July 124.2 mm (4.89 in) July 6, 1983
August 123.1 mm (4.85 in) August 17, 1983
September 111.4 mm (4.39 in) September 19, 2015
October 113.8 mm (4.48 in) October 14, 2014
November 109.3 mm (4.3 in) November 6, 1974
December 71.2 mm (2.8 in) December 1, 1976

The largest accumulated precipitation in 24 hours was 4.889 in (124.2 mm) on July 6, 1983. Other large accumulations were 4.846 in (123.1 mm) on August 17, 1983, 4.843 in (123 mm) on July 4, 1993, 4.415 in (112 mm) on October 1, 2001, 4.394 in (111.6 mm) on August 9, 2011, 4.386 in (111.4 mm) on September 19, 2015, 4.303 in (109.3 mm) on November 6, 1974, 4.282 in (108.8 mm on August 19, 1965, 4.232 in (107.5 mm) on September 28, 2009, 4.154 in (105.5 mm) on February 21, 1994, 4.004 in (101.7 mm) on May 28, 1992 and 3.992 in (101.4 mm) on February 22, 1961.[29] The month of greatest precipitation was July 1983, with 28.992 in (736.4 mm).[30] The lowest relative air humidity was on August 30, 1976 with 19.5%. With a value below 20% there was another occasion on June 12, 1996 with 19.75% relative humidity, which is confused with the driest season of the year.[31]

Snow and features[edit]

In a country without persistent freezing, except for sporadic frosts in the South, São Joaquim is one of the few Brazilian cities where you are likely to observe snow most years. For this reason, the city is a tourist attraction for Brazilians, the majority of whom will never see snow. Located in an elevated area, it is an urban area with the highest number of snowy days, despite its location in relation to other higher rural areas.[32] On July 20, 1957 the city suffered the second largest blizzard in the country, and the largest in Santa Catarina with 1.3 m of accumulated snow, which is uncommon for a mostly tropical country. The city was isolated for a week and received supplies by air.[33] It snowed for 7 uninterrupted hours, and continued sporadically in the days following, temporarily closing the highways.[34]

Studies show the increase of the precipitation frequency with the warm phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and its decrease during the El Niño and La Ninã episodes. The average is 2.7 days per year in São Joaquim (value close to that of Greenville in the South Carolina) with the majority coming from polar anticyclones with an extratropical cyclone.[35] The maximum gap in the monthly range of snowfall was between April and October, ie between the fall and the first weeks of spring, considering the years 1980 to 2013. In the same interval the year with the most frequency was in 1990, at the same time that there were years without any occurrence. In descending order July and August are the snowiest months, period most affected by cold air masses.[36] Between 1980 and 2010, the city had 103 cases of snow, if the distribution were even, this would mean that in each year there were at least 3 days with this type of precipitation. In 36% of the cases, there is a causal relationship with the arrival of cold waves.[37] A few years ago they never received snow like 1971, 1986 and 2005.[32] Although other sources consider that flakes fall in the last year quoted previously and mark 1991 with no snowy day.[37]

Climate data for São Joaquim (Bandeira), elevation: 1415 m or 4642.4 ft, 1961–1990[b] and 1981-2010 normals[c], extremes 1961-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
30.1
(86.2)
28.0
(82.4)
26.9
(80.4)
25.2
(77.4)
22.8
(73.0)
24.1
(75.4)
27.7
(81.9)
28.4
(83.1)
28.9
(84.0)
28.1
(82.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
Average high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.5
(70.7)
19.1
(66.4)
15.8
(60.4)
14.7
(58.5)
14.5
(58.1)
16.7
(62.1)
16.6
(61.9)
18.9
(66.0)
20.5
(68.9)
22.2
(72.0)
18.8
(65.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
16.1
(61.0)
13.8
(56.8)
10.9
(51.6)
10.0
(50.0)
9.5
(49.1)
11.1
(52.0)
11.2
(52.2)
13.5
(56.3)
14.9
(58.8)
16.4
(61.5)
13.5
(56.3)
Average low °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
13.6
(56.5)
12.7
(54.9)
10.4
(50.7)
7.6
(45.7)
6.8
(44.2)
6.0
(42.8)
7.1
(44.8)
7.2
(45.0)
9.6
(49.3)
10.8
(51.4)
12.3
(54.1)
9.8
(49.6)
Record low °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.2
(39.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−7.2
(19.0)
−9.0
(15.8)
−8.2
(17.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−9.0
(15.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 185.7
(7.31)
182.6
(7.19)
126.1
(4.96)
106.7
(4.20)
144.0
(5.67)
127.2
(5.01)
199.8
(7.87)
143.2
(5.64)
186.1
(7.33)
182.5
(7.19)
166.5
(6.56)
137.1
(5.40)
1,887.5
(74.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm (0.04 in)) 14 14 12 10 8 10 10 8 11 12 12 12 133
Average snowy days (≥ 0.25 cm (0.1 in)) 0 0 0 trace 0.4 0.4 1.0 0.7 0.2 0 0 0 2.7
Average relative humidity (%) 85.5 86.5 85.9 84.8 84.5 81.9 79.9 74.9 80.6 82.8 81.2 81.8 82.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.6 142.7 170.2 158.0 149.7 128.9 151.0 150.2 141.3 148.8 178.4 179.4 1,865.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.9 5.9 7.1 6.6 6.2 5.4 6.3 6.3 5.9 6.2 7.4 7.5 6.5
Source #1: INMET (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunny days[d] and sunshine hours)[38]
Source #2: Schimtz (snowy days)[39]

Open climate chart for this city


Panorama[edit]

Panoramic view of a snowy winter afternoon, on the outskirts of São Joaquim in August 2010

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Period: 01/01/1961 to 12/31/1983, 01/01/1988 to 12/31/1989, 01/01/1992 to 12/31/1998 and 01/01/2000 to 05/31/2017
  2. ^ Snowy days only
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1961-1990 and 1981-2010.
  4. ^ Deduced from the number of sunshine hours. Days of average monthly sun = hours of average monthly sun * n° of days of the month / n° of monthly hours

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "São Joaquim, Santa Catarina - SC. Latitude 28º 17' 38" S. Longitude 49º 55' 54" W. Altitude e Área em Km2 Cidade Localizada na Região Região Sul do Brasil. Coordenadas Geográficas Município Brasileiro São Joaquim". www.geografos.com.br. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  3. ^ "São Joaquim - Santa Catarina - A Cidade mais fria do Brasil - EcoViagem". ecoviagem.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  4. ^ "São Joaquim - Exponeve e a Estação Experimental da Epagri | Meus Roteiros de Viagem". www.meusroteirosdeviagem.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  5. ^ "População total de Santa Catarina por município" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Panorama - São Joaquim". cidades.ibge.gov.br. IBGE. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  7. ^ "MRG - Campos de Lages" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Mesorregião Serrana - Informações sobre as cidades desse grupo de municípios". www.cidade-brasil.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  9. ^ "Regiões Geográficas". www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  10. ^ Back, Álvaro José; Bruna, Emilio Della; Felipetto, João (2014-06-08). "TENDÊNCIAS NOS ÍNDICES CLIMÁTICOS E AGROCLIMÁTICOS APLICADOS À VIDEIRA NO PLANALTO SERRANO DE SANTA CATARINA". Revista Brasileira de Climatologia (in Portuguese). 13 (0). doi:10.5380/abclima.v13i0.33720. ISSN 2237-8642.
  11. ^ Office, Met. "Plymouth climate". www.metoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  12. ^ "Comparação das características meteorológicas médias em São Joaquim e Plymouth". pt.weatherspark.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  13. ^ "Cidades de Santa Catarina travam guerra por título de mais fria do país". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-06-21. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  14. ^ "Cidades de SC têm temperaturas abaixo de -6ºC  - Brasil - Estadão". Estadão (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  15. ^ a b "Climatologia das geadas em Santa Catarina" (PDF).
  16. ^ "Geada em pleno verão. Frente fria muda paisagem de SC com registro de 1,4°C - Notícias - Meio Ambiente". Meio Ambiente (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-09.
  17. ^ www.mediaeffects.com.br, Media Effects Digital -. "Venha Descobrir". SANTUR | Santa Catarina Turismo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  18. ^ "PREVISÃO DO TEMPO NOS DIAS 7 A 10 DE AGOSTO DE 2018". Agência de Notícias São Joaquim Online (in Portuguese). 2018-08-06. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  19. ^ a b c "A PRECIPITAÇÃO DE NEVE COMO FENÔMENO CLIMÁTICO DE INTERESSE GEOGRÁFICO NO MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO JOAQUIM – SC" (PDF).
  20. ^ "Neve atinge São Joaquim pela 6ª vez e iguala ao recorde de 1990 – Imagens e vídeo". Agência de Notícias São Joaquim Online (in Portuguese). 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  21. ^ "São Joaquim, na Serra, tem o primeiro registro de neve do ano em Santa Catarina" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  22. ^ "NEVE EM 25 E 26 DE SETEMBRO DE 2012 EM S.JOAQUIM". Agência de Notícias São Joaquim Online (in Portuguese). 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  23. ^ Engeplus, Portal (2010-08-04). "Neve cai em dez cidades de SC". Portal Engeplus (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  24. ^ Barros, Grupo Monteiro de. "O Diário Online - Região mais fria do Brasil recebe turistas durante o inverno em busca da neve". odiarioonline.com.br. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  25. ^ "Série Histórica INMET- temperatura mínima".
  26. ^ "Série Histórica INMET - temperatura mínima".
  27. ^ a b c "Série histórica INMET - temperatura máxima".
  28. ^ "Série Histórica INMET - temperatura máxima".
  29. ^ a b "Série Histórica INMET - Precipitação diária".
  30. ^ "Série Histórica INMET - Precipitação mensal".
  31. ^ "Série histórica INMET - Umidade relativa".
  32. ^ a b "São Joaquim é a cidade que mais neva no Brasil, diz autor – CLMais | Correio Lageano". clmais.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  33. ^ "Trabalhador rural relembra maior nevasca já registrada em SC, há 60 anos: 'Foi emocionante e lindo'". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  34. ^ "Maior nevasca de SC e 2ª maior do Brasil faz 57 anos neste domingo". Santa Catarina (in Portuguese). 2014-07-20. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  35. ^ "Dinâmica e padrões da precipitação de neve no Brasil" (PDF).
  36. ^ "A CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE AS ONDAS DE FRIO E NEVASCAS EM SÃO JOAQUIM/SC E OS IMPACTOS NA POPULAÇÃO" (PDF).
  37. ^ a b "ONDAS DE FRIO EM SÃO JOAQUIM - SANTA CATARINA - BRASIL: A SAÚDE COMO FATOR DEPENDENTE DA QUALIDADE DE VIDA" (PDF).
  38. ^ "NORMAIS CLIMATOLÓGICAS DO BRASIL 1961-1990" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  39. ^ "A PRECIPITAÇÃO DA NEVE NO BRASIL MERIDIONAL" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Programa de pós-graduação em Geografia - UFRGS. Retrieved October 10, 2018.

External links[edit]