Sālote Tupou III
|Queen Sālote Tupou III|
|Queen of Tonga|
Queen Salote in London at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
|Queen of Tonga|
|Reign||5 April 1918 – 16 December 1965|
|Coronation||11 October 1918, Nukuʻalofa|
|Predecessor||King George Tupou II|
|Successor||King Tāufa‘āhau Tupou IV|
13 March 1900|
Royal Palace, Tonga
|Died||16 December 1965
Aotea Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
|Spouse||Prince Viliami Tungī Mailefihi(m. 1917–1941; his death)|
|Issue||King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV of Tonga
Prince Uiliami Tuku‘aho
Prince Fatafehi Tu'ipelehake
|House||House of Tupou|
|Father||King George Tupou II|
Sālote (Mafile‘o Pilolevu; 13 March 1900 – 16 December 1965) Tupou III, KGCP, KGCTG, KGCGT, TMM was the first Queen regnant and third Monarch of the Kingdom of Tonga from 1918 to her death in 1965. She reigned for nearly 48 years, longer than any other Tongan Monarch.
Her reign saw World War II and also personal struggles in which she did not allow to take effect her leadership. She is primarily remembered for her strong leadership, role in the Pacific War during World War II in which Tonga declared war against the Axis powers and modernisation of the state by raising awareness to eliminate most of the social and cultural issues presented.
Sālote was born on the 13th of March 1900 in Tonga as the only child and heir of King George Tupou II of Tonga and his first wife Queen Lavinia; She was not popular, as she was perceived as being born from the 'wrong mother' because of her mother's low rank and was disliked so much that it was not safe for her to go outside the palace garden.
Her mother, Queen Lavinia died from Tuberculosis on the 25th of April 1902, after her death the Chiefs in Tonga urged King George Tupou II for many years to remarry to produce a male heir; On the 11th of November 1909 the King married the then 16-year-old Anaseini Takipō, (half-sister of the rejected candidate 'Ofakivava'u', from the first search of a wife for the King) the chiefs were jubilant. Queen Anaseni gave birth twice, first to a girl: Princess Onelua who died a few months later and secondly to another girl: Princess Elisiva Fusipala Taukiʻonetuku.
In December 1909 Sālote was sent to Auckland, New Zealand to start her education; there she remained for 5 years although she did return to Tonga every Christmas holiday. After December 1914 the King ordered her to stay home in Tonga as hopes for Queen Anaseni giving birth to a male heir were low; She later began a course of intensive instruction in Tongan history and customs.
Married to Viliami Tungī Mailefihi, she became the mother of Siaosi Tāufa‘āhau Tupoulahi – later King Tāufa‘āhau Tupou IV –, Uiliami Tuku‘aho (5 November 1919 – 28 April 1936), and Sione Ngū Manumataongo – later Tu‘i Pelehake (Fatafehi) –, plus three miscarriages. She died 16 December 1965 at Aotea Hospital, Auckland, after a long illness. Queen Salote was well known for her height at 6 ft 3 in (1.91 metres) tall.
From a traditional point of view she was also (the 21st) Tu‘i Kanokupolu and as such only grudgingly accepted by followers of the Tu‘i Tonga, that is the people of Mu‘a. The first years of her reign she spent a lot of effort in reducing their suspicions. Her marriage to Tungī Mailefihi had been a masterstroke of her father, as Tungī was a direct descendant of the Tu‘i Ha‘atakalaua, which at that time was seen as belonging to the Tu‘i Tonga's kauhala‘uta. Their children therefore combined the blood of the three grand royal dynasties in Tonga.
In 1920–1921, she assisted the Bernice P. Bishop Museum's Bayard Dominick Expedition with their mapping of Tongan archaeological sites by providing access to localities and information. The expedition's reports on the Tongan past—including a large volume of material which still remains unpublished even today—were primarily compiled by Edward Winslow Gifford and provided the groundwork for comprehensive studies of the pre-contact history of the Tongans (Burley 1998). She was also a keen writer and author of countless dance songs and love poems (hiva kakala) as well as majestic lakalaka.
She brought Tonga to international attention when, during her one and only visit to Europe, she attended the 1953 coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London. During the coronation procession it began to rain and hoods were placed on the carriages in the procession. As Tongan custom dictates that one should not imitate the actions of person they are honoring, she refused a hood and rode through the pouring rain in an open carriage, endearing herself to spectators. She served as Chairman of the Tonga Traditions Committee 1954–1965 and patronised the Tonga Red Cross Society.
Titles, Styles and honours
- 13 March 1900 – 5 April 1918: Her Royal Highness Princess Sālote Tupou, The Crown Princess of Tonga
- 5 April 1918 – 16 December 1965: Her Majesty Queen Sālote Tupou III, The Queen of Tonga
- National honours
- Tonga: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Pouono (KGCP)
- Tonga: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of the Order of King George Tupou I (KGCGT)
- Tonga: Sovereign Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Tonga (KGCCT)
- Tonga: Sovereign Recipient of the Royal Tongan Medal of Merit (TMM)
- Foreign honours
- Hawaiian Royal Family: Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I
- United Kingdom: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
- United Kingdom: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
- United Kingdom: Dame Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the British Empire
- United Kingdom: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St John
- United Kingdom: Recipient of the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal
- United Kingdom: Recipient of the King George VI Coronation Medal
- United Kingdom: Recipient of the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal
- Wood-Ellem, Elizabeth (1999). Queen Sālote of Tonga: the story of an era, 1900–1965. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press. ISBN 978-1-86940-205-1. OCLC 262293605.
- "GREAT BRITAIN: Reunion in Paradise". TIME. 28 December 1953. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "In the Court of the King of Tonga - NYTimes.com". nytimes.com. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "ROYALTY/NOBILITY". mic.gov.to. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Sālote Mafile‘o Pilolevu Tupou III, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, DStJ (13 March 1900 – 16 December 1965) Late Queen Salote of Tonga | Royalty | Pinterest". pinterest.com. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Image: new-QueenSalote1.jpg, (237 × 323 px)". tonganz.net. 15 April 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Royal Ark, Tongan genealogy details
- dwn. "Die Koenigsgraeber - Royal Tombs - Mala�ekula". kingdomoftonga.de. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Tonga profile - Timeline - BBC News". m.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Queen Salote's Cloak - Picture of Tonga National Cultural Centre, Tongatapu Island - TripAdvisor". tripadvisor.com. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Image: lotte-meitner-graf-salote-tupou-iii-1900-65-of-tonga.jpg, (366 × 488 px)". imgc.allpostersimages.com. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Bain, Kenneth Ross., (1967), The Friendly Islanders: a story of Queen Salote and her people, London; Hodder & Stoughton.
- Burley, David V. (1998): Tongan Archaeology and the Tongan Past, 2850-150 B.P. Journal of World Prehistory 12 (3): 337–392. doi:10.1023/A:1022322303769 (HTML abstract)
- Kaeppler, A.L.; Taumoefolau, M.; Tukuʻaho, N., & Wood-Ellem, E. (2004): Songs and poems of Queen Salote. ISBN 978-982-213-008-9
- Luke, Sir Harry (1954), Queen Salote & Her Kingdom, London:Putnam.
- Wood-Ellem, Elizabeth (1999), Queen Salote of Tonga: The Story of an Era 1900–1965, Auckland:Auckland University Press, ISBN 978-1-86940-205-1
- Media related to Sālote Tupou III at Wikimedia Commons
King George Tupou II
|Queen of Tonga
King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV