São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport

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São Paulo/Guarulhos–
Governador André Franco Montoro
International Airport

Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro
GRUairportlogo.svg
Saopaulo aerea aeroportocumbica.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic/Military
OperatorGRU Airport Invepar-ACSA
ServesSão Paulo metropolitan area
LocationGuarulhos, SP, Brazil
Opened1985
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL750 m / 2,459 ft
Coordinates23°26′8″S 46°28′23″W / 23.43556°S 46.47306°W / -23.43556; -46.47306Coordinates: 23°26′8″S 46°28′23″W / 23.43556°S 46.47306°W / -23.43556; -46.47306
Websitewww.gru.com.br/en
Map
GRU is located in São Paulo State
GRU
GRU
Location in São Paulo State
GRU is located in Brazil
GRU
GRU
GRU (Brazil)
GRU is located in South America
GRU
GRU
GRU (South America)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09R/27L 3,000 9,843 Asphalt
09L/27R 3,700 12,139 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Passengers37,816,002 Increase 3.3%[1]
Aircraft operations266,016 Decrease 0.5%
Metric tonnes of cargo (2017)370.304Increase 21.7%
Economic & social impact$3.4 billion & 154.1 thousand[2]

São Paulo/Guarulhos–Governador André Franco Montoro International Airport (IATA: GRU, ICAO: SBGR), often referred to as GRU Airport, or simply GRU, is the primary international airport serving São Paulo. It is popularly known locally as either Cumbica Airport, after the district where it is located and the Brazilian Air Force base that still exists at the airport complex, or Guarulhos Airport, after the municipality of Guarulhos, in the São Paulo, where it is located. Since November 28, 2001 the airport has been named after André Franco Montoro (1916–1999), former Governor of São Paulo state.[7] The airport was rebranded as GRU Airport in 2012.[8]

In Brazil the airport was ranked first in terms of transported passengers, aircraft operations, and cargo handled in 2012, placing it as the second busiest airport in Latin America by passenger traffic (36,596,326 in 2016)[1] after Mexico City International Airport.[4] Guarulhos has slot restrictions, operating with a maximum of 45 operations/hour[9] and being one of the five airports with such restrictions in Brazil (the others are São Paulo-Congonhas, Brasília, Belo Horizonte-Pampulha and Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont).[10]

Since 2012, the airport has been operated by a consortium composed of Invepar S/A, Airports Company South Africa, and Infraero.[11] Some of its facilities are shared with the São Paulo Air Force Base of the Brazilian Air Force.

History[edit]

On June 6, 1967, in response to the growth of the air traffic in Brazil, the Brazilian military government initiated studies concerning the renovation of the airport infrastructure in Brazil. As part of the conclusions of these studies, because of their location, strategic importance, and security issues, new passenger facilities would be constructed in the areas of Galeão Air Force Base in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Air Force Base in São Paulo.

In relation to São Paulo, the initial planning of the airport involved three runways and four passenger terminals. However, the first phase of the construction comprising two runways and two terminals started only on August 11, 1980. The airport was officially inaugurated on January 20, 1985. Quickly Guarulhos became the city's primary airport, supplanting São Paulo–Congonhas Airport.

In 1989 the runways were extended and the terminals renovated, enlarged, and had their capacity increased from 7.5 million to 8.25 million passengers/year. The whole complex covered 13.86 square kilometres (3,425 acres), of which 5 square kilometres (1,200 acres) is urbanized area.

Construction of Terminal 3, capable of handling 12 million passengers per year, had been planned since 2001 but due to a myriad of political and economic problems, the actual construction didn't begin until 2011.

In 2010, the airport served more than 26.8 million passengers, an increase of 24% over 2009 and passenger volumes were 31% in excess of its capacity rated at 20.5 million per year at its present configuration.[3]

In order to relieve the acute overcrowding at Terminals 1 and 2, Infraero announced on May 17, 2011 that the former cargo terminals of defunct airlines VASP and Transbrasil, later used by Federal Agencies, would undergo renovations and adaptations for use as domestic passenger terminals with remote boarding. This new terminal was initially called Terminal 4 (T4).[12] The first phase of the renovations, comprising the former VASP terminal, opened on February 8, 2012,[13][14] and the second phase, comprising the former Transbrasil terminal,was opened in June 2013. Contrary to what had been announced before, the new terminal will be permanent. Webjet was the first airline to use the new facility.[15] The new terminal, in its first phase, increased the capacity of the airport in 5.5 million passengers/year and, in the second phase to 8 million passengers/year. In total, Guarulhos would then be able to handle 28.5 million passengers/year.[16]

Following a decision made on April 26, 2011 by the Federal Government for private companies being granted concessions to explore some Infraero airports,[17] on February 6, 2012, the administration of the airport was conceded, for 20 years, to the Consortium Invepar-ACSA composed by the Brazilian Invepar, an Investments and Funds Society (90%) and the South African ACSA – Airports Company South Africa (10%).[18] Infraero, the state-run organization, will remain with 49% of the shares of the company incorporated for the administration.[19][20]

On December 2, 2015, the airport's terminals were renumbered. Former Terminal 4 was renumbered Terminal 1; former terminals 1 and 2, which were wings of a single building, became the new Terminal 2. Terminal 3 kept its numbering. The new numbering reflects the order by which terminals are reached when one arrives at the airport by the access road, and is expected to be less confusing in the long term. Check-in counters and gates were also renumbered, with the first digit being now the new terminal number.[21]

On October 28, 2015, the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil (Anac) authorized Airbus A380 operations at Guarulhos Airport, effective four days later. The authorization was granted after extensive works were conducted on the runways and taxiways (including widening runway 09L/27R to 60 metres)[22] and special taxiing procedures were established.[23] On November 14, 2015, Emirates operated a one-time special flight with the A380 on its Dubai-São Paulo route to commemorate its eight years of operations in Brazil.[24] On March 26, 2017, Emirates started daily A380 service from Dubai to São Paulo, replacing the Boeing 777-300ER previously used on that route – coincidentally, on the same day that the other UAE airline, Etihad, ended its services to São Paulo.[25]

Facilities[edit]

Airport Diagram
Control tower

Runways and taxiways[edit]

GRU has two parallel runways. Runway 09R/27L is 3,000 metres (9,843 ft) long and 45 metres (148 ft) wide, while runway 09L/27R is 3,700 metres (12,140 ft) long and 60 metres (200 ft) wide, after being widened in 2015 to better receive the Airbus A380.[26][22] The field elevation at the airport is 750 metres (2,459 ft) above mean sea level.[27] Runway 09R/27L is used preferentially for landings and runway 09L/27R preferentially for takeoffs, but the Airbus A380 uses the longer and wider latter runway for both landing and taking off.[22] There are high-speed exit taxiways on both runways that allow for traffic to depart the runway at higher speed to allow better efficiency for landing and takeoff traffic. As of 2014, there was an average of 650 takeoff and landing operations per day at the airport.[5]

Terminals[edit]

The airport has three passenger terminals, numbered 1, 2, and 3, according to their order along the airport access road when arriving from the city.

  • Terminal 1 is the smallest and simplest. It has only domestic flights, and as of July 2016, only two airlines operate there: Azul and Passaredo. Terminal 1 has no jet bridges and no direct access to the other terminals, which can only be reached by a free shuttle bus.
  • Terminal 2 is the oldest and largest, and for many years was the sole airport terminal, although its two wings were considered different terminals at the time. It has the majority of domestic flights and to Latin American destinations, as well as a few intercontinental flights.
  • Terminal 3 is the newest and most modern. It has only international flights and concentrates most long-haul intercontinental traffic, in addition to the LATAM Group's Latin American flights. Five of the terminal's gates can accommodate the Airbus A380.[23]

Terminals 2 and 3 are directly linked by a walkway.[21]

The airport also has a large air cargo terminal with a built area of 97,000 square metres (1,040,000 sq ft) and capable of handling any type of cargo, including refrigerated and hazardous shipments.[28]

Navigational aids[edit]

There are two navigational aids that GRU traffic uses. The Bonsucesso very high frequency omnidirectional range with distance measuring equipment (VOR-DME) is located 9.1 kilometres; 5.6 miles (4.9 nmi) to the east of GRU.[26]

Developments[edit]

Past[edit]

Terminal 3

Infraero unveiled a R$ 1,489.5 million (US$784.7 USD million; €549.8 EUR million) investment plan to upgrade Guarulhos International Airport, focusing on preparations for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the Summer Olympics in 2016. The investment was supposed to be used as follows:[29]

  • Construction of additional taxiways. Cost: R$ 19M. Completion: April 2016.
  • Enlargement of apron and taxiways. Cost: R$370,5M. Completion: May 2016.
  • Construction of passenger Terminal 3. Cost: R$1,100M. Completed: March 2014. Opened for Star Alliance airlines in May.

Central to this investment plan was Terminal 3, which is projected to add 12 million passenger capacity to the 17 million of the existing two terminals. Plans for a third runway were decided to be "technically impracticable" and were cancelled in January 2008.

However, the former concessionary, Infraero, experienced many legal and bureaucratic difficulties, which prevented most (if any) of these improvements from being completed on schedule. As of April 2013, the new concessionary unveiled a new expansion project, which included the new Terminal 3 (with a different design than the one proposed by Infraero), the widening of the main runway in order to enable operations by the large Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8, operated by Emirates and Lufthansa respectively, and several other improvements in the existing terminals and parking area.

The terminal 3 is open and all Star Alliance airlines are in, as well as many other overseas carriers. International flights by LATAM also use the facitity.

Hangar

A train service development and construction has also been planned, however never concluded and cancelled. This included an Airport Express Line linking the airport to downtown São Paulo and a Rio–São Paulo high-speed rail connecting Guarulhos to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão and Campinas-Viracopos airports.[30]

Current[edit]

Since March 2017 American Airlines invested $100 million USD on a 17,000 m2 (180,000 sq ft) maintenance hangar at Guarulhos Airport, building together with the LATAM Hangar of R$130 millions.[31] The American Airlines one is capable of performing line maintenance on two wide-body aircraft at the same time, of the types commonly used by the U.S. company on routes between São Paulo and the United States and the LATAM one is capable of performing line maintenance of one wide-body aircraft. It could also be used by other companies as storage for parts. The same conditions applies to the LATAM maintenance center.[32]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Jujuy
Seasonal: San Carlos de Bariloche
Aerolíneas Argentinas
operated by Austral Líneas Aéreas
Buenos Aires-Ezeiza
Aeroméxico Mexico City
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson
Air China Beijing–Capital, Madrid
Air Europa Madrid
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Alitalia Rome–Fiumicino
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York–JFK
Avianca Colombia Bogotá
Avianca Brazil Aracaju, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Belém, Bogotá, Brasília, Chapecó, Campo Grande, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, João Pessoa, Juazeiro do Norte, Maceió, Miami, Natal, Navegantes, New York-JFK, Petrolina, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador, Santiago, Vitória
Avianca Perú Lima
Azul Brazilian Airlines Belo Horizonte–Confins, Brasília, Cascavel, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Londrina, Maceió, Maringá, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Santos Dumont, Vitoria
Boliviana de Aviación Cochabamba, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru
British Airways London–Heathrow
Copa Airlines Panama City
Corendon AirlinesSeasonal Charter: Curaçao (begins 16 December 2018)[33]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, New York–JFK, Orlando (ends 11 March 2019)[34]
Emirates Dubai–International, Santiago [35]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
Gol Linhas Aéreas Aracaju, Asunción, Belém, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Brasília, Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campo Grande, Chapecó, Cordoba, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Goiânia, João Pessoa, Juazeiro do Norte, Londrina, Maceió, Manaus, Maringá, Mendoza, Montevideo, Natal, Navegantes, Petrolina, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Punta Cana, Quito (begins 27 December 2018),[36][37] Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rio de Janeiro–Santos Dumont, Salvador, Santiago, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, São Luís, Teresina, Uberlândia, Vitória
Seasonal Charter: Fort-de-France
Iberia Madrid
KLM Amsterdam
LATAM Argentina Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
LATAM Brasil Aracaju, Barcelona, Belém, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Bogotá, Boston,[38] Brasília, Buenos Aires–Aeroparque, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campo Grande, Córdoba, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Foz do Iguaçu, Frankfurt, Goiânia, Ilhéus, João Pessoa, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Joinville, Lima, Lisbon,[39] London–Heathrow, Londrina, Maceió, Madrid, Manaus, Mendoza, Mexico City, Miami, Milan–Malpensa, Montevideo, Natal, Navegantes, New York–JFK, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Porto Alegre, Porto Seguro, Porto Velho, Punta del Este, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rome–Fiumicino, Rosario, Salvador, San Miguel de Tucumán,[40] Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Viru Viru, Santiago de Chile, São Luís, Teresina, Uberlândia, Vitória
Seasonal: Las Vegas,[41][42] San Carlos de Bariloche
LATAM Chile Santiago, Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion (begins 12 December 2018)[43]
LATAM Paraguay Asunción
LATAM Perú Lima
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Passaredo Linhas Aéreas Cascavel, Ribeirão Preto, Vitória da Conquista
Qatar Airways Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Doha
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca
Sky Airline Santiago de Chile
South African Airways Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
TAAG Angola Airlines Luanda
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon, Porto
Turkish Airlines Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, İstanbul–Atatürk (ends 31 December 2018) [44], İstanbul-Havalimanı (begins 1 January 2019)[45]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
Avianca Brasil Cargo Manaus
LATAM Cargo Brasil Belém–Val de Cans, Belo Horizonte-Confins, Brasília, Cabo Frio, Campinas, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Manaus, Miami, Porto Alegre, Recife, Santiago do Chile, Vitória
Lufthansa Cargo Campinas, Dakar–Diass, Frankfurt
Seasonal: Natal
Qatar Airways Cargo Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Doha, Luxembourg, Santiago do Chile
Sideral Air Cargo Brasília, Cuiabá, Manaus, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador
Total Linhas Aéreas Belo Horizonte–Confins, Curitiba–Afonso Pena, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Salvador, Vitória

Statistics[edit]

Passenger figures[edit]

Year 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Passengers 37,744,000 36,596,326 38,985,000 39,573,000 36,460,923 32,177,594 29,964,108 26,849,185 21,727,649 20,997,813 19,560,963 16,580,842 16,855,026 12,940,193
Cargo (t) 339,828 343,784 448,274 465,255 384,587 351,788 425,884 424,157 419,848 470,944 435,594

Busiest routes[edit]

Busiest international routes in 2017
Ranking City Seats Companies serving the route
1 Santiago 1,077,731 Gol Transportes Aéreos, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Chile
2 Miami 1,000,112 American Airlines, LATAM Brasil, Avianca Brazil
3 New York-JFK/Newark 996,028 American Airlines, Avianca Brazil, Delta Air Lines, LATAM Brasil, United Airlines
4 Buenos Aires 732,802 Aerolíneas Argentinas, Austral Líneas Aéreas, Ethiopian Airlines, Gol Transportes Aéreos, LATAM Argentina, LATAM Brasil, Qatar Airways, Turkish Airlines
5 Madrid 637,428 Air China, Air Europa, Iberia, LATAM Brasil
6 Paris 621,685 Air France, LATAM Brasil
7 Montevideo 604,713 Gol Transportes Aéreos, LATAM Brasil
8 Lima 595,230 Avianca Perú, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Perú
9 London 574,937 British Airways, LATAM Brasil
10 Frankfurt 522,806 LATAM Brasil, Lufthansa
11 Bogotá 514,020 Avianca, LATAM Brasil
12 Panama City 421,206 Copa Airlines
13 Lisbon 417,788 TAP Portugal
14 Asunción 349,131 Gol Transportes Aéreos, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Paraguay
15 Orlando 348,272 Delta Air Lines, LATAM Brasil
16 Mexico City 312,823 Aeroméxico, LATAM Brasil

Note:

Busiest intercontinental routes at São Paulo Guarulhos International Airport (2014) – ANAC[46]
Rank City Passengers
1 Madrid 620,285
2 Paris 569,928
3 Frankfurt 449,666
4 London 435,757
5 Dubai 398,425
6 Amsterdam 247,327
7 Lisbon 204,209
8 Rome 203,784
9 Abu Dhabi 202,503
10 Munich 170,608
11 Zurich 159,368
12 Doha 145,433
13 Johannesburg 132,822
14 Milan 139,396
15 Istanbul 114,095
16 Luanda 69,088
17 Barcelona 55,999
18 Porto 48,207
19 Addis Ababa 28,901
20 Seoul 23,626
21 Casablanca 21,342
22 Beijing 17,408
23  Singapore 11,992
24 Lomé 6,409

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On January 28, 1986, a VASP Boeing 737-2A1 registered PP-SME flying from Guarulhos to Belo Horizonte unknowingly tried to take-off from Guarulhos, during foggy conditions, from a taxiway. The take-off was aborted, but the aircraft overran, collided with a dyke and broke in two. One passenger died.[47]
  • On March 21, 1989, a Transbrasil cargo Boeing 707-349C registered PT-TCS operating flight 801, flying from Manaus to São Paulo-Guarulhos, crashed at the district of Vila Barros in Guarulhos, shortly before touch-down at runway 09R. That day, at 12:00, the runway was going to be closed for maintenance and the crew decided to speed up procedures to touch-down before closure (it was already 11:54). In a hurry, one of the crew members, by mistake, activated the air-dynamic brakes, and the aircraft lost too much speed to have enough aerodynamic support (resulting in a stall). As a consequence the aircraft crashed approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the airport. There were 25 fatalities, of which three were crew members and 22 were civilians on the ground. As well as the 22 fatalities, there were over 100 injured on the ground.[48]
  • On March 2, 1996, a Madrid Táxi Aéreo Gates Learjet 25D registered PT-LSD transporting the Brazilian comedy rock band Mamonas Assassinas crashed into Cantareira mountain range, located north of the airport, at 23:16 local time killing all 9 passengers on board. The aircraft was on final approach to land on the runway 09R, but went around. As it flew toward the runway for a second attempt to land, the ATC instructed the pilots to make a right turn heading south, but they turned north (left) and crashed into the mountain range at 3,300 feet (1,000 m), 10.0 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the airport.
  • On September 14, 2002, a Total Linhas Aéreas ATR42-312 registered PT-MTS on a cargo flight between São Paulo-Guarulhos and Londrina crashed while en route near Paranapanema. The crew of 2 died.[49]

Access[edit]

The airport is located 25 km (16 mi) from downtown São Paulo.

Car[edit]

The airport has its own highway system: Rodovia Hélio Smidt Highway which connects the airport to Presidente Dutra Highway or Ayrton Senna Highway. Residents of Guarulhos can access the road via Monteiro Lobato Avenue. Taxi stands are located outside each of the two terminals on the Arrivals level; inside there are car rental agency representatives.

Bus[edit]

Bus transportation is available through the Airport Bus Service, an executive bus line, administered by EMTU and operated by Consórcio Internorte – Área 3. This service provides transportation connecting Guarulhos to Congonhas airport; to Tietê Bus Terminal; to Palmeiras-Barra Funda Intermodal Terminal, to Faria Lima Ave; To Republica Square (Praça da República); To Berrini Ave., Itaim Bibi district; and to the circuit of hotels along Paulista Avenue and Rua Augusta. The ride takes about one hour, depending on traffic.[50] At the airport, tickets can be purchased at the counter located outside the lounge of the Terminal 1, Wing B's arrivals level.

Pássaro Marron/EMTU, a syndicate of the Internorte Consortium, offers two regular bus lines, 257 and 299, connecting Tatuapé subway station (Line 3-Red) with Guarulhos Airport every 30 minutes. At Tatuapé, both buses can be picked up on a platform of that multimodal station's North side bus terminal. At the airport, the stop for both buses is at the Arrivals level road connecting the wings of Terminal 2.

Gol Airlines and LATAM offer for their passengers free bus transfers between Guarulhos and Congonhas airports at regular times.[51][52]

Viação Cometa offers daily departures to and from the airport and the cities of Santos, Sorocaba, São Vicente, and Praia Grande.[53] Lirabus operates daily buses between the airport and Campinas. Pássaro Marron offers bus services to São José dos Campos with departures every two hours. Viação Transdutra connects the airport with the city of Arujá.

Rail[edit]

Line 13 of the São Paulo commuter rail system, operated by CPTM, connects with the airport through Aeroporto-Guarulhos Station. This line started its operations experimentally on March 31, 2018.[54] The line was opened initially on a trial phase and operates only on Saturdays and Sundays from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., with trains every 30 minutes to the suburban station of Engenheiro Goulart in eastern São Paulo city, from where a further connection with CPTM's line 12 and at least another one by subway will be necessary to reach downtown and the main business areas. Service will be expanded in May 2018 to seven days a week, but still only from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Full service from 4 a.m. to midnight is expected in late June 2018.[55]

Additionally, from late June 2018 there will be a "Connect" direct service to Brás railway station, linked to line 3-Red of the São Paulo Metro, and an "Airport Express" direct service to Luz station, linked to lines 1-Blue and 4-Yellow. However, the "Connect" service will only operate at peak hours (5 a.m.-9 a.m. and 4 p.m.-8 p.m.), and the "Airport Express" service will only have four departures a day.[55]

Aeroporto-Guarulhos station is opposite Terminal 1, which is Guarulhos Airport's smallest and least busy, and not linked to the other terminals except by a shuttle bus. The GRU Airport company reportedly vetoed a station closer to much busier Terminals 2 and 3 because it intended to build a shopping mall at the proposed location.[56] The excessive number of complicated train changes through crowded commuter rail and subway lines, and the added inconvenience of the shuttle bus from Terminal 1 for most passengers, especially carrying luggage, has attracted criticism to the São Paulo state government, responsible for São Paulo's subway and commuter rail systems, which has been accused of flawed planning and overindulgence with the airport's private concessionaire.[56]

Trivia[edit]

  • The Tropic of Capricorn goes directly through runway 09R/27L, at exactly 23° 26' 12.9″ S, 46° 28' 47" W as of April 2018 (the exact latitude of the Tropics varies by a fraction of an arc-second every year).[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "GRU Airport - Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo". GRU Airport - Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  2. ^ "São Paulo–Guarulhos International airport – Economic and social impact". Ecquants. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Movimento operacional da rede Infraero de janeiro a dezembro de 2012" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Infraero. January 14, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ a b http://www.gru.com.br/Content/Media/f8d266ad-5225-4698-bbef-1b4dae5abf6d.pdf[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ a b "Sao Paulo/Guarulhos International Airport". Infraero. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  6. ^ "Lista de aeródromos públicos" (in Portuguese). ANAC.
  7. ^ "Lei n˚10.314, de 28 de novembro de 2001" (in Portuguese). Lei Direto. November 28, 2001. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  8. ^ Dores, Kelly (November 27, 2012). "Aeroporto de Guarulhos adota nova identidade: GRU Airport". propmark (in Portuguese). Editora Referência. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  9. ^ Komatsu, Alberto (March 16, 2010). "ANAC vai por limite de pouso e decolagem em mais seis aeroportos" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Archived from the original on June 21, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2010.
  10. ^ "Anac restringe pousos e decolagens". Revista em Discussão (in Portuguese). Senado Federal (Brazilian Federal Senate). November 2010. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  11. ^ "Invepar Website". Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  12. ^ Salomon, Marta (May 18, 2011). "Galpão vira terminal em Guarulhos" (in Portuguese). O Estado de S. Paulo. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  13. ^ Borges, André (December 16, 2012). "Terminal de Guarulhos fica pronto só em 2012" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  14. ^ "Novo terminal de Cumbica fica só para janeiro" (in Portuguese). Veja. December 18, 2011. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
  15. ^ "Webjet passa a utilizar o terminal 4 de Cumbica no dia 8" (in Portuguese). O Estado de S. Paulo. February 2, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  16. ^ Costa, Nataly (December 1, 2011). "Cumbica inaugura no dia 20 mais um terminal, a 2 quilômetros dos atuais" (in Portuguese). O Estado de S. Paulo. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  17. ^ Bitencourt, Rafael (April 26, 2011). "Governo define concessão de obras em 3 aeroportos, diz Palocci" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
  18. ^ Rittner, Daniel (February 7, 2012). "Cumbica, Viracopos e Brasília são privatizados" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  19. ^ Salomon, Marta; Monteiro, Tânia (June 1, 2011). "Governo pretende privatizar três aeroportos e abrir o capital da Infraero" (in Portuguese). O Estado de S. Paulo: Economia. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  20. ^ "Brazil moves swiftly (at last) to award airport concessions". Centre for Aviation. February 9, 2014. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014.
  21. ^ a b Gallo, Ricardo (November 12, 2015). "Aeroporto de Guarulhos troca número de portões e terminais". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2016-04-06.
  22. ^ a b c Casagrande, Vinícius (February 2, 2017). "Pistas de Guarulhos são alargadas para voos diários do maior avião do mundo". Todos a Bordo (in Portuguese). UOL. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  23. ^ a b "GRU Airport obtém autorização para operar o A380" (in Portuguese). GRU Airport. October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  24. ^ "Emirates to Operate One-off A380 Flight to Sao Paulo". Emirates Airline. October 27, 2015. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  25. ^ Carvalho, Rafael (March 17, 2017). "Maior avião de passageiros do mundo, A380 pousa em SP; veja fotos". Esse Mundo É Nosso (in Portuguese). São Paulo: R7.com. Retrieved 2017-03-28.
  26. ^ a b "World Aero Data: GUARULHOS GOV ANDRE FRANCO MONTOURO [sic] – SBGR". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
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External links[edit]

Media related to São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport at Wikimedia Commons