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NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
|Type||Mobile surface-to-air missile system|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|In service||28 April 2007|
|Designer||Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)|
|Manufacturer||Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau|
|Number built||152+ (in 2015, there were 152 launchers deployed in 19 divisions)|
40 km (9M96E missile)
The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф», Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau in the 1990s as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007.
The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile.
The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.
In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, and in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.
The completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile. Officially accepted for service in 2007.
- 30K6E administration system: manages 8 divisions (battalions)
- 55K6E command and control centre based on Ural-532301.
- 91N6E Panoramic radar detection system (range of 600 km) with protection against jamming. Mounted on an MZKT-7930. 300 targets. Decimetric band (S).
- 6 battalions of 98ZH6E Surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system for autonomous operation): Each battalion can hit no more than 6 targets on their own.+2 another battalions if they are within range 40 km.
- The S-400 utilises an active electronically scanned array (official government statement)
Possible elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E): 15I6ME – 98ZH6E with coverage of 30/60/90 km operating outside 30K6E coverage. 96L6E – universal complex (all functions), detection range of 300 km. 40B6M – housing for 92N6E or 96L6E type radar. Anti – stealth: Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Orion passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 1 out of 3), Avtobaza-M passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 2 out of 3) and Orion+ Avtobaza=the exact location. 1RL220BE classified information (or outdated), older versions (supposedly) were used for interference/anti-jamming (inside/within passive sensor (locator)). It is possible to utilise the S-200D "Dubna" (SA-5c) missiles (400 km), as well as various radar systems of the S-300 (Air Defence versions (P family)) without the use of additional command and control centres. The S-300 (SA-20A/SA-20B) type missiles can also be controlled and guided . A-50/A-50U aircraft of early warning, command and control transfer target designation.
The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the:
- S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system;
- S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system);
- S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system);
- Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery command post;
- Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle;
Triumf kets – when carrying out additional tasks using the 30K6E administration system; reception of the route information from an additional integrated 92Н6Е radar system;
Radar type 96L6E/30K6E administration system, Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Optional integration with the 92H6E radar system enables communication between each battery with:
- Baikal-E senior command posts and other similar types;
- nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е, and 83М6Е2 administration systems ;
- Polyana-D4М1 command post;
- Command post for Russian fighter aircraft.
For export to foreign customers, with the purpose of integrating existing customer air defence systems, additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets is in progress.
Maximum targeting range (detection radius is wider).
- For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a radar cross-section of 0.4 square meters): 230 km.
- For a target with RCS of 4 square meters: 390 km.
- For targeting of strategic - bomber sized types: 570 km.
- 96L6E radar and equipment work separately (100 meters), 96L6E2 export version has the capability to track a maximum 100 targets. In mountainous terrain the system is resistant to false returns or clutter . Replaces the radar to detect low-level radar targets and conduct radar sector review. Omnidirectional to detect all aircraft types, including low-observable, but not stealth (and not against ballistic missiles). Can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B) or S-400. 96L6-1 of S-400 and S-500. Maximum height for the detection of the target 100 km away and from all directions. Can use a special tower 966AA14. Detection capability against cruise missiles and stealth. It serves as the command post for the battalions. Phased-array radar and multipath.
- Command Center PBU 55K6E
Automatic operation, serves as the command center for the entire system (all battalions and all external resources including passive). The maximum distance between the command center and the battalion of 98ZH6E with the use of retransmitters is up to 100 km.
- 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer
5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. In 2014 a new type of transporter was introduced, improving the mobility of the system. The fuel consumption was cut by 35%. The total cost of launcher actually dropped 25% (The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles (approximately 240 thousand dollars)).
Just one system comprising up to 8 divisions (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km (160 mi)). The missiles are fired by a gas system from the launch tubes up to 30 meters into the air before the rocket motor ignites, which increases the maximum and decreases the minimum ranges. In April 2015 a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi). In other tests 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head has reached a height of 56 km . All the missiles are equipped with directed explosion warhead, which increases the probability of complete destruction of targets. In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received new guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems. Antiaircraft missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise and ballistic missiles, it can also be used against ground objectives.
|GRAU index||Range||Altitude||Maximum Velocity||Maximum Target Velocity||Weight||Warhead||Guidance||Notes|
|40N6||400 km (250 mi)||185 km (607,000 ft) 
Active radar homing
|With an active radar homing head, after climb to designated altitude the missile guidance switches over to search & destroy mode.|
|48N6E2||200 km (120 mi)||2,000 m/s (4,500 mph)||2,800 m/s (6,300 mph)||1,835 kg (4,045 lb)||180 kg (400 lb)||SARH|
|250 km (160 mi)||2,000 m/s (4,500 mph)||4,800 m/s (11,000 mph)||1,835 kg (4,045 lb)||180 kg (400 lb)||SARH|
|9M96E||40 km (25 mi)||20 km (66,000 ft)||900 m/s (2,000 mph)||333 kg (734 lb)||24 kg (53 lb)|
|120 km (75 mi)||30 km (98,000 ft)||1,000 m/s (2,200 mph)(1M=295-340 m/s → 1000 m/s≈3~3.3M)||420 kg (930 lb)||24 kg (53 lb)||Active radar homing||High hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Missile = 0.7
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km altitude, greatly increases the probability to destroy short to medium range ballistic missiles.
- The ABM capabilities of the S-400 system are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
- The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system. The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.
Morpheus defense system
- A separate independent air defense system 42S6 Morfey (Morpheus) is being developed. This system is designated as short-range air defense system to protect the S-400 from various threats at their terminal phases, and will also act together with the S-350E as a supplement to the SA-21 Growler. Together, these systems form part of the Aerospace Defence Forces.
- Development of Morfey started in 2007 and was planned to be introduced in 2013, however was delayed until at least 2015. The missile system consists of omnidirectional 29YA6 radar, infrared sensors and 36 missiles. The missiles have up to 10 km range and an altitude of up to 3500 m.
|Max target speed||4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)|
|Target detection distance (km)||600|
|Range of aerodynamic target (km)
|Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
27(easily)/30 up to 56 km (9m96e2)
|Range of tactical ballistic targets (km)
|The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full cast WRU)||80 earlier in stage of development was 36 (2012)|
|The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full cast give target designation)||160|
|Ready for operation on a signal while driving on the march (by the signal strength before the start fight) (min)||5 in the development stage been 10–15|
|Detection to Launch time (min)||ready and enabled 0,6 / ready 3|
|Time between major overhauls (h)||10 000|
|Service life (Years)
at least 20
- Strategic bombers such as the B-1, FB-111 and B-52H
- Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A and EA-6
- Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
- Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
- Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16, F-35 and F-22
- Strategic cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk
- Ballistic missiles (range up to 3,500 km).
- All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14) (absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15)), the minimum is zero.
- System response time less than 10 seconds.
- The complex can move on roads (60 km/h) and off road (ground) at speeds up to 25 km/h.
- According to the Pravda.ru newspaper article, the price of one battalion (about 7–8 launchers) is $200 million.
A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post. On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007. The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.
On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.
On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.
On March 17, 2009 Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.
On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.
In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles. In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".
The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012 and these went into operational status in April 2012. One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.
As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020. Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.
As of September 2013, the Russian Armed Forces had five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. From 2014, the army was to receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year. Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.
In November 2015, the deployment of S-400 was reported in Syria, along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces on the side of the Syrian government. However, those reports were refuted by Russia. On 25 November 2015, the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400 in Syria in response of the downing of its SU-24 jet by Turkey. On 26 November 2015, such deployment was reported by official Russian news media to have been carried out.
In November 2015, it was announced that when the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov was recommissioned with the Russian Navy in 2018, it will be equipped with the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. The inclusion of the 48N6DMK into the Kirov's arsenal extends its air defense range from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) with the 48N6E2 missile from the S-300FM to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi).
On 1 March 2016, acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army major–general Vladimir Korytkov said that six S-400 units had been activated pursuant to his order in the anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Novosibirsk air defense formation in Russia’s Novosibirsk region. TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected increase to sixteen.
In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a $2 billion arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.
South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz (Russian). The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales (French). The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz, and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan. LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.
In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin gave authorization to sell the S-400 system to the People's Republic of China. If China should acquire the S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, it would significantly improve China's ability to defend its own air space and serve as an effective stand-off weapon against air attacks. With a 400 km (250 mi) coverage range, aircraft in disputed areas off the coast could be targeted by SAMs from the mainland; all of Taiwan would be covered from Fujian Province, and the Diaoyu Islands would be covered from Shandong Province, making it difficult for the US and Japan to deploy combat aircraft over those airspaces. Taiwan seeks to address these potential advantages by locating S-400 batteries once activated using extensive SIGINT units and destroying them with stand-off weapons, cruise and ballistic missiles, and anti-radiation missiles.
On April 13, 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport has confirmed that China clinched a contract with his company for the purchase of the S-400 air defense systems.
Although China's acquisition of the S-400 system has been viewed as a "game changer" in the region, several factors may constrain its effectiveness in East Asia. Though the 40N6 missile has a range of 400 km, it is not known if such a missile is available for export. Even if China does acquire the missile, the disputed Diaoyu Islands would be at the limit of its range if stationed along the coast, as would the Indian capital New Delhi if stationed right on the border and moved into the Himalaya Mountains. Against Taiwan, only the 40N6 could bring all its airspace in range, but deploying it along the coast of Fujian Province at sea level would prevent it from locating low-level aircraft at long range due to the Earth's curvature; the shorter-range 48N6 would be even less useful against maneuvering targets at long range. These issues, along with dangers of misidentifying and engaging friendly aircraft at such great distances, may restrict Chinese S-400 use to mainly defensive purposes.
In Oct 2015 it was reported that India's Defense Acquisition Council would acquire 12 units of S-400 for its defense needs. This deal was to be confirmed before Indian Prime Minister Modi's scheduled visit to Russia in the last week of December 2015. On 17 December 2015 it was confirmed that the order will be for 5 Units rather than 12 units as originally envisaged. The deal is worth $6 billion (400 billion Rupees at the current exchange Rate). The reduction in numbers of S-400 is considered to be adequate for India's defensive needs.
- Russia – 27 battalions in 13 regiments (at least 200 launchers)
- Moscow region:
- 2 battalions of the 183rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Kaliningrad;
- 2 battalions of the 500th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Saint-Petersburg;
- 2 battalions of the 589th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Nakhodka;
- 3 battalions of the 1532nd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky;
- 2 battalions of the 1537th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Novorossiysk;
- 2 battalions of the 531st Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District, Murmansk;
- 2 battalions of the 590th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Central Military District, Novosibirsk;
- 2 battalions of the 1533th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District, Vladivostok.
- 2 battalions of the 18th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District, Feodossia, Crimea.
- People's Republic of China – Officially confirmed, will purchase at least 6 battalions.
- India – Indian Defense Ministry approved purchase of 5 battalions, along with 6000 missiles of the S400 missile system in December 2015. In October 2015, it was reported that India's Defence Acquisition Committee was set to clear an Indian Air Force proposal for buying 12 S-400 systems. India has obtained a contract to acquire S-400 anti-ballistic missile systems from Moscow at a cost of around Rs 70,000 crores on November 2, 2015 during a visit by Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar. The deal formally signed when Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Russia in late December, 2015. On December 22, 2015 India's Cabinet Committee on Security(CCS) approved the deal.
It was reported that Reliance Defence has signed a $6 billion deal with GSKB Almaz-Antey which included purchase and maintenance of S-400 missile system for Indian Armed Forces. Also it was reported that price negotiations for 5 battalions of S-400 system was going on and is about to be concluded in near equal 3-4 months.
- Armenia – showed interest in the S-400 in 2011
- Belarus – announced their intentions to purchase the S-400 in September 2011. Deliveries will start in 2015 (official statement).
- Egypt – expressed interest in purchasing the S-400
- Kazakhstan – started planning creation of a joint air defense system that helped Astana buy S-400 complexes from Moscow after 2015;
- Saudi Arabia – has expressed interest in buying 12 units of the S-400;
- Vietnam – Vietnam will buy 4–6 S-400 sets after 2015 when Russia begins exporting the system.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to S-400 Triumf.|
- English: www.almaz-antey
- English: Radar S-400 (basic and potential as Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE) their exact specifications and photos, indicated target size, height and distance, resistance to interference and anti-stealth capabilities, time to deployment, and other details.
- Almaz S-400 Triumf
- German: S-400 at www.dtig.org
- A lot of photos of all elements S-400 from various foreshortenings (copy prohibited). Photos can be enlarged fullscreen