Close-up of Sumela monastery from across the valley
|Location||Maçka, Trabzon Province, Turkey|
Sumela Monastery (Greek: Μονή Παναγίας Σουμελά, Moní Panagías Soumelá; Turkish: Sümela Manastırı) is a Greek Orthodox monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Panagia, meaning "All Holy" in Greek) at Melá Mountain (Turkish: Karadağ, which is a direct translation of the Greek name Ssou Melá, "Black Mountain") within the Pontic Mountains (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları) range, in the Maçka district of Trabzon Province in modern Turkey.
Nestled in a steep cliff at an altitude of about 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) facing the Altındere valley, it is a site of great historical and cultural significance, as well as a major tourist attraction within Altındere National Park. Due to an increase in rock falls, on 22 September 2015 the monastery was closed to the public for safety reasons for the duration of one year to resolve the problem; this was later extended to three years. It is scheduled to reopen for visitors on Assumption day 2018.
The monastery was founded in AD 386 during the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I (375 - 395), According to William Miller, Barnabas and Sophronios, two Athenian monks, founded the monastery. It became famous for an icon of the Virgin Mary known as the Panagia Gorgoepekoos, said to have been painted by the Apostle Luke.
During its long history, the monastery fell into ruin several times and was restored by various emperors. During the 6th century, it was restored and enlarged by General Belisarius at the behest of Justinian.
It reached its present form in the 13th century after gaining prominence during the existence of the Empire of Trebizond. While the Emperors Basil and John II had endowed the monastery richly, it was during the reign of Alexios III (1349–1390) that Sumela received its most important largess: according to legend, the young Alexios was saved from a storm by the Virgin, and was bidden by her to restore the monastery. A chrysobull dated to 1365 confirms the freedom and autonomy of the monastery, together with all of its hereditary lands and dependents; exempts them from all taxes, except for one biannual tax; and restores to it the serfs whom the tax-collectors of Matzouka had illegally taken from it, listing 40 of the serfs by name. At that time, the monastery was granted an amount annually from imperial funds. During the time of Manuel III, son of Alexios III, and during the reigns of subsequent princes, Sumela gained further wealth from imperial grants. Following the conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1461, it was granted the sultan's protection and given rights and privileges that were renewed by following sultans. The monastery remained a popular destination for monks and travelers through the years.
The monastery was abandoned in 1923, following the forced removal of the Greek population in this region. The departing monks were not allowed to take any property with them, so they buried Sumela's famous icon under the floor of the monastery's St. Barbara chapel. In 1930, a monk secretly returned to Sumela and retrieved the icon, transferring it to the new Panagia Soumela Monastery, on the slopes of Mount Vermion, near the town of Naousa, in Macedonia, Greece.
A fire was started in 1930 and the wooden parts of the Sumela Monastery were destroyed. In the following years, looters and vandals damaged the other parts of the Monastery.
Today the monastery's primary function is as a tourist attraction. It overlooks forests and streams, making it extremely popular for its aesthetic attraction as well as for its cultural and religious significance.
As of 2012, the Turkish government is funding reconstruction work, and the monastery is enjoying a revival in pilgrimage from Greece and Russia.
On 15 August 2010, Orthodox divine liturgy was allowed to take place in the monastery compound. A special pass issued by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is now required to visit on August 15, the day of the Dormition of the Theotokos or Feast of the Assumption, when a divine liturgy is held. Only 450 to 500 visitors are allowed inside the monastery, although widescreen televisions are available to observe the event at a cafe some hundred meters away from the monastery.
On 22 September 2015, the Monastery was closed to visitors for three years due to necessary restoration and field work.
Construction and buildings
The principal elements of the Monastery complex are the Rock Church, several chapels, kitchens, student rooms, a guesthouse, a library, and a sacred spring revered by Eastern Orthodox Christians.
The large aqueduct at the entrance, which supplied water to the Monastery, is constructed against the side of the cliff. The aqueduct has many arches which have mostly been restored. The entrance to the Monastery leads up a long and narrow stairway. There is a guard-room next to the entrance. The stairs lead down from there to the inner courtyard. On the left, in front of a cave, there are several monastery buildings. The cave, which was converted into a church, constitutes the center of the monastery. The library is to the right.
The large building with a balcony on the front part of the cliff was used for the monks' cells and for housing guests. It dates from 1840.
The inner and outer walls of the Rock Church and the walls of the adjacent chapel are decorated with frescoes. Frescoes dating from the era of Alexios III of Trebizond line the inner wall of the Rock Church facing the courtyard. The frescoes of the chapel which were painted on three levels in three different periods are dated to the beginning of the 18th century. The frescoes of the bottom band are of superior quality.
The frescoes of the monastery are seriously damaged due to vandalism. The main subject of the frescoes are biblical scenes telling the story of Christ and the Virgin Mary.
- William Miller, Trebizond: The last Greek Empire of the Byzantine Era: 1204-1461, 1926 (Chicago: Argonaut, 1969), p. 62
- http://karibche.ambebi.ge/eklesia/tadzrebi-da-monastrebi/2932-arsebobs-cnoba-rom-davith-aghmashenebels-mitsebi-sheutsiravs-monastristhvis.html (in Georgian)
- Sümela Manastırı 1 yıl ziyarete kapatılıyor, Hurriyet, 19 september 2015
- Panagia Soumela Monastery to Remain Closed Until August 2018, Greek Reporter, November 23, 2016
- Sümela Monastery (Archived from September 29, 2007). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
- Miller, Trebizond, p. 61
- Miller, Trebizond, pp. 62f
- Salvanou, Emilia. "Φροντιστήριο Τραπεζούντας [Phrontisterion of Trapezous]". Εγκυκλοπαίδεια Μείζονος Ελληνισμού, Μ. Ασία. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- Euronews. "Rare Orthodox mass held at Turkish monastery". Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- Dormition in Turkey. Liturgy on the Black Mountain, Sandro Magister, retrieved from L'espresso
- Qantara.de. "Greek Orthodox Liturgy in Turkey: Uncovering the Country's Non-Muslim Cultural Heritage". Retrieved 2011-08-02.
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