SAP HANA is an in-memory, column-oriented, relational database management system developed and marketed by SAP SE. Its primary function as database server is to store and retrieve data as requested by the applications. In addition, it performs advanced analytics (predictive analytics, spatial data processing, text analytics, text search, streaming analytics, graph data processing) and includes ETL capabilities as well as an application server.
During the early development of SAP HANA, a number of technologies were developed or acquired by SAP SE. These included TREX search engine (in-memory column-oriented search engine), P*TIME (in-memory OLTP Platform acquired by SAP in 2005), and MaxDB with its in-memory liveCache engine. The first major demonstration of the platform was in 2008: teams from SAP SE, the Hasso Plattner Institute and Stanford University demonstrated an application architecture for real-time analytics and aggregation. Former SAP SE executive, Vishal Sikka, mentioned this architecture as "Hasso's New Architecture". Before the name "HANA" stabilized, people referred to this product as "New Database". The software was previously called "SAP High-Performance Analytic Appliance".
The first product shipped in late November 2010. By mid-2011, the technology had attracted interest but the experienced business customers still considered it "in early days". HANA support for SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse was announced in September 2011 for availability by November.
In 2012, SAP promoted aspects of cloud computing. In October 2012, SAP announced a platform as a service offering called the SAP HANA Cloud Platform and a variant called SAP HANA One that used a smaller amount of memory.
S/4HANA, released in 2015, written specifically for the HANA platform, combines functionality for ERP, CRM, SRM and others into a single HANA system. S/4HANA is intended to be a simplified business suite, replacing earlier generation ERP systems.
In November 2016 SAP announced SAP HANA 2, which offers enhancements to multiple areas such as database management and application management and includes two new cloud services: Text Analysis and Earth Observation Analysis. HANA customers can upgrade to HANA 2 from SPS10 and above. Customers running SPS9 and below must first upgrade to SPS12 before upgrading to HANA 2 SPS01.
The index server performs session management, authorization, transaction management and command processing. The database has both a row store and a columnar store. Users can create tables using either store, but the columnar store has more capabilities and is most frequently used. The index server also manages persistence between cached memory images of database objects, log files and permanent storage files. XS engine allows to build web applications.
SAP HANA Information Modeling (also known as SAP HANA Data Modeling) is a part of HANA application development. Modeling is the methodology to expose operational data to the end user. Reusable virtual objects (named calculation views) are used in the modelling process.
SAP HANA manages concurrency through the use of multiversion concurrency control (MVCC), which gives every transaction a snapshot of the database at a point in time. When an MVCC database needs to update an item of data, it will not overwrite the old data with new data, but will instead mark the old data as obsolete and add the newer version.
HANA can be deployed on-premise as a new appliance from a certified hardware vendor. Alternatively, existing hardware components such as storage and network can be used as part of the implementation, an approach which SAP calls "Tailored Data Center Integration (TDI)". HANA is certified to run on a couple of operating systems including Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Supported hardware platforms for on-premise deployment include Intel 64 and POWER Systems. The system is designed to support both horizontal and vertical scaling.
Multiple cloud providers offer SAP HANA on an Infrastructure as a service basis, including:
- Amazon Web Services
- Microsoft Azure
- Google Cloud Platform
- IBM Softlayer
- Huawei FusionSphere
- HP Helion
SAP also offer their own cloud services in the form of:
- SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud, a private managed cloud
- SAP Cloud Platform (previously known as HANA Cloud Platform), Platform as a service
SAP HANA licensing is primarily divided into two categories.
Used to run SAP applications such as SAP Business Warehouse powered by SAP HANA and SAP S/4HANA.
Full Use License:
Used to run both SAP and non-SAP applications. This licensing can be used to create custom applications.
As part of the full use license, features are grouped as editions targeting various use cases.
- Base Edition: Provides core database features and development tools but does not support SAP applications.
- Platform Edition: Base edition plus spatial, predictive, R server integration, search, text, analytics, graph engines and additional packaged business libraries.
- Enterprise Edition: Platform edition plus additional bundled components for some of the data loading capabilities and the rule framework.
In addition, capabilities such as streaming and ETL are licensed as additional options.
As of 9th March 2017, SAP HANA is available in an Express edition; a streamlined version which can run on laptops and other resource-limited environments. This edition is primarily aimed at students, and is free to use for in-memory databases of up to 32GB.
- Comparison of relational database management systems
- Comparison of object-relational database management systems
- Database management system
- List of relational database management systems
- List of column-oriented DBMSes
- List of in-memory databases
- List of databases using MVCC
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