S-400 missile system
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| S-400 Triumf|
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
|Type||Mobile surface-to-air missile system|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|In service||28 April 2007 – present|
|Manufacturer||Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau|
|Unit cost||$400 million per fire unit (artillery battalion) that consists of 8 launchers, 112 missiles, command and support vehicles|
|No. built||~320 (as of October 2017, there were at least 320 launchers (41 artillery battalions) deployed in 21 regiments)|
YAMZ-8424.10 Diesel V12|
|Ground clearance||485 mm|
400 km (40N6 missile)|
250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96E2 missile)
40 km (9M96E missile)
The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 Триумф, Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. The S-400 uses four missiles to fill its performance envelope: the very-long-range 40N6 (400 km), the long-range 48N6 (250 km), the medium-range 9M96E2 (120 km) and the short-range 9M96E (40 km). The S-400 was described by The Economist in 2017 as "one of the best air-defence systems currently made."
- 1 Development
- 2 Structure
- 3 Quantitative analysis
- 4 Operating history
- 5 Future foreign interest
- 6 Operators
- 7 Related
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
- 11 Gallery
Development of the S-400 system began in the late 1980s, and the system was announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1993. On 12 February 1999 the first, reportedly-successful tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan, and the S-400 was scheduled for deployment by the Russian army in 2001.
In 2003, it became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment. In August, two high-ranking military officials expressed concern that the S-400 was being tested with "obsolete" interceptors from the S-300P system and concluded that it was not ready for deployment. Completion of the project was announced in February 2004, and in April a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM missile. In 2007, the system was approved for service. Russia has completed the state trials of the 40N6E long-range missile for the S-400 air defense system, a source in the domestic defense industry told TASS in July 2018.
The 30K6E is an administration system which manages eight divisions (battalions). The 55K6E is a command and control centre based on the Ural-532301. The 91N6E is a panoramic radar detection system (range 600 km) with protection against jamming which is mounted on an MZKT-7930. The S band system can track 300 targets. Six battalions of 98ZH6E surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system) can track no more than six targets on their own, with an additional two battalions if they are within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) range. The 92N6E (or 92N2E) is a multi-functional radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range which can track 100 targets. The 5P85TE2 launcher and the 5P85SE2 on a trailer (up to 12 launchers) are used for launch. The 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and the ultra-long-range 40N6E are authorised by a Russian presidential decree. According to the Russian government, the S-400[specify] utilises an active electronically scanned array.
Optional elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E) include the 15I6ME–98ZH6E, with coverage of 30, 60 and 90 km beyond the 30K6E coverage. The 96L6E has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The 40B6M is housing for the 92N6E or 96L6E radar. The Protivnik-GE is an anti-stealth UHF radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range. The Moscow-1 passive sensor is 2 1⁄2 times more effective than the Protivnik, with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range Orion for a target-designation on-the-air defence system, and the Avtobaza-M and Orion+ Avtobaza adds high-precision detection. The 1RL220BE versions were reportedly were used for jamming. The 400-kilometre (250 mi)-range S-200D Dubna (SA-5c) missiles and S-300 P-family radar systems can be used without additional command-and-control centres. S-300 (SA-20A, SA-20B) missiles may also be guided. A-50 and A-50U aircraft provide early warning and command-and-control target designation.
The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system; the S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system); the S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system); the Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery-command post; the Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle. The Protivnik-GE and Gamma-DE radars, integrated with the 92H6E radar system, enables communication between each battery with Baikal-E senior command posts and similar types; nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е and 83М6Е2 administration systems; the Polyana-D4М1 command post; fighter-aircraft command post, and mobile long-range radars. The Nebo-M system is designed to hunt the F-35 joint-strike fighter. The system's VHF component provides sector search and tracking, with the X- and L-band components providing fine-tracking capability. Good placement of the radars relative to the threat axis enables the L- and X-band components to illuminate the incoming target from angles where the target RCS is sub-optimal. Attempts to jam the Nebo-M would be problematic, since all the radars have passive angle track capability against jammers; jamming permits passive triangulation of the target using three angle-track outputs. The RLM-S and RLM-D have better elevation-tracking accuracy than the RLM-M, and the Nebo M should be capable of producing high-quality tracks suitable for mid-course guidance of modern surface-to-air missiles and trajectory guidance of legacy SAMs.
The Gamma-C1E SHF mobile radar station has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The Nebo VHF mobile radar station and the Resonance-NE radar station have a detection range of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) and 65 kilometres (40 mi) to a height of 500 metres (1,600 ft). All Nebo-family locators are doubled for army air defence. During the 1970s, the long-range mobile UHF 5H87 and SHF 5H69 low-altitude locators were used. a 1980s goal was detection at a height of 10 metres (33 ft) at a distance of 40 km (25 mi).
For export to foreign customers, with the purpose of integrating existing customer air defence systems, additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets is in progress.
Anti – stealth range 150 km
Maximum targeting range (detection radius is wider)
- For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a radar cross-section of 0.4 square metres): 230 km
- For a target with RCS of 4 square metres: 390 km
- For targeting of strategic-bomber sized types: 570 km
- 96L6E radar and equipment work separately (100 metres), 96L6E2 export version has the capability to track a maximum 100 targets. In mountainous terrain the system is resistant to false returns or clutter. Replaces the radar to detect low-level radar targets and conduct radar sector review. Omnidirectional to detect all aircraft types, including low-observable (not against ballistic missiles). Can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B) or S-400. 96L6-1 of S-400 and S-500. Maximum height for the detection of the target 100 km away and from all directions. Can use a special tower 966AA14. Detection capability against cruise missiles and stealth. It serves as the command post for the battalions. Phased-array radar and multipath.
- Command Center PBU 55K6E
Automatic operation, serves as the command centre for the entire system (all battalions and all external resources including passive). The maximum distance between the command center and the battalion of 98ZH6E with the use of retransmitters is up to 100 km.
- 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer
5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. In 2014, a new type of transporter was introduced, improving the mobility of the system. The fuel consumption was cut by 35%. The total cost of launcher actually dropped 25% (The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles [approximately 240 thousand dollars]).
One system comprising up to 8 divisions (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km (160 mi)). The missiles are fired by a gas system from the launch tubes up to 30 metres into the air before the rocket motor ignites, which increases the maximum and decreases the minimum ranges. In April 2015, a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi); TELs carrying the long-range 40N6 may only be able to hold two missiles instead of the typical four due to its larger size. Another test recorded a 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head, reached a height of 56 km. All the missiles are equipped with directed explosion warhead, which increases the probability of complete destruction of targets. In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received new guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems. Anti-aircraft missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise and ballistic missiles, it can also be used against ground objectives. The S-400 is able to intercept cruise missiles out to a range of about 40 km due to their low altitude flight paths.
|GRAU index||Range||Altitude||Maximum velocity||Maximum target velocity||Weight||Warhead||Guidance||Notes|
|40N6 (in service(2018))||400 km (250 mi)||185 km (607,000 ft)||4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)||1,893 kg||Semi-active radar homing or
active radar homing
|With an active radar homing head, climbs to designated altitude then guidance switches to search & destroy mode.
Effective against low-altitude targets at extremely long range (below the radio horizon).
|250 km (160 mi)||2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)||4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)||1,835 kg (4,045 lb)||180 kg (400 lb)||Semi-active radar homing|
|48N6E2||200 km (120 mi)||2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)||2,800 m/s (6,300 mph; Mach 8.2)||1,835 kg (4,045 lb)||180 kg (400 lb)||Semi-active radar homing|
|120 km (75 mi)||30 km (98,000 ft)||1,000 m/s (2,200 mph; Mach 2.9) (1M=295–340 m/s → 1000 m/s≈3~3.3M)||420 kg (930 lb)||24 kg (53 lb)||Active radar homing||High hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Missile = 0.7.|
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km altitude greatly increases the probability to destroy short- to medium-range ballistic missiles.
|9M96E||40 km (25 mi)||20 km (66,000 ft)||900 m/s (2,000 mph; Mach 2.6)||333 kg (734 lb)||24 kg (53 lb)||Active radar homing||Marksmanship for the radio horizon, with homing action to aid interception of low-flying targets at long range. Optical and infrared range of 9M96 versions combined with approximate figures from long-wavelength radar can detect and home-in on stealth targets.|
- The ABM capabilities of the S-400 system are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
- The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system. The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.
S-300 system family tree
|Antey 2500||S-300PM2||S-300PMU2||Russian Version|
Morpheus defence system
- A separate independent air defence system 42S6 Morfey (Morpheus) is being developed. This system is designated as short-range air defence system to protect the S-400 from various threats at their terminal phases, and will also act together with the S-350E as a supplement to the SA-21 Growler. Together, these systems form part of the Aerospace Defence Forces.
- Development of Morfey started in 2007 and was planned to be introduced in 2013, however was delayed until at least 2015. The missile system consists of omnidirectional 29YA6 radar, infrared sensors and 36 missiles. The missiles have up to 10 km range and an altitude of up to 3500 m.
- Exterior target indication separate independent RLS "Niobium". Mobility 5 minutes. Frequency band S and UHF. Detection range of 600 km (RCS 1 square meter to 430 km), the target speed of 8000 km / h, 4791 miles, Mach 6.35. For detection, the owner of the state to transfer command of targeting items (in this application, the maximum speed grows from subordinates systems). Planner "nniirt".
|Max. target speed||4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)|
|Target detection distance (km)||600|
|Range against aerodynamic target (km)
|Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
27(easily)/30, 56 (9m96e2), up to 185 km (40Н6Е)
|Range against tactical ballistic targets (km)
|The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full cast WRU)||80 earlier in stage of development was 36 (2012)|
|The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full cast give target designation)||160 can use 2 missile to attack 1 target|
|Ready for operation on a signal while driving on the march (by the signal strength before the start fight) (min)||5 in the development stage been 10–15|
|Ready for operation on a signal from standby (min)||ready and enabled 0,6 / ready 3|
|Time between major overhauls (h)||10000|
|Service life (years)
At least 20
- Strategic bombers such as the B-1, B-2, FB-111 and B-52H
- Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A and EA-6
- Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
- Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
- Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16, F-35 and F-22
- Strategic cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk
- Ballistic missiles (range up to 3,500 km)
- All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14); absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15), the minimum is zero.
- System response time less than 10 seconds.
- The complex can move on roads (60 km/h) and off-road (ground) at speeds up to 25 km/h.
- According to the Pravda.ru newspaper article, the price of one battalion (about 7–8 launchers) is $200 million.
A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post. On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007. The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.
On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.
On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.
On March 17, 2009, Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.
On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.
In February 2011, a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles. In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".
The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012, and these went into operational status in April 2012. One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.
As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020. Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.
As of September 2013, the Russian Armed Forces had five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. From 2014, the army was to receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year. Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.
In November 2015, it was announced that when the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov was recommissioned with the Russian Navy in 2018, it will be equipped with the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. The inclusion of the 48N6DMK into the Kirov's arsenal extends its air defense range from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) with the 48N6E2 missile from the S-300FM to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi).
On 1 March 2016, acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army major-general Vladimir Korytkov said that six S-400 units had been activated pursuant to his order in the anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Novosibirsk air defense formation in Russia’s Novosibirsk Oblast. TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected increase to sixteen.
In November 2015, the deployment of S-400 was reported in Syria, along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces on the side of the Syrian government. However, those reports were refuted by Russia. On 25 November 2015, the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400 in Syria in response of the downing of its SU-24 jet by Turkey. On 26 November 2015, such deployment was reported by official Russian news media to have been carried out. The first S-400 system was reportedly installed at Humaymim Air Base in Latakia Governorate.
In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin gave authorization to sell the S-400 system to the People's Republic of China. If China should acquire the S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, it would significantly improve China's ability to defend its own air space and serve as an effective stand-off weapon against air attacks. With a 400 km (250 mi) coverage range, aircraft in disputed areas off the coast could be targeted by SAMs from the mainland; all of Taiwan would be covered from Fujian province, and the Diaoyu Islands would be covered from Shandong province, making it difficult for the US and Japan to deploy combat aircraft over those airspaces. Taiwan seeks to address these potential advantages by locating S-400 batteries once activated using extensive SIGINT units and destroying them with stand-off weapons, cruise and ballistic missiles, and anti-radiation missiles.
On 13 April 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport has confirmed that China secured a contract with his company for the purchase of the S-400 air defence systems.
Although China's acquisition of the S-400 system has been viewed as a "game changer" in the region, several factors may constrain its effectiveness in East Asia. Though the 40N6 missile has a range of 400 km, it is not known if such a missile is available for export. Even if China does acquire the missile, the disputed Diaoyu Islands would be at the limit of its range if stationed along the coast, as would the Indian capital New Delhi if stationed right on the border and moved into the Himalaya Mountains. Against Taiwan, only the 40N6 could bring all its airspace in range, but deploying it along the coast of Fujian province at sea level would prevent it from locating low-level aircraft at long range due to the Earth's curvature; the shorter-range 48N6 would be even less useful against maneuvering targets at long range. These issues, along with dangers of misidentifying and engaging friendly aircraft at such great distances, may restrict Chinese S-400 use to mainly defensive purposes.
Delivery of the system began in January 2018.
Future foreign interest
During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul, interest was expressed by Turkey in buying the system. In late 2017, the president of Turkey and Russian officials have signed an agreement for a guaranteed delivery of 2.5 billion US$ worth of S-400 unit delivery More recently, the US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, raised concerns over Turkey's S-400 deal with Russia, but Turkish officials rejected the US threat of sanctions over its purchase of S-400 missile systems citing existing international protocols and agreement forms mutually signed and agreed by Turkey and Russia.
In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a $US2 billion arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.
South Korea is developing a simplified medium range SAM system, M-SAM Cheolmae-2, based on technology from the 9M96 missile and with the help of Almaz (Russian). The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales (French). The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz, and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan. LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.
In February 2017, Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec Corporation, stated that Egypt was interested in the S-400 system. He explained that Russia offered Egypt to purchase either additional Antey-2500 systems or the S-400 system which was much more expensive. Chemezov noted that Cairo had financial issues which delayed the negotiations.
In October 2015, it was reported that India's Defence Acquisition Council is considering acquire 12 units of S-400 for its defence needs. However, on 17 December 2015 it was confirmed that the final order will be for five units rather than 12 units as 5 are considered to be adequate for India's defensive needs. The deal is worth US$5.5 billion.
On 15 October 2016, on the sidelines of BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems and the final discussion of terms of the contract is underway as of 2 June 2017.
In April 2018, Russian and Indian media reported a deal was close to being reached, and the deal was expected to be signed before a summit involving the leaders of the two countries in October 2018.
- Russia – 39 battalions in 19 regiments (~328 launchers)
- Moscow region Western Military District:
- 2 battalions of the 210th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Dmitrov;
- 3 battalions of the 606th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Elektrostal;
- 2 battalions of the 93rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Zvenigorod;
- 2 battalions of the 549th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Podolsk;
- 2 battalions in 584th Anti-Aircraft Regiment Rocket Regiment, Selenograd;
- Saint-Petersburg region Western Military District:
- 2 battalions of the 183rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Kaliningrad;
- 2 battalions of the 589th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Nakhodka;
- 3 battalions of the 1532nd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky;
- 2 battalions of the 1537th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Novorossiysk;
- 2 battalions of the 531st Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Murmansk;
- 2 battalions of the 590th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Central Military District, Novosibirsk;
- 2 battalions of the 511th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Central Military District, Engels
- 2 battalions of the 1533th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Vladivostok.
- 2 battalions of the 18th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Feodossia, Crimea.
- 2 battalions of the 12th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Sevastopol, Crimea
- 2 battalions in 1528th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Arkhangelsk region, Western Military District.
- 1 battalion of the 507th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Central Military District, Saratov
- Moscow region Western Military District:
- Belarus – announced their intentions to purchase the S-400 in September 2011. Deliveries will start in 2015 (official statement). 2 systems in 2016.
- People's Republic of China - Deliveries of units have begun in January 2018, and are being inducted.
- Algeria – Algeria has begun deploying Russian S-400 SAM systems.
- Turkey – Contract signed in 2017. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan confirmed that deposit had been paid. The deal is thought to be worth $2.5 billion. Turkish Under secretary for Defence Industries Ismail Demir said the S-400 delivery is brought forward to July 2019.
- India – Indian Defence Ministry approved purchase of five battalions, along with 6,000 missiles of the S-400 missile system in December 2015. In October 2015, it was reported that India's Defence Acquisition Committee was set to clear an Indian Air Force proposal for buying 12 S-400 systems. India has obtained a contract to acquire S-400 anti-ballistic missile systems from Moscow at a cost of around ₹70,000 crore (US$10 billion) on 2 November 2015 during a visit by then Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar. The deal formally signed when Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Russia in late December, 2015.[needs update] On 22 December 2015 India's Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) approved the deal.
- It was reported that Reliance Industries Defence has signed a $6 billion deal with NPO Almaz which included purchase and maintenance of S-400 missile system for Indian Armed Forces. Also it was reported[when?] that price negotiations for five battalions of S-400 system was going on and is about to be concluded in near equal 3–4 months.
- Saudi Arabia – Contract signed in October 2017 during official visit of Saudi King Salman I to Moscow. Deal worth more than $3 billion also includes ground equipment for Royal Saudi Land Forces.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to S-400 Triumf.|
- S-400 Triumf | CSIS Missile Threat
- English: www.almaz-antey
- English: Radar S-400 (basic and potential as Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE) their exact specifications and photos, indicated target size, height and distance, resistance to interference and anti-stealth capabilities, time to deployment, and other details.
- Almaz S-400 Triumf
- German: S-400 at www.dtig.org
- A lot of photos of all elements S-400 from various foreshortenings (copy prohibited). Photos can be enlarged fullscreen