| 2K12 Kub |
NATO reporting name: SA-6 "Gainful"
2P25 TEL with missiles elevated, (2K12 Kub SAM of Serbian Army 250th Air Defense Brigade)
|Type||Tracked medium-range surface-to-air missile system|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See list of operators|
|No. built||500 launchers, 10,000 missiles[dubious ]|
|Variants||2K12 Kub, 2K12E Kvadrat (export version), 2K12M3, 2K12M4|
|Specifications (2K12 Kub)|
|3 3M9M4(or variants) guided missiles|
|Engine||integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor|
|command guidance with terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH)|
The 2K12 "Kub" (Russian: 2К12 "Куб"; English: cube) (NATO reporting name: SA-6 "Gainful") mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. "2К12" is the GRAU designation of the system.
Each 2K12 battery consists of a number of similar tracked vehicles, one of which carries the 1S91 (SURN vehicle, NATO designation "Straight Flush") 25 kW G/H band radar (with a range of 75 km (47 mi)) equipped with a continuous wave illuminator, in addition to an optical sight. The battery usually also includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers (TELs), and four trucks, each carrying three spare missiles and a crane. The TEL is based on a GM-578 chassis, while the 1S91 radar vehicle is based on a GM-568 chassis, all developed and produced by MMZ.
The development of the 2K12 was started after 18 July 1958 at the request of the CPSU Central Committee. The system was set the requirements of being able to engage aerial targets flying at speeds of 420 to 600 m/s (820–1,200 kn) at altitudes of 100 to 7,000 m (330 to 23,000 ft) at ranges up to 20 km (12 mi), with a single shot kill probability of at least 0.7.
The systems design was the responsibility of the now Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP). In addition to NIIP several other design bureaus were involved in the creation of the Kub missile system including Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant which designed and produced the chassis of the self-propelled components. Many of the design bureaus would later go on to co-operate in the development of the successor to the 2K12 "Kub", the 9K37 "Buk"
First trials of the missile system were started at the end of 1959 to discover a series of problems:
- low power for the missile radar seeker and badly designed nose cone
- missile air inlets design failure
- low quality of heat shield inside the afterburner chamber (titanium was replaced by steel).
In August 1961 Toropov was replaced by Lyapin as the Chief Designer of Vympel and in January 1962 Tikhomirov was replaced by Figurovskiy as the Chief Designer of NIIP. Still, the work was not intensified. Before 1963 only 11 of 83 missiles fired had the seeker head installed; only 3 launches were successful.
The system entered an extended testing period between 1959 and 1966, after overcoming the technical difficulties of producing the 2K12 "Kub" the system was accepted into service on 23 January 1967 and went into production that same year.
It is sometimes claimed that the M-11 Shtorm naval system is a version of the 3M9 but this is not the case, as the M-11 Shtorm is a separate system and, unusually for Russian surface-to-air missiles, has no land-based variant.
The 2K12 "Kub" was recommended for modernisation work in 1967 with the goal of improving combat characteristics (longer range, improved ECCM, reliability and reaction time) established for the new chief designer Ardalion Rastov. A modernised variant underwent trial testing in 1972 eventually being adopted in 1973 as the "Kub-M1". The system underwent another modernisation between 1974 and 1976, again the general combat characteristics of the system were improved with the "Kub-M3" clearing testing and entering service in 1976.
After the Rastov visit to Egypt in 1971 to see Kub in operation he decided upon the development of a new system, called Buk, where each TEL should have its own fire control radar (TELAR) and is able to engage multiple targets from multiple directions at the same time.
The final major development of the Kub missile system was achieved during the development of its successor, the 9K37 "Buk" in 1974. Although the Buk is the successor to Kub it was decided that both systems could share some interoperability, the result of this decision was the "Kub-M4" system. The Kub-M4 used Kub-M3 components which could receive fire control information from the 9А310 transporter erector launcher and radar (TELAR) of the 9K37 Buk. The advantage of interoperability was an increase in the number of fire control channels and available missiles for each system as well as a faster service entry for Buk system components. The Kub-M4 was adopted into service in 1978 following completion of trials.
|Photo of one of the Buk prototype, based on Kub components|
|Photo of one of the Buk prototype, based on Kub components (sideview)|
Some early development interpretations of the Buk missile system heavily utilized Kub components, including the 3M9 missile.
There are several plans to integrate active radar homing missiles into Kub. For instance, Polish WZU of Grudziadz demonstrated a project of a Sparrow-armed Kub at the MSPO 2008 defence exhibition in Kielce. It is reported also that Vympel initiated some work to use its RVV-AE air-to-air missile to modernise the Kvadrat SAM system.
Also, the Czech company RETIA presented a SURN (fire control radar) upgrade featuring an optical channel and new multiple-function color displays as well as the radar upgrade and the IFF system.
In 2011 a Kub upgraded launcher (named "2K12 KUB CZ") with three Aspide 2000 missiles in launch containers was presented at the International Exhibition of Defence and Security Technologies (IDET) exposition in Brno. The modifications were made by Retia.
The 2K12 system shares many components with the 2K11 Krug (SA-4) system. In many ways they are designed to complement each other; 2K11 is effective at long ranges and high altitudes, 2K12 at medium ranges and intermediate altitudes.
The system is able to acquire and begin tracking targets using the 1S91 "Самоходная установка разведки и наведения" (SPRGU - "Self-propelled Reconnaissance and Guidance Unit" / NATO: "Straight Flush" radar) at 75 km (47 mi) and begin illumination and guidance at 28 km (17 mi). IFF is also performed using this radar. It can only guide one or two missiles to a single target at any time. The missile is initially command guided with terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH), with target illumination provided by the "Straight Flush" radar. Detonation is via either the impact or proximity fuze. On the latest models, this vehicle is also fitted with an optical tracking system which allows engagement without the use of the radar (for active RF emissions stealth reasons, or due to heavy ECM jamming) in which case the effective altitude is limited to 14 km/46000 ft. The optical tracking method also allows engagements to altitudes below that where the radar is able to track targets. Maximum target speed is around Mach 2 for head-on engagements and Mach 1 for tail-chase engagements. Top speed of the missile is approximately Mach 2.8.
In contrast to the elaborate Patriot missile or even the simpler Hawk system fielded by US forces, most of the system rides on two tracked self-propelled vehicles, rather than towed or mounted on trucks, and either the launcher or control vehicle can be set to launch in only 15 minutes after changing location.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Variants||3M9, 3M9M1, 3M9M3, 3M9M4|
|Warhead weight||59 kg|
|Contact and proximity|
|Propellant||integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor|
|24 kilometres (15 mi)|
|Flight altitude||Max. 14,000 metres (46,000 ft) |
Min. 100 metres (330 ft)
|Maximum speed||Mach 2.8|
|semi-active radar homing|
|IVC 3M20M3 Peniye|
|Type||Surface-to-air missile training target imitator system|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union/ Russia|
|Propellant||integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor|
|24 kilometres (15 mi)|
|Flight altitude||500 metres (1,600 ft) – 6,000 metres (20,000 ft)|
|Maximum speed||200–600 m/s|
|semi-active radar homing|
The fairly large missiles have an effective range of 4–24 km (2.5–15 miles) and an effective altitude of 50–14,000 m (164–45,931 ft). The missile weighs 599 kg (1,321 lb) and the warhead weighs 56 kg (123 lb). Top missile speed is approx. Mach 2.8. The combined propulsion system 9D16K included solid fuel rocket motor which, when burned out, forms the combustion chamber for a ramjet in a pioneering design putting this missile far ahead of its contemporaries in terms of propulsion.
The missile was fitted with a semi-active radar seeker 1SB4, designed by MNII Agat, which was able to track the target by Doppler frequency since the start. Later upgrades (3M9M3 missile) could do this before the start. Chief Designer of the seeker head was Yu.N. Vekhov, since 1960 – I.G. Akopyan.
In 1977 a new version, the 3M9M1 (DoD designation SA-6B) was created with three missiles fitted onto a different chassis (the same as that of the 9K37 "Buk" (NATO reporting name "Gadfly" / DoD SA-11 ), the 2K12 effective replacement) with an integrated "Fire Dome" missile guidance radar. For comparisons between the 2K12, 9K37, see the 9K37 Buk entry.
An earlier incremental upgrade saw the 2K12 missiles replaced with the 2K12E versions and this system was known as Kvadrat ("Квадрат", meaning square). This name was derived from the most common arrangement pattern of the military vehicles of the 2K12 complex, when the 1S91 radar is located at the center and 4x2P25 TELs at the vertices of a square around the radar.
|Missiles per TEL||3||3||3||3|
|Engagement range||6–22 km||4–23 km||4–25 km||4–24 km|
|100–7,000 m||80–8,000 m||20–8,000 m||30–14,000 m|
|Maximum target speed
|Response Time (seconds)||26–28||22–24||22–24||24|
|missile Weight, kg||630 kg||630 kg||630 kg||630 kg|
|Deployment time (minutes)||5||5||5||5|
SURN 1S91 vehicle included two radar station – a target acquisition and distribution radar 1S11 and a continuous wave illuminator 1S31, in addition to an IFF interrogator and an optical channel.
While 1S31 antenna was installed on the upper section of the superstructure and the 1S11 on the lower, they could turn around independently. To make the height of the vehicle lower the central cylinder was able to hide inside the prime mover.
The acquisition range of the radar was reported as 50 km (31 mi) for an F-4 Phantom II type of target.
Total weight of the 1S91 vehicle with a crew of 4 was 20.3 tonnes and 2P25 vehicle with 3 missiles and a crew of 3 was 19.5 t.
The 2K12 can also be used at a regimental level, if used as such it can be accompanied by a number of additional radar systems for extended air search at longer range and lower altitude, to supplement the 1S91 "Straight Flush". These systems include the:
- P-12 "Spoon Rest", a VHF early warning radar (also used by the S-75 Dvina), with a 200 kilometres (120 mi) range.
- P-40 "Long Track", an E band early warning radar (also used by the 2K11 Krug and 9K33 Osa), with a 370 kilometres (230 mi) range.
- P-15 "Flat Face A", a UHF early warning radar (also used by the S-125 Neva, with a 150 kilometres (93 mi) range.
- "Thin Skin" or "Side Net" E band height finding radar (also used by the S-75, 2K11 Krug and S-200, range 240 km/148 miles)
- "Score Board" IFF radar
The "Spoon Rest" and "Thin Skin" are mounted on a truck, "Long Track" on a tracked vehicle (a modified AT-T) and "Flat Face" on a van. It is unknown what kind of mounting the "Score Board" has.
Without the P-40 "Long Track" mobile radar vehicle, the 2K12 is unable to track aircraft at high altitudes.
Yom Kippur War
The Egyptian and Syrian 2K12s surprised the Israeli military in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, because they were accustomed to having air superiority over the battlefield. The highly mobile 2K12 took a heavy toll on the slower A-4 Skyhawk and even the F-4 Phantom, forming a protective umbrella until they could be removed. The radar warning receivers on the Israeli aircraft did not alert the pilot to the fact that he was being illuminated by the radar. The 2K12 achieved a good performance as a weapon according to a conversation between Israeli General Peled and Henry Kissinger, and was the main anti-air missile in Egyptian inventory to cause Israeli losses followed by the 9K32 Strela-2.
The superior low altitude performance of the weapon, and its new CW semi-active missile seeker resulted in a much higher success rate compared to the earlier S-75 Dvina and S-125 Neva systems. While exact losses continue to be disputed, around 40 aircraft are usually cited as lost to SAM shots, and the 2K12 Kub proved the most effective of the three weapons. But in subsequent conflicts, its performance declined as captured examples resulted in effective counter-measures being developed.
1982 Lebanon war
The Syrians also deployed the 2K12 Kub to Lebanon in 1981 after the Israelis shot down Syrian helicopters near Zahlé. The SAM batteries were placed in the Bekaa Valley near the Beirut-Damascus road. They remained close to the existing Syrian air defense system but could not be fully integrated into it.[clarification needed] Early in the 1982 Lebanon war, the Israeli Air Force concentrated on suppressing the SAM threat in the Beqaa Valley, launching Operation Mole Cricket 19. The result was a complete success. Several 2K12 Kub batteries, along with S-75s and S-125 systems, were destroyed in a single day. While Syria's own air defenses remained largely intact, its forces in Lebanon were left exposed to attacks by Israeli strike aircraft for the remainder of the war. It has been reported, however, that at least one Israeli F-4 Phantom fighter-bomber was shot down in the area by an SA-6 on July 24, 1982.
South African Border War
The People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) procured a number of 2K12 Kub systems from the Soviet Union in 1981. According to the Central Intelligence Agency, Angola had obtained sixteen TEL launchers for the 2K12 Kub systems, which were deployed in the Moçâmedes District. The South African military noted that the missiles would make it difficult for it to provide air cover for its cross-border operations against guerrillas of the People's Liberation Army of Namibia, which were operating from Angolan sanctuaries. All of Angola'a 2K12 Kub launchers were destroyed in a South African preemptive strike as part of Operation Protea.
2K12 Kub missile sites were also operated by Cuban expeditionary forces in Angola during Operation Excite/Hilti. On 26 June 1988, six 3M9M3 missiles launched from a Cuban 2K12 Kub battery were fired at a South African weather balloon being used as a radar decoy over Tchipa. South African observers used the firing data to plot the location of the 2K12 Kub launchers and destroyed them in a concentrated bombardment with G5 howitzers.
Western Sahara War
Forces of the Polisario Front acquired two full batteries of 2K12 Kub missiles from Algeria during the Western Sahara War, which they used effectively against the fighters of the Royal Moroccan Air Force, including shooting down two Mirage F1 fighters in 1981 during a major battle in Guelta Zemmur.
On 19 August 2003, a Polish Air Force Su-22M4K was accidentally shot down by friendly fire during an exercise by a Polish 2K12 Kub battery. The aircraft was flying 21 km (13 mi) from the coast over the Baltic Sea near Ustka. The pilot, General Andrzej Andrzejewski, ejected and was rescued after two hours in the water.
The system was deployed by Libya during the border dispute with Chad and proved a threat for French aircraft. On 16 February 1986, the system failed in detecting low flying French jets which were attacking the Ouadi Doum airbase. On January 7, 1987, the French Air Force were successful in destroying a 2K12 Kub radar site in the Faya Largeau area with SEPECAT Jaguars armed with Martel anti-radiation missiles.
In March, the Chadian rebels captured Ouadi Doum air base, seizing virtually all heavy equipment used for the defense of this airfield, intact. Most of this equipment was transported to France and the United States in the following days, but some 2K12 Kub systems remained in Chad.
With this catastrophe, the Libyan occupation of northern Chad – and the annexation of the Aouzou Strip – was over: by 30 March, the bases at Faya Largeau and Aouzou had to be abandoned. The LARAF now had a completely different task: its Tu-22Bs were to attack the abandoned bases and destroy as much equipment left there as possible. The first strikes were flown in April, and they continued until 8 August 1987, when two Tu-22Bs tasked to strike Aouzou were ambushed by a captured 2K12 Kub battery used by the Chadian Army. One of the bombers was shot down.
Several 2K12 Kub batteries, along with other SAM systems and military equipment, were supplied to Iraq before and during the Iran–Iraq War as part of large military packages from the Soviet Union. The batteries were active since the start of the war in September 1980, scoring kills against U.S-supplied Iranian F-4 Phantoms and Northrop F-5s.
Kub systems were active again during the 1991 war. On the opening night of Desert Storm, on 17 January 1991, a B-52G was damaged by a missile. Different versions of this engagement are told. It could have been an S-125 or a 2K12 Kub while other versions report a MiG-29 allegedly fired a R-27R missile and damaged the B-52G. However, the U.S. Air Force disputes these claims, stating the bomber was actually hit by friendly fire, an AGM-88 High-speed, Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) that homed on the fire-control radar of the B-52's tail gun; the jet was subsequently renamed In HARM's Way. Shortly following this incident, General George Lee Butler announced that the gunner position on B-52 crews would be eliminated, and the gun turrets permanently deactivated, commencing on 1 October 1991.
On January 19, 1991, a USAF F-16 (serial 87-228) was shot down by a 2K12 Kub during the massive (though ill-fated) Package Q Strike against a heavily defended Baghdad. It was combat loss number 10 in Operation Desert Storm. The pilot, Captain Harry 'Mike' Roberts, ejected safely but was taken prisoner and freed in March 1991. The aircraft was on a mission to attack the Air Defense Headquarters Building. It had flown 4 combat missions before being lost.
In any case, the 2K12 Kub threat was largely controlled by Allied EW assets together with the older S-75s and S-125 missile systems. Most of the losses were due to IR guided SAMs.
Kubs continued to be used by the Iraqi military, along with other SAM systems, to challenge the Western imposed no-fly zones during the 1990s and early 2000s. They were not able to shoot down any Coalition aircraft though several sites were destroyed as retaliation. In one incident, on September 11, 1996, during Operation Provide Comfort II, one missile was fired against two USAF F-16 in northern Iraq but missed. On December 30, 1998, a 2K12 Kub site near Talil fired 6-8 missiles at aircraft enforcing the Southern Watch component of the NFZ. American F-16s responded by dropping six GBU-12 laser-guided bombs on the site and also launching two HARMs "as a preemptive measure" to warn Iraqi radar operators against carrying out more firings.
Bosnia and Kosovo
Army of Republika Srpska forces, using modified 2K12 Kub systems were successful in shooting down Scott O'Grady's F-16 in 1995 and two to three Croatian AN-2 aircraft that were used as night bombers with improvised 100 kg bombs.
During the Kosovo War in 1999, on the first night of the war (March 24/25), a Yugoslav Air Force MiG-29 flown by Maj. Predrag Milutinović was downed by a Kub battery in a friendly fire incident, while approaching Niš Airport after an unsuccessful engagement with NATO aircraft.
The Yugoslav Air Defence had 22 2K12 Kub batteries. Using shoot and scoot tactics, the self-propelled ground system demonstrated a good survivability with only three radars lost in the face of nearly four-hundred AGM-88 shots. As comparison the fixed S-75 and S-125 sites suffered losses to around 66 to 80 percent. According to the then-commander of Air force and air defense General Spasoje Smiljanić, during the 78 day campaign, 2K12 Kub had 46 shooting with 70 missiles.
On April 14, 2018, American, British, and French forces launched 103 air-to-surface and cruise missiles targeting sites in Syria. According to the Russian military, twenty-one Kub missiles launched in response allegedly destroyed eleven incoming missiles, However, the American Department of Defense stated no Allied missiles were shot down.
- Algeria – about 40 2K12s, as of 2012
- Angola – 25 2К12s, as of 2012
- Bulgaria – 20 2K12, as of 2016
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – 20 2K12, as of 2019
- Cuba – 25+
- Czech Republic – 4 batteries – 16 launchers and 4 radiolocators
- Egypt – 56 2K12s, as of 2012
- Ethiopia – unknown number in service.
- Hungary – 16 2K12s, as of 2012
- India – 180 2K12s, as of 2012
- Kazakhstan – 20 2K12s, as of 2012
- Myanmar – Kub kvadrat-m SAM and 2K12 SAM received from Belarus.
- North Korea
- Poland – 20 2K12s, as of 2015.
- Romania – 8 batteries, future upgrading expected and proposed
- Russia – Replaced by 9K37 Buk. Current 1 battery 2K12s deployed in Armenia, as of 2012 (retired as of 2015). Also in service as IVC 3M20M3 Peniye missile training target imitator system
- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- Serbian Army – 87 2К12s
- Slovakia – 4 2K12s with C2 Tatrapan PVO
- Syria – 195 2K12s, as of 2012
- Tanzania – 20 2K12s, as of 2012
- Turkmenistan – 2+ in service as of 2016
- East Germany – Retired after German reunification
- Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states
- Yugoslavia – Passed on to successor states
- "SA-6 (Gainful) / 2K12 Kub – Tracked Medium-Range Surface-to-Air Missile Defense System – History, Specs and Pictures – Military Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery". Militaryfactory.com. 23 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "ЗРК "Куб"". Pvo.guns.ru. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "САМОХОДНЫЙ ЗЕНИТНЫЙ РАКЕТНЫЙ КОМПЛЕКС 2К12 "КУБ" (SA-6 GAINFUL)" (in Russian). pvo.guns.ru. 11 April 2004. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- "Chief Designer Ardalion Rastov". www.milparade.udm.ru. 31 August 1998. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
- (in Russian) Buk (9K37, SA-11, Gadfly) Archived 4 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, ARMS-EXPO website
- "Sparrow missile integration with SA-6". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Jane's- Surface to Air". Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2009., Poland's WZU shows Sparrow-armed Kub[permanent dead link] at Jane's Information Group website
- "2K12 Kub modernisation for Polish Army at MSPO 2007 Defence Exhibition". www.armyrecognition.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
- RV-77 could create a smarter Kub Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine at Jane's Information Group website
- SAM system modernization Archived 1 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine at RETIA, a.s.
- The Czech company RETIA, a.s. is replacing – three deadly fingers – of the Surface to Air Missile (SAM) system 2K12 KUB at RETIA, a.s.
- The White House Memorandum of Conversation
- C Kopp. "3M9ME Gainful SAM launch from TEL". Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Vanneman, Peter (1990). Soviet Strategy in Southern Africa: Gorbachev's Pragmatic Approach. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 41–57. ISBN 978-0817989026.
- "SA-6 Equipment: Moccamedes SAM Support Facility, Angola" (PDF). Langley: Central Intelligence Agency. 1980–81. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Jaster, Robert Scott (1997). The Defence of White Power: South African Foreign Policy under Pressure. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 66–68, 93–103. ISBN 978-0333454558.
- George, Edward (2005). The Cuban intervention in Angola. New York: Frank Cass Publishers. p. 244. ISBN 978-0415647106.
- Cooper, Tom. "Morocco, Mauritania & West Sahara since 1972". ACIG.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- "Online.de". Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- Burns, John F. (21 June 2011). "Cameron Rebuts Commanders' Concerns About Libya Campaign". New York Times. Libya. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Cordesman, Anthony; Wagner, Abraham R. (26 September 2003). "Chapter XIII: The Air and Missile Wars and Weapons of Mass Destruction". The Lessons of Modern War: Volume II, The Iran–Iraq War (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Iranian_F_5_LOSSES any ejections". Ejection-history.org.uk. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Chronological Listing of Iranian Air Force McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom II Losses & Ejections". Ejection-history.org.uk. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Lake 2004, p. 48.
- Lake 2004, pp. 47–48.
- Condor 1994, p. 44.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #87-0228". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Coalition Aircraft Combat Attrition". Rjlee.org. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Operation Provide Comfort II". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "All For One" Archived 12 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine, June 19, 1995, Kevin Fedarko and Mark Thompson, Time
- "Airframe details for 89-2032". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- AF Monthly, July 1992
- Roger Cohen, Serbs Kill a Bosnian Leader and Take More Hostages; Copter Downed - 33 Britons Are Seized, The New York Times, 29 May 1995.
- Andrew, Martin. "Revisiting the Lessons of Operation Allied Force". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Spasoje Smiljanić. "Borba Davida i Golijata | Ostali članci". Večernje novosti. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Briefing by Russian Defence Ministry official Major General Igor Konashenkov (April 16, 2018)". Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
- "Department of Defense Press Briefing by Pentagon Chief Spokesperson". U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 316
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 422
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 90
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 385
- "25plrp.army.cz". www.25plrb.army.cz. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 105
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 322
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 125
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 244
- "کاوادرات؛ نبرد 4 گوش سپاه با جنگال و کروز - مشرق نیوز". Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 256
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 338
- "Myanmar". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- "Trade-Register-1971-2018.rft". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "ForeignPolicy.com: What do North Korea's air defenses look like?". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- 4/2/13 FP Situation Report: By Gordon Lubold
- "Uzbrojenie i wyposażenie Wojska Polskiego A.D. 2015/2016". BLOG HISTORYCZNO-MILITARNY. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Peniye training target system Archived 9 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine at Russian Firearms: Specifications, Photos, Pictures website
- Vympel 3M20M3 (Russian Federation), aerial targets Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine at Jane's Information Group website
- Francesco Palmas (2012). "Il contenzioso del sahara occidentale fra passato e presente" (PDF). Informazioni della Difesa (in Italian). No. 4. pp. 50–59. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- "Protilietadlov raketov brigda Nitra". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 350
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 457
- Hərbi TV (31 October 2016). "Turkmenistan Military Parade 2016". YouTube (in Turkmen). Ashgabat. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 197
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 293
- IISS 2012 Military Balance, pp. 355
- Kočevar, Iztok (August 2014). "Micmac à tire-larigot chez Tito: L'arme blindée yougoslave durant la Guerre froide" [The Yugoslav armored arm during the Cold War]. Batailles et Blindés (in French). No. 62. Caraktère. pp. 66–79. ISSN 1765-0828.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies (7 March 2012). Hackett, James (ed.). The Military Balance 2012. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-642-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2K12 Kub.|