S-400 missile system

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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
С-400 «Триумф».JPG
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
Type Mobile surface-to-air missile system
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service 28 April 2007[1]
Used by Russia
Production history
Designer Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Unit cost $400 million per fire unit (division) that consists of 8 lauchers, 112 missiles, command and support vehicles
Number built 152+ (in 2015, there were 152 launchers deployed in 19 divisions[2])
Specifications

Operational
range
400 km (40N6 missile)
250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96E2 missile)
40 km (9M96E missile)

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 Триумф, Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. The S-400 uses four missiles to fill its performance envelope: the very-long-range 40N6 (400 km), the long-range 48N6 (250 km), the medium-range 9M96E2 (120 km) and the short-range 9M96E (40 km).

Development[edit]

Development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s, and the system was announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999 the first, reportedly-successful tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan, and the S-400 was scheduled for deployment by the Russian army in 2001.[3]

In 2003, it became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment. In August, two high-ranking military officials expressed concern that the S-400 was being tested with "obsolete" interceptors from the S-300P system and concluded that it was not ready for deployment.[3] Completion of the project was announced in February 2004, and in April a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM missile.[4][5] In 2007, the system was approved for service.[6]

Structure[edit]

The 30K6E is an administration system which manages eight divisions (battalions).[7][8][9] The 55K6E is a command and control centre based on the Ural-532301. The 91N6E[10] is a panoramic radar detection system (range 600 km) with protection against jamming which is mounted on an MZKT-7930. The S band system can hit 300 targets.[11] Six battalions of 98ZH6E surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system)[12] can hit no more than six targets on their own,[13] with an additional two battalions if they are within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) range. The 92N6E (or 92N2E) is a multi-functional radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range which can hit 100 targets.[14] The 5P85TE2 launcher and the 5P85SE2 on a trailer (up to 12 launchers) are used for launch. The 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and the ultra-long-range 40N6E are authorised by a Russian presidential decree.[15] According to the Russian government, the S-400 utilises an active electronically scanned array.[16]

Truck-mounted radar
S-400 92N2 radar and 5P85T2

Optional elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E)[12][17] include the 15I6ME–98ZH6E, with coverage of 30, 60 and 90 km beyond the 30K6E coverage. The 96L6E[18] has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The 40B6M is housing for the 92N6E or 96L6E radar. The Protivnik-GE is an anti-stealth UHF radar with a 240-kilometre (150 mi) range.[19] The Moscow-1 passive sensor is 2 12 times more effective than the Protivnik, with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range[20] Orion[21] for a target-designation on-the-air defence system, and the Avtobaza-M[22] and Orion+ Avtobaza are other sensors. The 1RL220BE[12][23] versions were reportedly were used for jamming.[24] The 400-kilometre (250 mi)-range S-200D Dubna (SA-5c) missiles and S-300 P-family radar systems can be used without additional command-and-control centres.[25] S-300 (SA-20A, SA-20B) missiles may also be guided.[26] A-50 and A-50U[7] aircraft provide early warning and command-and-control target designation.[27]

The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the[12] S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system; the S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system); the S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system); the Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery-command post; the Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle. The Protivnik-GE and Gamma-DE radars, integrated with the 92H6E radar system, enables communication between each battery with Baikal-E senior command posts and similar types; nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е and 83М6Е2 administration systems; the Polyana-D4М1 command post; fighter-aircraft command post, and mobile long-range radars. The Nebo-M system is designed to hunt the F-35 joint-strike fighter. The system's VHF component provides sector search and tracking, with the X- and L-band components providing fine-tracking capability. Good placement of the radars relative to the threat axis enables the L- and X-band components to illuminate the incoming target from angles where the target RCS is sub-optimal. Attempts to jam the Nebo-M would be problematic, since all the radars have passive angle track capability against jammers; jamming permits passive triangulation of the target using three angle-track outputs. The RLM-S and RLM-D have better elevation-tracking accuracy than the RLM-M, and the Nebo M should be capable of producing high-quality tracks suitable for mid-course guidance of modern surface-to-air missiles and trajectory guidance of legacy SAMs.[28]

The Gamma-C1E SHF mobile radar station has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range.[29] The Nebo VHF mobile radar station and the Resonance-NE radar station have a detection range of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) and 65 kilometres (40 mi) to a height of 500 metres (1,600 ft). All Nebo-family locators are doubled for army air defence.[30] During the 1970s, the long-range mobile UHF 5H87 and SHF 5H69 low-altitude locators were used.[31][32] a 1980s goal was detection at a height of 10 metres (33 ft) at a distance of 40 km (25 mi).[33]

  • United against all targets "Niobium" RLS (not excluding ballistic or stealth). Mobility 5 minutes. Frequency band S and UHF. Detection range of 600 km (EPR 1 square meter to 430 km), the target speed of 8000 km/h, 4791 miles, Mach 6.35. For detection, the owner of the state to transfer command of targeting items (in this application, the maximum speed grows from subordinates systems).[34][35]
  • Stealth. Quote - However, U.S. Air Force officials were dismissive of the technique. “Just because something is technically possible doesn't make it tactically feasible,” one Air Force official with extensive stealth aircraft experience explained. In fact, the US Air Force recognized that a number of frequency bands and the radar can not only see really make effective stealth. But at the same time deny that these radars (any version) can be real creatures.[clarification needed] However, the huge amount of exist anti-stels radars in fact, such as "Gamma-DE" UHF range. The effective range of 240 km (150 miles) to the target with radar cross-section of 0.1 m2 and covering the 360 degrees of azimuth within elevations from minus 2 to plus 60 degrees.[36][37]

For export to foreign customers, with the purpose of integrating existing customer air defence systems, additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets is in progress.

Components[edit]

Maximum targeting range (detection radius is wider)

  • For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a radar cross-section of 0.4 square metres): 230 km
  • For a target with RCS of 4 square metres: 390 km
  • For targeting of strategic-bomber sized types: 570 km
  • 96L6 THE HIGH-ALTITUDE DETECTOR
    96L6

THE HIGH-ALTITUDE DETECTOR (TSBS)[39][40]

  • 96L6E radar and equipment work separately (100 metres), 96L6E2 export version has the capability to track a maximum 100 targets. In mountainous terrain the system is resistant to false returns or clutter. Replaces the radar to detect low-level radar targets and conduct radar sector review. Omnidirectional to detect all aircraft types, including low-observable (not against ballistic missiles). Can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B)[41] or S-400. 96L6-1[42] of S-400 and S-500. Maximum height for the detection of the target 100 km away and from all directions. Can use a special tower 966AA14. Detection capability against cruise missiles and stealth. It serves as the command post for the battalions. Phased-array radar and multipath.[41]
  • Command Center PBU 55K6E[43]

Automatic operation, serves as the command centre for the entire system (all battalions and all external resources including passive). The maximum distance between the command center and the battalion of 98ZH6E with the use of retransmitters is up to 100 km.

  • 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer

5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. In 2014, a new type of transporter was introduced, improving the mobility of the system. The fuel consumption was cut by 35%. The total cost of launcher actually dropped 25% (The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles (approximately 240 thousand dollars)).[44]

Missiles[edit]

One system comprising up to 8 divisions (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles[45] (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km (160 mi)).[46][47] The missiles are fired by a gas system from the launch tubes up to 30 metres into the air before the rocket motor ignites, which increases the maximum and decreases the minimum ranges.[26] In April 2015, a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi).[48][49] Another test recorded a 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head, reached a height of 56 km.[50][51] All the missiles are equipped with directed explosion warhead, which increases the probability of complete destruction of targets.[52] In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received new guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems.[53] Anti-aircraft missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise and ballistic missiles, it can also be used against ground objectives.[54]

Missile specifications
GRAU index Range Altitude Maximum Velocity Maximum Target Velocity Weight Warhead Guidance Notes
40N6 400 km (250 mi)[55] 185 km (607,000 ft) [56]
(unconfirmed)
SARH or
Active radar homing
With an active radar homing head, climbs to designated altitude then guidance switches to search & destroy mode.[26]
48N6E2 200 km (120 mi)[57] 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph)[57] 2,800 m/s (6,300 mph)[57] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[57] 180 kg (400 lb)[57] SARH[12]
48N6DM
/ 48N6E3
250 km (160 mi)[57] 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph)[57] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph)[57] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[57] 180 kg (400 lb)[57] SARH[12]
9M96E 40 km (25 mi)[58][59] 20 km (66,000 ft)[58] 900 m/s (2,000 mph)[60] 333 kg (734 lb)[58] 24 kg (53 lb)[58] Active radar homing[61] Marksmanship for the radio horizon, with homing action to aid interception of low-flying targets at long range. Optical and infrared range of 9M96 versions combined with approximate figures from long-wavelength radar can detect and home-in on stealth targets, though with low accuracy.[61]
9M96 /
and 9M96E2
120 km (75 mi)[59] 30 km (98,000 ft)[59] 1,000 m/s (2,200 mph)[59](1M=295–340 m/s → 1000 m/s≈3~3.3M) 420 kg (930 lb)[59] 24 kg (53 lb)[59] Active radar homing[59] High hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Missile = 0.7[10][59]
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km altitude greatly increases the probability to destroy short- to medium-range ballistic missiles.[25]
  • The ABM capabilities of the S-400 system are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.[62] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.[63]

Morpheus defence system[edit]

  • A separate independent air defence system 42S6 Morfey (Morpheus) is being developed. This system is designated as short-range air defence system to protect the S-400 from various threats at their terminal phases, and will also act together with the S-350E as a supplement to the SA-21 Growler. Together, these systems form part of the Aerospace Defence Forces.[64]
  • Development of Morfey started in 2007 and was planned to be introduced in 2013, however was delayed until at least 2015.[65][66][67][68] The missile system consists of omnidirectional 29YA6 radar, infrared sensors and 36 missiles.[64][69] The missiles have up to 10 km range and an altitude of up to 3500 m.[64][70]

Base statistics[edit]

Main characteristics of the S-400[71]
Max target speed 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)[17]
Target detection distance (km) 600
Range of aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

400[72]
2[46]
Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

27[17](easily)/30[47] up to 56[73][74] km (9m96e2)[75]
0.005(9M96)/0.01(all)
Range of tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

60
5[12]
The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full cast WRU) 80[7][46][76][77] earlier in stage of development was 36 (2012)[78]
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full cast give target designation) 160[46][47][79][80]
Ready for operation on a signal while driving on the march (by the signal strength before the start fight) (min) 5[78][81] in the development stage been 10–15[77]
Detection to Launch time (min) ready and enabled 0,6 / ready 3[38]
Time between major overhauls (h) 10 000
Service life (Years)
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

at least 20
15
  • Strategic bombers such as the B-1, FB-111 and B-52H
  • Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A and EA-6
  • Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
  • Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
  • Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16, F-35[85] and F-22
  • Strategic cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk
  • Ballistic missiles (range up to 3,500 km)[58]
  • All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14); absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15),[58] the minimum is zero.[12]
  • System response time less than 10 seconds.[86]
  • The complex can move on roads (60 km/h) and off road (ground) at speeds up to 25 km/h.[76]
  • According to the Pravda.ru newspaper article, the price of one battalion (about 7–8 launchers) is $200 million.[87]

Deployment[edit]

A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[88] On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007.[89] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[90]

On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[91]

On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[92]

In September 2006, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–2015. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400s.[93]

On March 17, 2009, Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[94]

On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[88]

In February 2011, a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles.[95] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[96]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012, and these went into operational status in April 2012.[97][98] One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.[99]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[100] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.[101]

As of September 2013, the Russian Armed Forces had five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. From 2014, the army was to receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year.[102] Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.[103]

In November 2015, the deployment of S-400 was reported in Syria, along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces on the side of the Syrian government.[104] However, those reports were refuted by Russia.[105] On 25 November 2015, the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400 in Syria in response of the downing of its SU-24 jet by Turkey.[106] On 26 November 2015, such deployment was reported by official Russian news media to have been carried out.[107]

In November 2015, it was announced that when the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov was recommissioned with the Russian Navy in 2018, it will be equipped with the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. The inclusion of the 48N6DMK into the Kirov's arsenal extends its air defense range from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) with the 48N6E2 missile from the S-300FM to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi).[108]

On 1 March 2016, acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army major-general Vladimir Korytkov said that six S-400 units had been activated pursuant to his order in the anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Novosibirsk air defense formation in Russia’s Novosibirsk region.[109] TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected increase to sixteen.[109]

Foreign interest[edit]

On 23 August 2007, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia would not export the S-400 for the next few years.[110]

During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul, interest was expressed by Turkey in buying the system.[111]

Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.[112]

On 24 August 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.[113]

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a $US2 billion arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.[114][115]

South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz (Russian). The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales (French).[116] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[117] and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan.[118] LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.[119]

China

In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin gave authorization to sell the S-400 system to the People's Republic of China.[120] If China should acquire the S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, it would significantly improve China's ability to defend its own air space and serve as an effective stand-off weapon against air attacks. With a 400 km (250 mi) coverage range, aircraft in disputed areas off the coast could be targeted by SAMs from the mainland; all of Taiwan would be covered from Fujian Province, and the Diaoyu Islands would be covered from Shandong Province, making it difficult for the US and Japan to deploy combat aircraft over those airspaces. Taiwan seeks to address these potential advantages by locating S-400 batteries once activated using extensive SIGINT units and destroying them with stand-off weapons, cruise and ballistic missiles, and anti-radiation missiles.[121]

On 13 April 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport has confirmed that China secured a contract with his company for the purchase of the S-400 air defence systems.[122][123]

Although China's acquisition of the S-400 system has been viewed as a "game changer" in the region, several factors may constrain its effectiveness in East Asia. Though the 40N6 missile has a range of 400 km, it is not known if such a missile is available for export. Even if China does acquire the missile, the disputed Diaoyu Islands would be at the limit of its range if stationed along the coast, as would the Indian capital New Delhi if stationed right on the border and moved into the Himalaya Mountains. Against Taiwan, only the 40N6 could bring all its airspace in range, but deploying it along the coast of Fujian Province at sea level would prevent it from locating low-level aircraft at long range due to the Earth's curvature; the shorter-range 48N6 would be even less useful against maneuvering targets at long range. These issues, along with dangers of misidentifying and engaging friendly aircraft at such great distances, may restrict Chinese S-400 use to mainly defensive purposes.[124]

India

In Oct 2015, it was reported that India's Defence Acquisition Council would acquire 12 units of S-400 for its defence needs. This deal was to be confirmed before Indian Prime Minister Modi's scheduled visit to Russia in the last week of December 2015. On 17 December 2015 it was confirmed that the order will be for 5 units rather than 12 units as originally envisaged. The deal is worth $US6 billion (400 billion Rupees at the current exchange Rate). The reduction in numbers of S-400 is considered to be adequate for India's defensive needs.[125]

On 15 October 2016, on the sidelines of BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S400 anti-aircraft missile systems.

Operators[edit]

Current operators[edit]

S-400 Operators
  •  Russia – 31 battalions in 14 regiments (at least 220 launchers)[99][126][127][128][129][130]
  • Moscow region Western Military District:
    • 2 battalions of the 210th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Dmitrov;[131]
    • 2 battalions of the 606th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Elektrostal;[132][133]
    • 2 battalions of the 93rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Zvenigorod;[134]
    • 2 battalions of the 549th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Podolsk;[135]
  • Saint-Petersburg region Western Military District:
    • 2 batallions of the 500th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Gostilizy;[136]
    • 2 batallions of the 1488th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment, Zelenogorsk
  • 2 battalions of the 183rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Kaliningrad;[137]
  • 2 battalions of the 589th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Nakhodka;[138][139]
  • 3 battalions of the 1532nd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky;[140][141][142]
  • 2 battalions of the 1537th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Novorossiysk;[143]
  • 2 battalions of the 531st Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Murmansk;[144][145]
  • 2 battalions of the 590th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Central Military District, Novosibirsk;[146]
  • 2 battalions of the 1533th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Vladivostok.[147]
  • 2 battalions of the 18th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Feodossia, Crimea.[148]

Future operators[edit]

  •  People's Republic of China – Officially confirmed, will purchase at least 6 battalions.[149][150][151]
  •  IndiaIndian Defense Ministry approved purchase of 5 battalions, along with 6000 missiles of the S400 missile system in December 2015.[152] In October 2015, it was reported that India's Defence Acquisition Committee was set to clear an Indian Air Force proposal for buying 12 S-400 systems.[153][154] India has obtained a contract to acquire S-400 anti-ballistic missile systems from Moscow at a cost of around ₹70,000 crores on November 2, 2015 during a visit by Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar. The deal formally signed when Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Russia in late December, 2015.[155] On December 22, 2015 India's Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) approved the deal.
It was reported that Reliance Defence has signed a $6 billion deal with GSKB Almaz-Antey which included purchase and maintenance of S-400 missile system for Indian Armed Forces.[156] Also it was reported that price negotiations for 5 battalions of S-400 system was going on and is about to be concluded in near equal 3–4 months.[157]

The deal was finally inked on October 15, 2016 during Vladimir Putin's visit to India for the 2016 BRICS Summit in Goa for 5.5 billion dollars along with the deal for 4 additional Talwar-class frigates for the Indian Navy and 197 light helicopter for the Indian Army and Indian Air Force.

Potential operators[edit]

  •  Armenia – showed interest in the S-400 in 2011[158]
  •  Belarus – announced their intentions to purchase the S-400 in September 2011.[159] Deliveries will start in 2015 (official statement).[160][161]
  •  Egypt – expressed interest in purchasing the S-400[162]
  •  Iran[163]
  •  Kazakhstan – started planning creation of a joint air defense system that helped Astana buy S-400 complexes from Moscow after 2015;[159]
  •  Saudi Arabia – has expressed interest in buying the S-400 missile system[164][165]
  •  Vietnam – Vietnam will buy 4–6 S-400 sets after 2015 when Russia begins exporting the system.[166][167]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ЗРС С-400 Триумф" [S-400 Triumf] (in Russian). S400.ru. Retrieved 2013-10-29. 
  2. ^ "Россия готовится к новым звездным войнам" [Russia prepares for new Star Wars]. vpk.name (in Russian). 
  3. ^ a b "S-400 (SA-20 Triumf)". MissileThreat.com. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Russia: New S-400 Air Defense System Coming Soon". Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules. April 4, 2001. 
  5. ^ "Russia Trumpets New S-400 Missile System". BBC Monitoring. March 23, 2001. 
  6. ^ "-400,". Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c "Зенитный ракетный комплекс С-400 'Триумф'" [Anti-aircraft missile system S-400 'triumph'] (in Russian). Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  8. ^ "Характеристики зенитной ракетной системы С-400 "Триумф"" [Characteristics of surface-to-air missile systems s-400 "triumph"]. RIA Novosty (in Russian). Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  9. ^ "-400 "" (, )". -. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "Зенитный ракетный комплекс С-400 'Триумф'". new-factoria.ru. 
  11. ^ "С-400 сбивает любой "стелс"". topwar.ru. 
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