9K34 Strela-3

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9K34 Strela-3
SA-14 missile and launch tube.jpg
A 9K34 Strela-3 (SA-14) missile and launch tube.
TypeMan-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS)
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1974–present
Used bySee Operators
WarsIran–Iraq War, War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), Bosnian War, Second Congo War, Afghan Civil War, Iraq War
Production history
ManufacturerKBM, Kolomna
Specifications
WeightMissile weight: 10.3 kilograms (23 lb), Full system: 16.0 kg (35.3 lb)
Length1.47 metres (4.8 ft)

Operational
range
4,100 m
Flight altitude2,300 metres (7,500 ft)
Speed410 metres per second (1,500 km/h; 920 mph)

The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian: 9К34 «Стрела-3», 'arrow', NATO reporting name: SA-14 Gremlin) is a man-portable air defense missile system (MANPADS) developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 (SA-7 Grail) system. The missile was largely based on the earlier Strela 2, and thus development proceeded rapidly. The new weapon was accepted into service in the Soviet Army in January 1974.

Description[edit]

The most significant change over the Strela 2 was the introduction of an all-new infra-red homing seeker head. The new seeker worked on FM modulation (con-scan) principle, which is less vulnerable to jamming and decoy flares than the earlier AM (spin-scan) seekers, which were easily fooled by flares and even the most primitive infrared jammers. The new seeker also introduced detector element cooling in the form of a pressurized nitrogen bottle attached to the launcher.

The effect of cooling was to expand the seeker's lead sulphide detector element's sensitivity range to longer wavelengths (slightly over 4 µm as opposed to 2.8 µm of uncooled PbS elements). In practice this made possible the tracking of cooler targets over longer ranges, and enabled forward-hemisphere engagement of jets under favourable circumstances. The seeker also had better tracking rate, enabling the missile to track maneuvering of fast and approaching targets.

A negative side effect from the aforementioned improvements was increased missile weight, which caused a slight decrease in the kinematic performance of the original Strela-2 (SA-7).[citation needed] Against relatively slow, low-altitude battlefield air threats the overall effectiveness was much improved.[citation needed]

Strela-3 missiles have been exported to over 30 countries.

The original Strela-3 missile was the 9M36. The follow-on to the Strela-3 was Igla.

The naval version of this missile has the NATO reporting name of SA-N-8.

Operational history[edit]

Iraq[edit]

On 22 November 2003 an Airbus A300 cargo plane was hit by a Strela-3 missile after takeoff from Baghdad International Airport, but managed to land safely despite losing hydraulic power.

On 6 May 2006, a British Westland Lynx AH.7 of the Royal Navy from 847 Squadron was shot down with a Strela-3 over Basra, killing five crewmen and crashing into a house.[1]

Abkhazia[edit]

During the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), a Russian Mi-8 helicopter was shot down by a Georgian Army SA-14 on December 14, 1992, resulting in the death of 3 crew and 58 passengers, most of them Russian refugees. A Georgian Air Force Su-25 was shot down over Nizhnaya Eshera on 4 July 1993 by SA-14,[2] and several other aircraft on both sides may have been shot down by SA-14s.[3]

Former Yugoslavia[edit]

A British BAE Sea Harrier of 801 Naval Air Squadron, operating from aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, was shot down during its attack on two Serbian T-55 tanks in Bosnia. The pilot, Lieutenant Nick Richardson, ejected and landed in territory controlled by friendly Bosniaks (16 April 1994).

DRC Congo[edit]

A Zimbabwe Air Force Il-76 was shot down by Congolese rebels using an SA-14 on 11 October 1998 during the Second Congo War, resulting in the death of 40 troops and crew.[4]

Afghanistan[edit]

SA-14s used by the Northern Alliance are credited with having shot down 8 Taliban MiG-21 and Su-22 fighters during the Taliban's 2000 offensive against Taloqan.[5]

Operators[edit]

Map with 9K34 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

  •  Czechoslovakia – never inducted in military service[10]
  •  East Germany – never acquired to military service[10]
  •  Hungary – never acquired to military service[10]
  •  Iraq – some of them were looted after the Iraq War in 2003, being used in the post war insurgency and subsequent regional wars and finding their way in the black market.
  •  Poland – 100 bought in 1980s, but never acquired to military service.[10]
  •  Soviet Union
  •  Yugoslavia

Comparison chart[edit]

System 9K32M Strela-2M (missile: 9M32M) 9K34 Strela-3 (missile: 9M36) [11] FIM-43C Redeye[12]
Service entry 1968 1974 1968
Mass, full system, ready to shoot 15 kg 16 kg 13.3 kg
Weight, missile 9.8 kg 10.3 kg 8.3 kg
Length 1.44 m 1.47 m 1.40 m
Warhead 1.15 kg (0.37 kg HMX) directed-energy blast fragmentation 1.17 kg (0.39 kg HMX) directed-energy blast fragmentation, including a 20g secondary charge to set off remaining rocket propellant 1.06 kg M222 (0.36 kg HTA-3) blast fragmentation
Seeker type AM-modulated (spin scan), uncooled PbS detector element (1–2.8 µm sensitivity range). Tail-chase only. FM-modulated (con scan), nitrogen-cooled PbS detector element (2–4.3 µm sensitivity range). Limited forward hemisphere (all-aspect) capability AM-modulated, uncooled PbS detector element. Tail-chase only.
Maximum range 4,200 m 4,100 m 4,500 m
Speed 430 m/s 410 m/s 580 m/s
Target's maximum speed, approaching/receding 150/260 m/s 310/260 m/s –/225 m/s
Engagement altitude 0.05–2.3 km 0.03–2.3 km 0.05–2.7 km

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.aviationnewsreleases.com/2009/04/raf-pursues-common-das-demonstrator.html
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
  3. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Georgia and Abkhazia, 1992-1993: the War of Datchas". ACIG.org. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  4. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Zaire/DR Congo, 1980-2001". ACIG.org. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  5. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Afghanistan, 1979-2001; Part 2". ACIG.org. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Guided light weapons reportedly held by non-state armed groups 1998-2013" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. March 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (14 February 2018). "The Military Balance 2018". The Military Balance. 118.
  8. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Georgia and Abkhazia, 1992-1993: the War of Datchas". ACIG.org. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  9. ^ Small Arms Survey (2012). "Blue Skies and Dark Clouds: Kazakhstan and Small Arms" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-521-19714-4.
  10. ^ a b c d [1]
  11. ^ Istorija sozdanija i razvitija vooruzhenija i vojennoi theniki PVO suhoputnyh voisk Rossii
  12. ^ General Dynamics FIM-43 Redeye

Bibliography[edit]

  • Petukhov, Sergei I.; Shestov I.V. (1998). History of design and development of missile systems and military systems of AAW of Russian Land Forces / Istorija sozdanija i razvitija vooruzhenija i vojennoi tehniki PVO suhoputnyh voisk Rossii, 1.-2. VPK Publishing.
  • "Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles, FIM-43". Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-23.

External links[edit]