Sheikh Anwarul Haq
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Sheikh Anwarul Haq
شیخ انوار الحق
Chief Justice Sheikh Anwarul Haq (1917–1995)
|Chief Justice of Pakistan|
23 September 1977 – 25 March 1981
|Nominated by||Zulfikar Ali Bhutto|
|Appointed by||Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry|
|Preceded by||Yaqub Ali|
|Succeeded by||Mohammad Haleem|
|Acting President of Pakistan|
20 April 1978 – 7 May 1978
|Preceded by||Fazlul Qadir Chaudhry
(29 November 1963–12 June 1965)
|Succeeded by||Wasim Sajjad
(18 July 1993–14 November 1993)
|Senior Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan|
16 October 1972 – 23 September 1977
|Nominated by||Zulfikar Ali Bhutto|
|Born||Sheikh Anwarul Haq
11 May 1917
Jullundur, British Indian Empire
|Died||3 March 1995
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
|Citizenship|| British subject (1917–1947)
|Alma mater||DAV College, Kanpur
Chief Justice Sheikh Anwarul Haq (Urdu: شیخ انوار الحق ; 11 May 1917 – 3 March 1995), was a Pakistani jurist and an academic who served as the Chief Justice of Pakistan from 23 September 1977 until resigning on 25 March 1981.
Educated as an economist at the DAV College, Kanpur and the Punjab University in Lahore, he served as a civil servant of the Indian Civil Service as an appointee to lead the municipal governance in the British India in 1944. He continued serving in the civil service after the independence of Pakistan as a result of partition of British India in 1947 and subsequently elevated as a judge in the Sindh High Court in 1957.
In 1962, he was nominated to be served in the Supreme Court and later appointed as Chief Justice of Lahore High Court in 1970 before his reappointment as a Senior Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1971. He 1972, he earned public and international notability when he co-chaired the War Enquiry Commission with Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman to investigate the economic and military collapse of Pakistan in a war against India in 1971 that led to the succession of East Pakistan as Bangladesh.
He was known for his judicial conservative philosophical leanings and is noted in country's political history for providing legality for the martial law upheld by chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq to restore law and order, in the light of doctrine of necessity, as part of his conservative leanings. In addition, he also heard the case of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and controversially upheld the capital sentence by the Lahore High Court for authorizing the murder of a political opponent. In 1981, Haq notably refused to taken an oath under the imposed PCO, resigning on conscientious grounds.
Early life and public service
Sheikh Anwarul Haq was born in Jullunder, Punjab, British India on 11 May 1917, to a Punjabi family. S. Anwarul Haq earned early education from Jullunder and Wazirabad, passing his matriculation from Jullunder in 1932.:259 He stood first in matriculation that earned him a scholarship to attend the DAV College, Kanpur in 1932.:259 In 1936, he earned BA in Economics and Political science and went on to attend the Islamia College of Punjab University, where he earned a MA in Economics in 1938. He ranked first in MA in Economics examination at the Punjab University, setting a new record in that subject.:54
During his time at the Punjab University, Haq participated in a large number of declamation contests and prize debates and was often judged as the best speaker.:55 From 1936–38, he was an activist of All-India Muslim League and was a student advocate of the assertion of the separate identity of Indian Muslims.:53–54 He attended the All-India Muslim League meeting in Calcutta in December 1937 as a student delegate.:54
In 1939, he was selected and joined the Indian Civil Service and went to United Kingdom to be educated in Oxford.:53–54 Upon returning in 1940, he was appointed Assistant Commissioner at Ferozepur and later appointed as Undersecretary of Punjab and the North-West Frontier from 1942 until 1944.:214 In 1944, he was appointed as Sub Divisional Magistrate at the Dalhousie, India and heard various cases involving the civil lawsuits. During the same time, he sent to Gurdaspur and its was appointed as Deputy Commissioner and later elevated as Session Judge as well as Assistant Commissioner in 1946. For a short brief of time, he served as the deputy commissioner of Hissar (in East Punjab) in 1946, before joining the Cabinet Mission to be served as its Secretary to the Partition Steering Committee for the Punjab in 1947.
After the establishment of Pakistan as a result of partition of British India by the British Empire, he opted for Pakistan and appointed as deputy commissioner of Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.:696 During this time, he worked towards managing the Indian emigrants settling in Pakistan.:228 From 1948–52, he served in the bureaucracy as deputy commissioner of Montgomery and Sialkot.
In 1952, he joined the Ministry of Defence (MoD) as its deputy secretary until 1954 when he left for the United Kingdom to attend the Imperial Defence College in London. In 1956, he earned the degree and secured his graduation from the Imperial Defence College and subsequently returned to Pakistan. He was appointed as joint secretary in MoD but later moved to Ministry of Law and Justice (MoLJ) to pursue career as federal judge.
Supreme court and chief justice
In 1959, he was appointed as a judge in the West Pakistan High Court and moved on to the Supreme Court as a senior justice in 1962. In 1965, he was appointed as the deputy leader of the Pakistan Delegation to the Third Commonwealth and Empire Law Conference held at Sydney, Australia in 1965. In 1967, he was appointed as a member of the Law Reform Commission led by Chief Justice Alvin Robert Cornelius that conducted the various case studies on land reforms in Pakistan.:266-267
In 1969, he was selected to lead a Legal Expert Delegation to Somalia to provide expertise in overviewing the constitutional crises in Somalia. In 1970, he was elevated as Chief Justice of the Lahore High Court by President Yahya Khan who issued the decree, the LFO No. 1970 that dissolved the status of West Pakistan.:184-186
On December 26 1971, he was named as a member of the War Enquiry Commission (WEC) alongside with Chief Justice Hamoodur Rahman, and the chief justices of the Sindh, Balochistan, and Punjab High Court, formed by the Chief Justice Rahman on the request of then-President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.:229-230 On 1 January 1972, he was re-elevated as the senior justice at the Supreme Court.:141
|Temporal Order||Name of Post||From||To|
|1||Secretary to the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province Public Service Commission. Secretary to Government of Punjab, Pakistan, Medical & Local Government Department||22 February 1944||29 February 1944|
|2||Under-Secretary to Government of Punjab, Pakistan Revenue Department, Lahore||1 March 1944||1 May 1944|
|3||Sub-Divisional Magistrate, Dalhousie, India||2 May 1944|
|4||Special Sub-Judge at Lahore for Judicial training||9 November 1944|
|5||Sub-Divisional Magistrate, Dalhousie||28 May 1945|
|6||Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur, India||June 1945||July 1945|
|7||District and Sessions Judge, Gurdaspur||3 November 1945|
|8||Assistant Commissioner, Gurdaspur||23 February 1946|
|9||Deputy Commissioner, Hisar, India||27 March 1946|
|10||Secretary to the Partition Steering Committee for Punjab, Pakistan||9 July 1947|
|11||Deputy Commissioner, Rawalpindi, Pakistan||8 August 1947|
|12||Deputy Commissioner, Montgomery (now Sahiwal), Pakistan||October 1948|
|13||Deputy Commissioner, Sialkot||April 1950|
|14||Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Defence, Government of Pakistan, Rawalpindi||January 1952||December 1954|
|15||Training at Imperial Defence College (IDC), London||January 1955||December 1955|
|16||Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Defence, Government of Pakistan, Karachi||August 1956|
|17||Joint Secretary, Ministry of Defence, Government of Pakistan, Karachi||August 1956|
|18||District and Sessions Judge, Karachi||February 1957|
|19||District and Sessions Judge, Lahore||June 1958|
|20||Additional Judge, High Court of West Pakistan, Lahore||24 October 1959|
|21||Permanent Judge, High Court of West Pakistan, Lahore||24 October 1962|
|22||Member of the Law Reforms Commission||May 1967|
|23||Acting leader of the legal expert delegation to the Republic of Somalia||July 1969|
|24||Chief Justice Lahore High Court, Lahore, on dismemberment of One Unit||1 July 1970|
|25||Judge, Supreme Court of Pakistan||16 October 1972|
|26||Chief Justice of Pakistan||23 September 1977||25 March 1981|
|27||Acting President of Pakistan||20 April 1978||7 May 1978|
Haq attended the Third Commonwealth and Empire Law Conference in Sydney, Australia in August–September 1965 as leader of the Pakistan delegation. He was interested in academic and educational activities and had been a member of the Syndicates of:
- Punjab University
- University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
- Agricultural University of Lyallpur (now Faisalabad)
- Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
Haq was President of the Himayat-i-Islam Law College, Lahore, and member of the University Law College, Lahore committee[which?] for several years. He was acting Vice-Chancellor of Punjab University on multiple occasions. He was appointed as a member of the 1971 War Inquiry Commission from January 1972 to November 1974 along with CJ Hamoodur Rahman. He was also appointed as Chairman of the National Pay Commission and Armed Forces Pay Commission in January 1976. He represented the Pakistan Supreme Court at the centenary celebrations of the Supreme Court of Ghana at Accra in October 1976. He was appointed Chairman of the Commission on the Indus River System in September 1977. He was appointed Chairman of the Civil Services Commission in February 1978. He had been President of the British Universities Alumni Association, Lahore since 1962.[when?] He was a guest speaker at a large number of social, intellectual, and cultural functions in Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Karachi.
Muhammad Yaqub Ali
|Chief Justice of Pakistan
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