April 1, 1891|
Slamannan, Stirlingshire, Scotland
|Died||August 6, 1971
Wellington, New Zealand
|Service/branch||New Zealand Military Forces|
|Years of service||1915–1927|
|Unit||3rd Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade|
Samuel Frickleton VC (1 April 1891 – 6 August 1971) was a soldier in the New Zealand Military Forces who served with the New Zealand Military Forces during the First World War. He was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award of the British Commonwealth for gallantry in the face of the enemy, for his actions in the Battle of Messines.
Frickleton was born on 1 April 1891 in Slamannan in Scotland, one of 11 children born to a coal-miner and his wife. He immigrated to New Zealand in 1913 and lived on the West Coast. He worked alongside four of his brothers in a coal mine in Blackball.
Following the outbreak of the First World War, Frickleton joined the New Zealand Military Forces in February 1915 and volunteered to serve overseas with the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF). His four brothers had also volunteered for the NZEF.
Frickleton embarked for the Middle East with the 5th Reinforcements with the rank of corporal in the Canterbury Battalion. After arriving in Egypt in June, he became ill and was repatriated back to New Zealand and subsequently discharged as medically unfit for active service. After a period of convalescence, he re-enlisted for the NZEF in 1916. He was posted to France as a rifleman in the 3rd Battalion, New Zealand Rifle Brigade. By March 1917, he had been promoted to corporal.
On 7 June 1917, Frickleton participated in the Battle of Messines. His battalion was attacking the edge of Messines village when it was slowed by two machine gun posts. He was awarded a Victoria Cross (VC) for his actions in dealing with these posts. The citation for his VC read as follows:
For most conspicuous bravery and determination when with attacking troops, which came under heavy fire and were checked. Although slightly wounded, Lance Corporal Frickleton dashed forward at the head of his section, rushed through a barrage and personally destroyed with bombs an enemy machine gun and crew, which were causing heavy casualties. He then attacked the second gun, killing the whole of the crew of twelve. By the destruction of these two guns he undoubtedly saved his own and other units from very severe casualties and his magnificent courage and gallantry ensured the capture of the objective. During the consolidation of the position he suffered a second severe wound. He set, throughout, a great example of heroism.— London Gazette, No. 30215, 2 August 1917.
Frickleton was wounded in the arm and hip and was badly gassed, which would affect his health for the remainder of his life. Evacuated to England for medical treatment, he was presented with his VC by King George V on 17 September 1917, in a ceremony at Glasgow. By then he was an acting sergeant, which was confirmed later that year. After a period of further hospitalisation, he was selected for and underwent officer training. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in March 1918 and returned to the Rifle Brigade. However, his health problems persisted and he was repatriated to New Zealand in June 1918. He was accorded a hero's welcome and a reception was held at the Auckland Town Hall in his honour. He would spend the remainder of the year under medical care. He was discharged from the NZEF in December 1918.
After the war, Frickleton transferred to the New Zealand Staff Corps. He was promoted to acting lieutenant and served as assistant provost marshal for the Wellington Military District for several months until June 1919. He was then transferred to the Canterbury Military District. For health reasons, he retired from the military with the rank of captain in April 1927.
In civilian life he tried several professions. At first, he took up business in Wellington and then tried farming at Waikanae. He later worked as a house manager. His poor health notwithstanding, in 1934 he joined the Territorial Force with the rank of captain. He was later awarded the Efficiency Decoration for his long service in the military. He was part of the New Zealand contingent sent to London in 1937 for the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. He was returned to the Officer Reserve the same year. In 1939, Frickleton was recalled to active duty and served as Inspector, New Zealand Military Forces. He was returned to the Retired List in 1948. In 1956, he was one of 400 VC winners who paraded in Hyde Park in London.
Frickleton died in 1971 in Wellington after a long illness. He was survived by his wife, whom he married in 1922, and a son. He is buried in the Taita Serviceman's Cemetery, Naenae. There are several memorials to his memory; on 7 June 2007, a plaque commemorating his bravery was unveiled at the Mesen Church in Belgium in a ceremony attended by two of his granddaughters. There is also a plaque in his honour at the Messines Ridge British Cemetery.
Frickleton's wife donated his VC and other medals to the QEII Army Memorial Museum in 1977. The VC was on display when it was one of nine Victoria Crosses that were among a hundred medals stolen from the museum in December 2007. On 16 February 2008, New Zealand Police announced all the medals had been recovered as a result of a NZ$300,000 reward offered by Michael Ashcroft and Tom Sturgess.
- Gliddon 2012, pp. 211–213.
- Harper & Richardson 2007, pp. 140–143.
- The London Gazette: . 2 August 1917. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- Gliddon 2012, p. 210.
- Derek Cheng (December 2007). "Army medal theft 'insult' to our nation's heritage". nzherald. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- NZPA (February 2008). "Medals stolen from Waiouru Army Museum recovered". nzherald. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Gliddon, Gerald (2012). VCs of the First World War: Arras and Messines 1917. Stroud, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-6604-0.
- Harper, Glyn; Richardson, Colin (2007). In the Face of the Enemy: The Complete History of the Victoria Cross and New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: HarperCollins Publishers (New Zealand) Limited. ISBN 1869506502.