SABRE (rocket engine)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Reaction Engines SABRE
Sabre-model.jpg
A model of SABRE
Country of originUnited Kingdom
DesignerReaction Engines Limited
ApplicationSingle-stage-to-orbit
Associated L/VSkylon
PredecessorRB545
StatusResearch and development
Liquid-fuel engine
PropellantAir and LO2 / liquid hydrogen[1]
CycleCombined cycle precooled jet engine and closed cycle rocket engine
Performance
Thrust (vac.)Approx. 2,940 kN (660,000 lbf)[citation needed]
Thrust (SL)Approx. 1,960 kN (440,000 lbf)[citation needed]
Thrust-to-weight ratioUp to 14 (atmospheric)[2]
Isp (vac.)460 seconds (4.5 km/s)[3]
Isp (SL)3,600 seconds (1.0 lb/(lbf⋅h); 35 km/s)[3]

SABRE (Synergetic Air Breathing Rocket Engine[4]) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.[5][6] The engine is being designed to achieve single-stage-to-orbit capability, propelling the proposed Skylon spaceplane to low Earth orbit. SABRE is an evolution of Alan Bond's series of liquid air cycle engine (LACE) and LACE-like designs that started in the early/mid-1980s for the HOTOL project.[7]

The design comprises a single combined cycle rocket engine with two modes of operation.[3] The air-breathing mode combines a turbo-compressor with a lightweight air precooler positioned just behind the inlet cone. At high speeds this precooler cools the hot, ram-compressed air, which would otherwise reach a temperature that the engine could not withstand,[8] leading to a very high pressure ratio within the engine. The compressed air is subsequently fed into the rocket combustion chamber where it is ignited along with stored liquid hydrogen. The high pressure ratio allows the engine to provide high thrust at very high speeds and altitudes. The low temperature of the air permits light alloy construction to be employed and allow a very lightweight engine—essential for reaching orbit. In addition, unlike the LACE concept, SABRE's precooler does not liquefy the air, letting it run more efficiently.[2]

After shutting the inlet cone off at Mach 5.14, and at an altitude of 28.5 km,[3] the system continues as a closed-cycle high-performance rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen from on-board fuel tanks, potentially allowing a hybrid spaceplane concept like Skylon to reach orbital velocity after leaving the atmosphere on a steep climb.

An engine derived from the SABRE concept called Scimitar has been designed for the company's A2 hypersonic passenger jet proposal for the European Union-funded LAPCAT study.[9]

History[edit]

The precooler concept evolved from an idea originated by Robert P. Carmichael in 1955.[10] This was followed by the liquid air cycle engine (LACE) idea which was originally explored by General Dynamics in the 1960s as part of the US Air Force's aerospaceplane efforts.[2]

The LACE system was to be placed behind a supersonic air intake which would compress the air through ram compression, then a heat exchanger would rapidly cool it using some of the liquid hydrogen fuel stored on board. The resulting liquid air was then processed to separate the liquid oxygen for combustion. The amount of warmed hydrogen was too great to burn with the oxygen, so most was to be expelled, giving useful thrust, but greatly reducing the potential efficiency.[citation needed]

Instead, as part of the HOTOL project, the liquid air cycle engine (LACE) based idea RB545 engine was developed with more efficient cycle. The engine was given the Rolls Royce name "Swallow".[11] In 1989, after funding for HOTOL ceased, Bond and several others formed Reaction Engines Limited to continue research. The RB545's precooler had issues with embrittlement, excess liquid hydrogen consumption, patents and the Official Secrets Act, so Bond developed SABRE instead.[12]

In 2016 the project received £60m in funds from the UK government and ESA for a demonstrator involving the full cycle.[13]

Concept[edit]

Simplified flow diagram of SABRE engine

Like the RB545, the SABRE design is neither a conventional rocket engine nor jet engine, but a hybrid that uses air from the environment at low speeds/altitudes, and stored liquid oxygen (LOX) at higher altitude. The SABRE engine "relies on a heat exchanger capable of cooling incoming air to −150 °C (−238 °F), to provide oxygen for mixing with hydrogen and provide jet thrust during atmospheric flight before switching to tanked liquid oxygen when in space."

In air-breathing mode, air enters the engine through an inlet. A bypass system directs some of the air through a precooler into a compressor, which injects it into a combustion chamber where it is burnt with fuel, the exhaust products are accelerated through nozzles to provide thrust. The remainder of the intake air continues through the bypass system to a ring on flame holders which act as a ramjet for part of the air breathing flight regime. A helium loop is used to transfer the heat from the precooler to the fuel and drive the engine pumps and compressors.

Inlet[edit]

At the front of the engine, the concept designs propose a simple translating axisymmetric shock cone inlet which compresses and slows the air (relative to the engine) to subsonic speeds using two shock reflections. Accelerating the air to the speed of the engine incurs Jet_engine_performance#Ram_drag As a result of the shocks, compression, and acceleration the intake air is heated, reaching around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F) at Mach 5.5.

Bayern-Chemie, through ESA, have undertaken work to refine and test the intake and bypass systems[14]

Precooler[edit]

As the air enters the engine at supersonic or hypersonic speeds, it becomes hotter than the engine can withstand due to compression effects.[8] Jet engines, which have the same problem but to a lesser degree, solve it by using heavy copper or nickel-based materials, by reducing the engine's pressure ratio, and by throttling back the engine at the higher airspeeds to avoid melting. However, for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spaceplane, such heavy materials are unusable, and maximum thrust is necessary for orbital insertion at the earliest time to minimise gravity losses. Instead, using a gaseous helium coolant loop, SABRE dramatically cools the air from 1,000 °C (1,830 °F) down to −150 °C (−238 °F) in a heat exchanger while avoiding liquefaction of the air or blockage from freezing water vapour.

Previous versions of precoolers such as HOTOL put the hydrogen fuel directly through the precooler. SABRE inserts a helium cooling loop between the air and the cold fuel to avoid problems with hydrogen embrittlement in the precooler.

The dramatic cooling of the air created a potential problem: it is necessary to prevent blocking the precooler from frozen water vapour and other air fractions. In October 2012, the cooling solution was demonstrated for 6 minutes using freezing air.[15] The cooler consists of a fine pipework heat exchanger with 16,800 thin-walled tubes,[16] and cools the hot in-rushing atmospheric air down to the required −150 °C (−238 °F) in 0.01s.[17] The ice prevention system had been a closely guarded secret, but REL disclosed a methanol-injecting 3D-printed de-icer in 2015 through patents, as they needed partner companies and could not keep the secret while working closely with outsiders.[18][19][20]

In September 2017 it was announced United States Defense Advanced Research projects (DARPA) had contracted with Reaction Engines Inc to build a high-temperature airflow test facility at Front Range Airport near Watkins, Colorado. The DARPA contract is to test the Sabre engine's precooler heat exchanger (HTX).

The test work which started in 2018 focussed on running the heat exchanger at temperatures simulating Mach 5 of over 1,000 °C (1,830 °F).[21][22] The HTX test unit was completed in the UK and sent to Colorado in 2018, where on 25 March 2019 a F-4 GE J79 turbojet exhaust was mixed with ambient air to replicate Mach 3.3 inlet conditions, successfully quenching a 420 °C (788 °F) stream of gases to 100 °C (212 °F) in less than 1/20th of a second. Further tests simulating Mach 5 were planned, with temperature reduction expected from 1,000 °C (1,830 °F).[8][16]

The successful HTX test could lead to spin-off precooler applications which could be developed before a scalable SABRE demonstrator is completed; suggested uses are to expand gas turbines capabilities, in advanced turbofans, hypersonic vehicles, and industrial applications.[23]

Compressor[edit]

Below five times the speed of sound and 25 kilometres of altitude, which is 20% of the speed and 20% of the altitude needed to reach orbit, the cooled air from the precooler passes into a modified turbo-compressor, similar in design to those used on conventional jet engines but running at an unusually high pressure ratio made possible by the low temperature of the inlet air. The compressor feeds the compressed air at 140 atmospheres into the combustion chambers of the main engines.[24]

The turbo-compressor is powered by a gas turbine running on a helium loop, rather than by combustion gases as in a conventional jet engine. The turbo-compressor is powered by waste heat collected by the helium loop.[24]

Helium loop[edit]

The 'hot' helium from the air precooler is recycled by cooling it in a heat exchanger with the liquid hydrogen fuel. The loop forms a self-starting Brayton cycle engine, cooling critical parts of the engine and powering turbines.[citation needed] The heat passes from the air into the helium. This heat energy is used to power various parts of the engine and to vaporise hydrogen, which is then burnt in ramjets.[3][25]

Combustion chambers[edit]

The combustion chambers in the SABRE engine are cooled by the oxidant (air/liquid oxygen) rather than by liquid hydrogen[26] to further reduce the system's use of liquid hydrogen compared to stoichiometric systems.

Nozzles[edit]

The most efficient atmospheric pressure at which a conventional propelling nozzle works is set by the geometry of the nozzle bell. While the geometry of the conventional bell remains static the atmospheric pressure changes with altitude and therefore nozzles designed for high performance in the lower atmosphere lose efficiency as they reach higher altitudes. In traditional rockets this is overcome by using multiple stages designed for the atmospheric pressures they encounter. An SSTO engine must use a single set of nozzles.

Bypass burners[edit]

Avoiding liquefaction improves the efficiency of the engine since less entropy is generated and therefore less liquid hydrogen is boiled off. However, simply cooling the air needs more liquid hydrogen than can be burnt in the engine core. The excess is expelled through a series of burners called "spill duct ramjet burners",[3][25] that are arranged in a ring around the central core. These are fed air that bypasses the precooler. This bypass ramjet system is designed to reduce the negative effects of drag resulting from air that passes into the intakes but is not fed into the main rocket engine, rather than generating thrust. At low speeds the ratio of the volume of air entering the intake to the volume that the compressor can feed to the combustion chamber is at its highest, requiring the bypassed air to be accelerated to maintain efficiency at these low speeds. This distinguishes the system from a turboramjet where a turbine-cycle's exhaust is used to increase air-flow for the ramjet to become efficient enough to take over the role of primary propulsion.[27]

Development[edit]

The latest SABRE engine's design.

Tests were carried out in 2008 by Airbourne Engineering Ltd on an expansion deflection nozzle called STERN to provide the data needed to develop an accurate engineering model to overcome the problem of non-dynamic exhaust expansion. This research continued with the STRICT nozzle in 2011.

Successful tests of an oxidiser (both air and oxygen) cooled combustion chamber were conducted by EADS-Astrium at Institute of Space Propulsion in 2010

In 2011, hardware testing of the heat exchanger technology "crucial to [the] hybrid air- and liquid oxygen-breathing [SABRE] rocket motor" was completed, demonstrating that the technology is viable.[28][29] The tests validated that the heat exchanger could perform as needed for the engine to obtain adequate oxygen from the atmosphere to support the low-altitude, high-performance operation.[28][29]

In November 2012, Reaction Engines announced it had successfully concluded a series of tests that prove the cooling technology of the engine, one of the main obstacles towards the completion of the project. The European Space Agency (ESA) evaluated the SABRE engine's precooler heat exchanger, and accepted claims that the technologies required to proceed with the engine's development had been fully demonstrated.[28][30][31]

In June 2013 the United Kingdom government announced further support for the development of a full-scale prototype of the SABRE engine,[32] providing £60M of funding between 2014-2016[33][34] with the ESA providing an additional £7M.[35] The total cost of developing a test rig is estimated at £200M.[33]

By June 2015, SABRE's development continued with The Advanced Nozzle Project at Westcott. The test engine, operated by Airborne Engineering Ltd., is being used to analyze the aerodynamics and performance of the advanced nozzles that the SABRE engine will use, in addition to new manufacturing technologies such as the 3D-printed propellant injection system.[36]

In April 2015, the SABRE engine concept passed a theoretical feasibility review conducted by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory.[37][38][39] The laboratory was to reveal two-stage-to-orbit SABRE concepts shortly afterwards, as they considered that a single-stage-to-orbit Skylon space plane is "technically very risky as a first application of SABRE engine".[40]

In August 2015 the European Commission competition authority approved UK government funding of £50 million for further development of the SABRE project. This was approved on the grounds that money raised from private equity had been insufficient to bring the project to completion.[41] In October 2015 British company BAE Systems agreed to buy a 20% stake in the company for £20.6 million as part of an agreement to help develop the SABRE hypersonic engine.[42][43] In 2016, Reaction CEO Mark Thomas announced plans to build a quarter-sized ground test engine, given limitations of funding.[44]

In September 2016 agents acting on behalf of Reaction Engines applied for planning consent to build a rocket engine test facility at the site of the former Rocket Propulsion Establishment in Westcott, UK[45] which was granted in April 2017,[46] and in May 2017 a groundbreaking ceremony was held to announce the beginning of construction of the SABRE TF1 engine test facility, expected to become active in 2020.[47][48]

In September 2017 it was announced the United States Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) had contracted with Reaction Engines Inc. to build a high-temperature airflow test facility at Front Range Airport near Watkins, Colorado. The DARPA contract is to test the Sabre engine's pre-cooler heat exchanger (HTX). Construction of the test facilities and test articles began in 2018 with testing focusing on running the HTX at temperatures simulating air coming through a subsonic intake travelling at Mach 5 or around 1,800 °F (1,000 °C) beginning in 2019.[49][50]

In March 2019, the UKSA and ESA preliminary design review of the demonstrator engine core confirmed the test version to be ready for implementation. [51]

Engine[edit]

Due to the static thrust capability of the hybrid rocket engine, the vehicle can take off under air-breathing mode, much like a conventional turbojet.[3] As the craft ascends and the outside air pressure drops, more and more air is passed into the compressor as the effectiveness of the ram compression drops. In this fashion the jets are able to operate to a much higher altitude than would normally be possible.

At Mach 5.5 the air-breathing system becomes inefficient and is powered down, replaced by the on-board stored oxygen which allows the engine to accelerate to orbital velocities (around Mach 25).[24]

Performance[edit]

The designed thrust-to-weight ratio of SABRE is fourteen compared to about five for conventional jet engines, and two for scramjets.[5] This high performance is a combination of the denser, cooled air, requiring less compression, and, more importantly, the low air temperatures permitting lighter alloys to be used in much of the engine. Overall performance is much better than the RB545 engine or scramjets.

Fuel efficiency (known as specific impulse in rocket engines) peaks at about 3500 seconds within the atmosphere.[3] Typical all-rocket systems peak around 450 seconds and even "typical" nuclear thermal rockets at about 900 seconds.

The combination of high fuel efficiency and low-mass engines permits an SSTO approach, with air-breathing to Mach 5.14+ at 28.5 km (94,000 ft) altitude, and with the vehicle reaching orbit with more payload mass per take-off mass than just about any non-nuclear launch vehicle ever proposed.[citation needed]

The precooler adds mass and complexity to the system and is the most aggressive and difficult part of the design, but the mass of this heat exchanger is an order of magnitude lower than has been achieved previously. The experimental device achieved heat exchange of almost 1 GW/m3. The losses from carrying the added weight of systems shut down during the closed cycle mode (namely the precooler and turbo-compressor) as well as the added weight of Skylon's wings are offset by the gains in overall efficiency and the proposed flight plan. Conventional launch vehicles such as the Space Shuttle spend about one-minute climbing almost vertically at relatively low speeds; this is inefficient but optimal for pure-rocket vehicles. In contrast, the SABRE engine permits a much slower, shallower climb (thirteen minutes to reach the 28.5km transition altitude), while breathing air and using its wings to support the vehicle. This trades gravity drag and an increase in vehicle weight for a reduction in propellant mass and a gain from aerodynamic lift increasing payload fraction to the level at which SSTO becomes possible.

A hybrid jet engine like SABRE needs only reach low hypersonic speeds inside the lower atmosphere before engaging its closed cycle mode, whilst climbing, to build speed. Unlike ramjet or scramjet engines, the design is able to provide high thrust from zero speed up to Mach 5.4,[4] with excellent thrust over the entire flight, from the ground to very high altitude, with high efficiency throughout. In addition, this static thrust capability means the engine can be realistically tested on the ground, which drastically cuts testing costs.[5]

In 2012, REL expected test flights by 2020, and operational flights by 2030.[52]

Resources[edit]

  • "The Skylon Space plane" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011.
  • "The Skylon Spaceplane: Progress To Realisation" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011.
  • "A Comparison of Propulsions Concepts for SSTO Reusable launchers" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Reaction Engines Limited Engine Names" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2012.
  2. ^ a b c "The Sensitivity of Precooled Air-Breathing Engine Performance to Heat Exchanger Design Parameters" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. 29 March 2007. p. 189. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Skylon Users' Manual" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. 18 January 2010. pp. 4, 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  4. ^ a b "SABRE - Synergetic Air Breathing Rocket Engine". Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original on 19 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b c "A Comparison of Propulsions Concepts for SSTO Reusable launchers" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. pp. 114, 115. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  6. ^ "Flight Applications". Reaction Engines.
  7. ^ "Alan Bond Interview". Vimeo. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b c "UK's Sabre space plane engine tech in new milestone". BBC News. 8 April 2019.
  9. ^ "Reaction Engines has reached a number of high profile milestones". Reaction Engines. 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  10. ^ "Liquid Hydrogen as a Propulsion Fuel, 1945-1959". NASA History Division. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  11. ^ "News Channel - Homepage - flightglobal.com". FlightGlobal.com. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  12. ^ "A. Bond". daviddarling.info. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  13. ^ "Funding flows for UK's 'revolutionary' Sabre rocket engine". Science. BBC. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  14. ^ "BAYERN-CHEMIE concludes agreement with European Space Agency on the further development of SABRE engine".
  15. ^ Marks, Paul (October 2012). "Die Erben der Concorde" (in German). New Scientist. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012. In English
  16. ^ a b Guy Norris (7 April 2019). "Reaction Engines Pre-Cooler Passes Mach 3.3 Test". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  17. ^ Amos, Jonathan (28 November 2012). "BBC News - Skylon spaceplane engine concept achieves key milestone". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  18. ^ Norris, Guy. "Reaction Engines Reveals Secret Of Sabre Frost Control Technology[permanent dead link]" Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, July 08, 2015, p. 3 Similar article[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ "The Skylon Spaceplane's 3D Printed Injector"
  20. ^ "Helping the Skylon Spaceplane Reach Orbit with a 3D Printed Injector Mechanism"
  21. ^ "Reaction Begins Building U.S. Hypersonic Engine Test Site". Aviation Week. 18 December 2017.
  22. ^ "Reaction Engines Awarded DARPA Contract to Perform High-Temperature Testing of the SABRE Precooler - Reaction Engines". ReactionEngines.co.uk. 25 September 2017. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  23. ^ Guy Norris (15 May 2018). "Turbojet Runs Precursor to Hypersonic Engine Heat Exchanger Tests". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  24. ^ a b c "SABRE: how it works". Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  25. ^ a b "Reaction Engines Ltd - Frequently Asked Questions". Reactionengines.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  26. ^ "The rocket that thinks it's a jet". UK Space Agency. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  27. ^ "Travelling at the edge of space: Reaction Engines and Skylon in the next 20 years". University of Strathclyde. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  28. ^ a b c Reaction Engines Limited (28 November 2012). "The biggest breakthrough in propulsion since the jet engine" (PDF). Reaction Engines Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  29. ^ a b Thisdell, Dan (1 September 2011). "Spaceplane engine tests under way". Flightglobal News. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  30. ^ Svitak, Amy (29 November 2012). "ESA Validates SABRE Engine Technology". Aviation Week. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  31. ^ "Skylon Assessment Report" (PDF). UK Space Agency. April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2015.[permanent dead link]
  32. ^ "UK pledges fresh support for revolutionary space engine" SEN. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  33. ^ a b "UK government excited by 'disruptive' Sabre engine" BBC. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  34. ^ "UK earmarks £60m for super-fast space rocket engine". The Guardian. London. 16 July 2013.
  35. ^ "Futuristic British Space Plane Engine to Get Flight Test in 2020" space.com 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  36. ^ "BAE Systems and Reaction Engines to develop a ground breaking new aerospace engine". 2 November 2015. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014.
  37. ^ Black, Charles (16 April 2015). "Revolutionary rocket engine passes U.S. Air Force feasibility test". sen.com. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  38. ^ "ARFL confirms feasibility of Reaction Engines’ SABRE engine concept"
  39. ^ "AFRL Gives Seal of Approval to British Air-breathing Engine Design"
  40. ^ "US Military Set to Unveil Concepts Based on Skylon Space Plane Tech". space.com. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  41. ^ "State aid: Commission approves £50 million UK support for the research and development of an innovative space launcher engine". Europe.eu. European commission. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  42. ^ Norris, Guy (1 November 2015). "BAE Takes Stake In Reaction Engines Hypersonic Development". aviationweek.com. Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  43. ^ Hollinger, Peggy; Cookson, Clive (2 November 2015). "BAE Systems to pay £20.6m for 20% of space engine group". CNBC. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  44. ^ Norris, Guy (21 September 2016). "Reaction Engines Refines Hypersonic Engine Demonstrator Plan". aviationweek.com. Aviation Week & Space Technology. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  45. ^ https://publicaccess.aylesburyvaledc.gov.uk/online-applications/files/DFB7DF52C99227B18D89F8A79B37D276/pdf/16_03478_APP-APPLICATIONFORMNOPERSONALDATA-1596950.pdf[permanent dead link]
  46. ^ https://publicaccess.aylesburyvaledc.gov.uk/online-applications/files/9BFFC6D62D889B4C57727C889A3513B2/16_03478_APP-DECISION_NOTICE-1702440.rtf[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ "Reaction Engines begins construction of UK rocket engine test facility - Reaction Engines". ReactionEngines.co.uk. 4 May 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  48. ^ "Space plane test facility 'up and running by 2020'". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  49. ^ http://aviationweek.com/space/reaction-begins-building-us-hypersonic-engine-test-site
  50. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-47585433
  51. ^ http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Engineering_Technology/ESA_greenlight_for_UK_s_air-breathing_rocket_engine ESA greenlight for UK's air-breathing rocket engine
  52. ^ "IN FOCUS - British engineers 'crack secret of reusable spaceplane'". FlightGlobal.com. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2017.

External links[edit]