Jump to content

SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

SARS-CoV-2 Variant
Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of SARS-CoV-2. Each "ball" is an atom.
Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of SARS-CoV-2. Each "ball" is an atom.
General details
WHO DesignationGamma
Other Names20J/501Y.V3, Variant of Concern 202101/02 (VOC-202101/02),[1] Brazilian variant or Brazil variant'[2][3][4]
First detectedTokyo, Japan
Date reported6 January 2021; 3 years ago (2021-01-06)
StatusVariant of concern
Cases map
Total number of P.1 sequences by country as of 21 April 2021[5]
  1,000+ confirmed sequences
  500–999 confirmed sequences
  100–499 confirmed sequences
  2–99 confirmed sequences
  1 confirmed sequence
  None or no data available
Major variants

The Gamma variant (P.1)[a] was[6][7] one of the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.[8] This variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been named lineage P.1 and has 17 amino acid substitutions, ten of which in its spike protein, including these three designated to be of particular concern: N501Y, E484K and K417T.[4][9] It was first detected by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) of Japan, on 6 January 2021 in four people who had arrived in Tokyo having visited Amazonas, Brazil, four days earlier.[4][10] It was subsequently declared to be in circulation in Brazil.[4] Under the simplified naming scheme proposed by the World Health Organization, P.1 was labeled Gamma variant, and was considered a variant of concern until March 2022, when it was largely displaced by the delta and omicron variants.[11]

Gamma caused widespread infection in early 2021 in the city of Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, although the city had already experienced widespread infection in May 2020,[12] with a study[13] indicating high seroprevalence of antibodies for SARS-CoV-2.[14] A research article published in Science Journal indicate that P.1 infected people have a greater chance of transmissibility and death than B.1.1.28 infected ones.[15]

The Gamma variant comprises the two distinct subvariants 28-AM-1 and 28-AM-2, which both carry the K417T, E484K, N501Y mutations, and which both developed independently of each other within the same Brazilian Amazonas region.[16]

Gamma is notably different from the Zeta variant (lineage P.2) which also circulated strongly in Brazil. In particular, Zeta only carries the E484K mutation and has neither of the other two mutations of concern, N501Y and K417T.[16][9]


Initial reports claimed that both P.1 and P.2 were two separate and different descendants of the Brazilian lineage B.1.1.248.[17][18] However, B.1.1.248 later lost its status as a distinct lineage and was reclassified to B.1.1.28.[19] P.1 has also been called B.,[20] while P.2 has been B. or VUI-202101/01.[21] Since only three sublevels are permitted in the PANGO Lineage system of nomenclature, hence the designation of B. to P.1 and B. to P.2.[4][22]

Following its detection, genome data for four samples of the new variant were shared to GISAID having been assigned the ID range: EPI_ISL_792680 to EPI_ISL_792683.[23]


Defining mutations in Gamma variant
Gene Amino acid
ORF1ab synT733C
del11288-11296 (3675-3677 SGF)
Spike L18F
H 655Y
N P80R
Source: Faria et al. (2021), Figure 1.B

Variants of SARS-CoV-2

As well as having eight mutations (four of these synonymous genetic mutations) in its open reading frames (ORF1a and ORF1b) – one of which is a set of deletions – Gamma has 10 defining mutations in its spike protein, including N501Y and E484K. It also has two mutations – one an insertion – in its ORF8 gene and one in its N gene.[4][24]

Amino acid mutations of SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant plotted on a genome map of SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on Spike.[25]

Descendant and sublineages[edit]

Coronavirus lineage B.1.1.28 has originated four known lineages classified as variant of interest (VOI) or variant of concern (VOC): lineages P.1, P.2, P.3 and P.4.

Lineage P.2 (B., Zeta variant), first detected in October 2020 in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, only shares one mutation of concern with P.1, which is the E484K.[26] The other P.2 mutations are without concern and rarely found for other variants. The five P.2-specific mutations are: E484K in S-gene, A119S in N-gene, 5’UTR C100U, plus L3468V and synC11824U in ORF1ab-gene. Other mutations commonly found in P.2 are: 3’UTR C29754U, F120F (synC28253U) in ORF8, M234I in the N-gene, plus L3930F and synA12964G in ORF1ab.[27]

Lineage P.3 (Theta variant) was first identified in the Philippines on 18 February 2021 when two mutations of concern were detected in Central Visayas.[28]

The remaining B.1.1.28 derivative virus is lineage P.4. Although researchers have not identified its precise origin, it was first sequenced in Itirapina, Brazil, and was already circulating in various municipalities in the state of São Paulo of the same country. It carries a mutation of concern in the spike protein called L452R which is also present in lineage B.1.617 (Delta and Kappa variants) detected in India, Epsilon variant (lineages B.1.427 and B.1.429) from California, United States.[29][30] The branch of this lineage is P.4.1 (VUI-NP13L)—suspected to have arisen in Goiás, Brazil, around June–July 2020— also rapidly spread to the southeast of the country, where for example Taquara had its first genome sequence, and to the northeast of the nation. It was detected internationally, with reported cases in Japan, Netherlands and England. The P.4.1 has V1176F and D614G mutations in spike protein.[31]




On 12 January 2021, the Brazil–United Kingdom CADDE Centre confirmed 13 local cases of lineage P.1 in Manaus, Amazonas state, the largest city of the Amazon rain forest.[4] The new lineage was absent in 27 samples collected from March to November 2020 from Manaus, but it was identified for the same city in 42% (n=13/31) of the samples collected 15–23 December 2020, followed by 52.2% (n=35/67) during 15–31 December 2020 and 85.4% (n=41/48) during 1–9 January 2021. Most notably, the P.2 was rapidly outcompeted by P1 going from the second half of December to 1–9 January, where the lineage P.2 share for Manaus decreased from 25.4% to 6.3%.[4][89]

A study of 180 sequenced Brazilian samples collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro during 2020, identified emergence of the novel lineage P.2 of SARS-CoV-2 (originating from B.1.1.28). P.2 was first detected by genome sequencing in October 2020, but it was estimated to have emerged in early July 2020.[27] As of December 2020, although having significantly increased in frequency throughout the state, it was still largely confined to the state capital Rio de Janeiro. In May 2020 the main lineages behind the COVID-19 positives were B.1.1.33 (70%) and B.1.1.28 (20%), whereas by September the main lineages were B.1.1.33 (50%) and B.1.1.28 (40%), with no detected presence of P.2, while during October and November P.2 was the most common lineage with a share close to 50% (according to the Pangolin tool).[90] The study also found the E484K mutation as "widely spread" across all analysed P.2 samples (36 out of 38).[90]

Researchers at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation published a preprint genomic epidemiology study of 250 collected genomes from different places in Amazonas and found that P.1 infections can produce nearly 10 times more viral load than in other COVID-19-infected persons involving lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.195. The lineage also showed 2.2 times higher transmissibility with the same ability to infect both adults (18–59 years old) and older persons (60 years old and higher), suggesting P.1 and its sublineages are more successful at infecting younger humans with no gender differential.[91]

The Centre for Arbovirus Discovery, Diagnosis, Genomics and Epidemiology (CADDE) produced another journal article of samples collected in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021. The study indicated lineage P.1 to be about 2.0 times (50% CrI, 1.72.4 times) more transmissible and was shown to be capable of evading about 32% (50% CrI, 2146%) of inherited immunity from previous coronavirus diseases, leading to the possibility of reinfection. These increased statistics also had the same reflection in fatality, in that P.1 infections can be about 50% (50% CrI, 2090%) more lethal.[92][93][94] As part of ongoing research, the variant's capacity to neutralise antibodies has been evaluated by scientists in a published preprint work demonstrating that 8 CoronaVac-immunised persons had a poor blood plasma response against lineage P.1. Since the study only had a small number of participants, it was not possible to establish any statistical conclusion as a larger number of vaccinated people would need to be studied.[95] Scientists at MIT, Harvard and Cambridge, and hospitals physicians in Boston, corroborated that people fully vaccinated with Pfizer and Moderna vaccines have significantly decreased neutralisation with P.1—in a preprint work.[96]


In March 2022, the World Health Organization listed the Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants as previously circulating citing lack of any detected cases in the prior weeks and months.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Other names include:
    Variant of Concern 202101/02 (VOC-202101/02)[1]
    Brazilian variant or Brazil variant[2][3][4]


  1. ^ a b c "Variants: distribution of cases data". gov.uk. Public Health England. 27 February 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2021. This article contains OGL licensed text This article incorporates text published under the British Open Government Licence v3.0:
  2. ^ a b "Covid-19: Brazil virus already in UK 'not variant of concern', scientist says". bbc.com. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  3. ^ a b "COVID-19: Virologist says Brazilian coronavirus variant detected in UK is not the one 'of concern'". news.sky.com. 15 January 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Faria, Nuno R.; Claro, Ingra Morales (12 January 2021). "Genomic characterisation of an emergent SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus: preliminary findings". Virological. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  5. ^ "Lineage P.1". cov-lineages.org. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  6. ^ "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants". who.int. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  7. ^ "Variants of concern". CDGN. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  8. ^ Newey, Sarah (12 January 2021). "Third concerning coronavirus variant should be a 'wake up call' to the world, experts warn". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  9. ^ a b COG-UK Report on SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations of interest in the UK (PDF). cogconsortium.uk (Report). Covid-19 Genomics UK Consortium. 15 January 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  10. ^ "Japan finds new coronavirus variant in travelers from Brazil". Japan Today. Japan. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  11. ^ a b Rachael Rettner (23 March 2022). "Coronavirus variants: Facts about omicron, delta and other COVID-19 mutants". livescience.com. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  12. ^ Matt Rivers (28 January 2021). "Is a new coronavirus variant to blame for this Brazilian city's collapse?". CNN.
  13. ^ Buss, Lewis F.; Prete, Carlos A.; Abrahim, Claudia M. M.; Mendrone, Alfredo; Salomon, Tassila; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; et al. (8 December 2020). "Three-quarters attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brazilian Amazon during a largely unmitigated epidemic". Science. 371 (6526). American Association for the Advancement of Science: 288–292. doi:10.1126/science.abe9728. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 7857406. PMID 33293339.
  14. ^ Sabino, Ester C.; Buss, Lewis F.; Carvalho, Maria P. S.; Prete, Carlos A.; Crispim, Myuki A. E.; Fraiji, Nelson A.; et al. (27 January 2021). "Resurgence of COVID-19 in Manaus, Brazil, despite high seroprevalence". The Lancet. 397 (10273): 452–455. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00183-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 7906746. PMID 33515491.
  15. ^ Faria, Nuno R.; et al. (31 May 2021). "Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil". Science. 372 (6544): 815–821. Bibcode:2021Sci...372..815F. doi:10.1126/science.abh2644. hdl:10044/1/92015. PMC 8139423. PMID 33853970.
  16. ^ a b Oliver T.R. Toovey; Kirsty N. Harvey; Paul W. Bird; Julian Wei-Tze Wei-Tze Tang (3 February 2021). "Introduction of Brazilian SARS-CoV-2 484K.V2 related variants into the UK". Journal of Infection. 82 (5): e23–e24. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2021.01.025. PMC 7857057. PMID 33548358.
  17. ^ Michael Le Page; Matt Hambly (1 March 2021). "Brazil covid-19 variant (P.1)". NewScientist. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  18. ^ Vinícius Bonetti Franceschi; et al. (26 January 2021). "Genomic Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Esteio, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil". medrxiv. doi:10.1101/2021.01.21.21249906. Retrieved 7 March 2021. These lineages have already formed new sublineages. B.1.1.248 has evolved in N.1 (USA lineage), N.2 (French), N.3 (Argentinian), and N.4 (Chilean). Furthermore, B.1.1.248 has evolved in P.1 (Manaus lineage associated with a constellation of Spike mutations like B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 (Faria et al. 2021)) and P.2 (Rio de Janeiro lineage found in this study).
  19. ^ "PANGO lineages Lineage B.1.1.248". cov-lineages.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021. Brazilian lineage [B.1.1.248] reassigned B.1.1.28
  20. ^ Marlúcia Seixas (25 January 2021). "Fiocruz Amazon confirms reinfection by a new variation of the Sars-CoV-2". Fiocruz Amazon. Fiocruz, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation.
  21. ^ "PANGO lineages Lineage P.2". cov-lineages.org. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2021. P.2...Alias of B., Brazilian lineage
  22. ^ "P.1 report". cov-lineages.org. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  23. ^ "Supplementary Table 1 Acknowledgement Table GISAID" (PDF). virological.org. GISAID. 14 January 2021. p. 10. Retrieved 14 January 2021. EPI_ISL_792680, EPI_ISL_792681, EPI_ISL_792682, EPI_ISL_792683 - Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases - Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Kentaro Itokawa, Rina Tanaka, Masanori Hashino, Makoto Kuroda
  24. ^ Corum, Jonathan; Zimmer, Carl (8 February 2021). "Coronavirus Variants and Mutations (Section: The P.1 Lineage)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 February 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  25. ^ Spike Variants: Gamma variant, aka P.1, B., 20J/501Y.V3 variant, and K417T/E484K/N501Y 24 June 2021, covdb.stanford.edu, accessed 1 July 2021
  26. ^ Paola CR, Tiago G, Anna Carolina DP, Luciana A, Renata SL, et al. (11 March 2021). "A potential SARS-CoV-2 variant of interest (VOI) harboring mutation E484K in the Spike protein was identified within lineage B.1.1.33 circulating in Brazil". virological.org. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  27. ^ a b Carolina M. Voloch; et al. (April 2021) [Accepted Manuscript Posted Online 1 March 2021]. "Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil" (PDF). Journal of Virology. 95 (10). doi:10.1128/JVI.00119-21. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  28. ^ "DOH confirms new COVID-19 mutations in Central Visayas". CNN Philippines. 18 February 2021. Archived from the original on 26 November 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  29. ^ "Rede Corona-ômica. BR-MCTI informa possível nova variante da COVID-19 no interior de SP com mutação também encontrada na variante indiana" [Corona-ômica. BR-MCTI network informs a possible new variant of COVID-19 in the interior of SP with a mutation also found in the Indian variant]. gov.br (in Portuguese). 4 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  30. ^ São Carlos e Araraquara (25 May 2021). "Nova variante do coronavírus P.4 é identificada no interior de São Paulo, diz pesquisador da Unesp" [A new variant of the P.4 coronavirus is identified in the interior of São Paulo, says researcher at Unesp]. g1.globo.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  31. ^ Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Muterle Varela, Ana Paula; Prichula, Janira; Comerlato, Juliana; Comerlato, Carolina Baldisserotto; Roglio, Vinicius Serafini; et al. (20 April 2021). "Emergence of the novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage P.4.1 and massive spread of P.2 in South Brazil". medRxiv 10.1101/2021.04.14.21255429v1.
  32. ^ "GISAID - hCov19 Variants". gisaid.org. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  33. ^ Achenbach, Joel (25 January 2021). "First U.S. case of highly transmissible Brazil coronavirus variant identified in Minnesota". The Washington Post. USA. Retrieved 26 January 2021. This is the first report in the United States of the P.1 variant...
  34. ^ Massie, Graeme (26 January 2021). "First case of Brazil coronavirus variant found in the US". The Independent. Los Angeles. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  35. ^ "US COVID-19 Cases Caused by Variants". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 February 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb "PANGO Lineages - B.1.28". cov-lineages.org. 22 January 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  37. ^ "Coronavirus: What's happening in Canada and around the world on Friday". CBC. Toronto. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021. In an update published Thursday night, federal health officials reported a total of 4,499 variant of concern cases, including: *4,169 cases of the B117 variant, which was first reported in the U.K. *241 cases of the B1351 variant, which was first reported in South Africa. *89 cases of the P1 variant, which was first reported in travellers from Brazil.
  38. ^ "Tracking variants of the novel coronavirus in Canada". ctvnews.ca. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  39. ^ "Variant that forced B.C. ski resort shut is rapidly spreading, sending more young people to hospital". Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  40. ^ Biernath, André (14 January 2021). "Coronavirus: qué se sabe sobre la nueva variante encontrada en Brasil (y que llegó a Japón)" [Coronavirus: what is known about the new variant found in Brazil (and that reached Japan)]. BBC Brasil (in Spanish). São Paulo. Retrieved 18 January 2021. Los científicos analizaron el material genético de 31 muestras de pacientes con covid-19 en la ciudad de Manaos... ...De ellos, 13 individuos (el 42% del total) presentaban justamente ese nuevo linaje del virus. Scientists analyzed the genetic material of 31 samples from patients with covid-19 in the city of Manaus... ...Of them, 13 individuals (42% of the total) presented precisely this new lineage of the virus.
  41. ^ "Circulación de variantes SARS-CoV-2 en Chile" [Circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants in Chile] (PDF).
  42. ^ "Covid, variante brasiliana: primo caso identificato a Varese" [Covid, Brazilian variant: first case identified in Varese]. ADN Kronos (in Italian). Italy. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  43. ^ "Covid, first case of Brazilian variant in Italy". Italy 24 News. Italy. 26 January 2021. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  44. ^ Ronza, Veronica (26 January 2021). "Covid, è allarme per la variante brasiliana: altri tre casi rilevati in Italia" [Covid alarm for the Brazilian variant: three other cases detected in Italy]. Vesuvio Live (in Italian). Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  45. ^ "Coronavirus live news: France death toll surpasses 72,000; Brazil variant found in Germany". The Guardian. London. 22 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  46. ^ "France registers four cases of Brazilian coronavirus variant, says minister". Reuters. Paris. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  47. ^ "Brazilian coronavirus variants (P1 and P2) found in the Netherlands" (Press release). The Netherlands: RIVM. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  48. ^ "Colombia mantiene vigilancia de cepa brasileña de covid-19" [Colombia maintains surveillance of the Brazilian strain of covid-19]. minsalud.gov.co (in Spanish). Bogotá. 30 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021. The case of a Colombian-Brazilian woman who acquired the new strain and consulted the health services in Leticia is confirmed.
  49. ^ "Colombia detecta su primer caso de variante brasileña del coronavirus" [Colombia detects its first case of Brazilian variant of the coronavirus]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Bogotá. 30 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  50. ^ "First Brazilian variants of COVID-19 identified in Buenos Aires". Semana. Buenos Aires. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2021. Officials said on Monday that two patients who had recently travelled from Brazil has tested positive for the P.1 COVID-19 mutation.
  51. ^ Ministry of Health, Trinidad and Tobago (23 April 2021). "Brazilian Variant Found in Additional COVID-19 Samples". Government of Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Health. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  52. ^ Ministry of Health, Trinidad and Tobago (26 April 2021). "5 Additional COVID-19 samples Confirmed to be the Brazilian Variant". Government of Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Health. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  53. ^ "5 more cases of Brazilian covid19 variant in Trinidad and Tobago". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. 26 April 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  54. ^ "Covid-19: Brazil 'variant of concern' detected in UK". BBC News. UK. 28 February 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  55. ^ "Covid: Four more cases of Brazil variant found in England". BBC News. London. 11 March 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  56. ^ "COVID-19: New Philippines-linked coronavirus variant investigated in England after two cases found". Sky News. UK. 16 March 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  57. ^ "Portugal detecta primeiros casos da variante brasileira" [Portugal detects first cases of the Brazilian variant]. terra.com. Portugal. 11 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  58. ^ "Portugal detects first cases of Brazilian COVID-19 variant". The Portugal News. Portugal. 11 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  59. ^ "INSA identifica mais três casos da variante brasileira (a somar aos sete já conhecidos)" [INSA identifies three more cases of the Brazilian variant (in addition to the seven already known)]. Observador. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  60. ^ "Coronavirus: variante P.1 se detectó en casos de Artigas, Canelones, Fray Bentos, Montevideo, Rocha, Salto y San José" [Coronavirus: variant P.1 was detected in cases from Artigas, Canelones, Fray Bentos, Montevideo, Rocha, Salto and San José]. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  61. ^ "Turkey: 2 S. Africa, 1 Brazil variant detected". aa.com.tr. Istanbul. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021. Two Turkish citizens have contracted the South African variant...
  62. ^ "Turkey: Turkey reports cases of South Africa, Brazil variants of coronavirus". dailysabah.com. Istanbul. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021. Two people in Turkey have contracted the South African variant...
  63. ^ Jeyhun Aliyev, Dilara Hamit Turkey: 85% of new COVID-19 cases due to UK variant S.Africa COVID variant seen in 285 people in 11 of Turkey's 81 provinces, Brazil strain seen in 166 people: Health minister 12 April 2021 www.aa.com.tr, accessed 24 April 2021
  64. ^ "Brasilianska mutationen i Sverige – saknas resekoppling" [Brazilian mutation in Sweden - no travel connection]. expressen.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  65. ^ "Brief report: New Variant Strain of SARS-CoV-2 Identified in Travelers from Brazil" (PDF) (Press release). Japan: NIID (National Institute of Infectious Diseases). 12 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  66. ^ "新たなコロナ変異種を確認 ブラジルから入国の4人" [New coronavirus Mutation Confirmed in 4 people from Brazil]. The Nikkei (in Japanese). Japan. 10 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2021. 厚生労働省は10日、ブラジルから羽田空港に2日に到着した10~40代の男女4人が、新型コロナウイルスでこれまで確認されていないタイプの変異種に感染していたと発表した。国内での変異種への感染確認は計34人になった (The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare announced on the 10th that four men and women in their teens and 40s who arrived at Haneda Airport from Brazil on the 2nd were infected with a type of mutation that had not been confirmed so far with the new coronavirus.)
  67. ^ "Loreto: Diresa reporta caso de variante de Covid-19 procedente de Manaos" [Loreto: Diresa reports case of variant of Covid-19 from Manaus]. Peru.21 (in Spanish). Iquitos. 20 January 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  68. ^ "Loreto: DIRESA aclara que variante de Manaos aún no llega a la región" [Loreto: DIRESA clarifies that Manaus variant has not yet reached the region]. Canal N (in Spanish). Peru. 21 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  69. ^ "Pilar Mazzetti confirma que en Lima, Loreto y Huánuco se ha encontrado la variante brasilera del coronavirus" [Pilar Mazzetti confirms that the Brazilian variant of the coronavirus has been found in Lima, Loreto and Huánuco]. El Comercio (in Spanish). Peru. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  70. ^ "INS identifica 22 casos de variante brasileña" [NIS identifies 22 cases of Brazilian variant]. Diario Correo (in Spanish). Lima. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  71. ^ "Variante brasileña del COVID-19 amenaza la capacidad de respuesta en hospitales de Madre de Dios" [Brazilian variant of COVID-19 threatens response capacity in Madre de Dios hospitals]. Diario Correo (in Spanish). 9 April 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  72. ^ @Heunicke (3 March 2021). "Det første tilfælde af varianten P1 er fundet i Danmark" [The first case of the variant P1 has been found in Denmark] (Tweet) (in Danish) – via Twitter.
  73. ^ "Danmark finder første tilfælde af brasiliansk variant, men den vurderes ikke at have spredt sig - TV 2" [Denmark finds the first case of Brazilian variant, but it is not considered to have spread]. nyheder.tv2.dk (in Danish). 3 March 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  74. ^ PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (24 March 2021). "Coronavirus: Paraguay confirma presencia de variante brasileña del COVID-19 y reporta récord de muertes" [Coronavirus: Paraguay confirms presence of Brazilian variant of COVID-19 and reports record of deaths]. El Comercio Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  75. ^ "Statement from the National Public Health Emergency Team on the detection of P1 variant in Ireland - Friday 19 February". Government of Ireland. Department of Health. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021. McQuinn, Cormac; Cullen, Paul (19 February 2021). "Coronavirus: Three cases of Brazil variant identified in the State for first time". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  76. ^ "Three cases of Brazilian virus variant identified in Ireland". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  77. ^ Halpin, Hayley (19 February 2021). "Three cases of new Covid-19 variant, first identified in Brazil, reported in Ireland". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  78. ^ Cullen, Paul (9 March 2021). "Covid-19: Irish cases of worrying variant double to six". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  79. ^ Bowers, Fergal; Hogan, Laura (3 April 2021). "Newer Covid variants unrelated to travel detected in community, says expert". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  80. ^ "Primele două cazuri de infectare cu tulpina braziliană de Covid-19 confirmate în România" [First two cases of infection with the Brazilian variant of Covid-19 confirmed in Romania]. stirileprotv.ro (in Romanian). Romania. 8 March 2021. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  81. ^ "S. Korea reports 1st COVID-19 variant case from Brazil". Yonhap News Agency. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  82. ^ "Suomen epidemiatilanne on jakautunut - muuntuneet virusmuodot herättävät huolta" [Finland's pandemic situation is divided - variants are worrying]. thl.fi (in Finnish). 3 March 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  83. ^ "Mutated Brazilian Variant of Coronavirus Detected in Croatia by RBI Researchers". total-croatia-news.com. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  84. ^ "South Africa, Brazil mutated Covid strains have reached India". Times of India. New Delhi. 17 February 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  85. ^ "First case of Brazil COVID in Philippines". canberratimes.com.au. Canberra. 13 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  86. ^ "Philippines sees more cases of COVID-19 variants, including local P.3". Philippine Star. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  87. ^ Egholm, Sverri (18 January 2021). "In a first European case, Brazilian Covid variant confirmed in Faroe". Local.fo. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  88. ^ "Coronavirus: New Variants Confirmed in 15 New Cases". Hungary Today. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021. Tests by the National Public Health Centre (NNK) showed the presence of the Delta variant of the coronavirus in 14 new cases and the gamma variant in one new case, the prime minister's chief of staff said on Thursday.
  89. ^ Danner, Chas (25 January 2021). "What We Know About the New P.1 Strain of the Coronavirus". nymag.com. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  90. ^ a b Voloch, Carolina M.; et al. (2020). "Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Figure 5". medRxiv 10.1101/2020.12.23.20248598v1.
  91. ^ Felipe Gomes Naveca; Valdinete Nascimento; Victor Costa de Souza; André de Lima Corado; et al. (July 2021). "COVID-19 in Amazonas, Brazil, was driven by the persistence of endemic lineages and P.1 emergence". Nature Medicine. 27: 1230–1238. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01378-7.
     • Preprint: Naveca, Felipe; Nascimento, Valdinete; Souza, Victor; Corado, André; et al. (25 February 2021). "COVID-19 epidemic in the Brazilian state of Amazonas was driven by long-term persistence of endemic SARS-CoV-2 lineages and the recent emergence of the new Variant of Concern P.1". Research Square. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-275494/v1. S2CID 233963668. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  92. ^ Andreoni, Manuela; Londoño, Ernesto; Casado, Leticia (3 March 2021). "Brazil's Covid Crisis Is a Warning to the Whole World, Scientists Say - Brazil is seeing a record number of deaths, and the spread of a more contagious coronavirus variant that may cause reinfection". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  93. ^ Zimmer, Carl (1 March 2021). "Virus Variant in Brazil Infected Many Who Had Already Recovered From Covid-19 - The first detailed studies of the so-called P.1 variant show how it devastated a Brazilian city. Now scientists want to know what it will do elsewhere". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  94. ^ Faria NR, Mellan TA, Whittaker C, Claro IM, Candido DS, Mishra S, et al. (21 May 2021). "Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil". Science. 372 (6544): 815–821. Bibcode:2021Sci...372..815F. doi:10.1126/science.abh2644. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 8139423. PMID 33853970.
  95. ^ Souza, William; Amorim, Mariene; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Coimbra, Lais; Toledo-Teixeira, Daniel (1 March 2021). "Levels of SARS-CoV-2 Lineage P.1 Neutralization by Antibodies Elicited after Natural Infection and Vaccination". The Lancet. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3793486. S2CID 233861963. SSRN 3793486. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  96. ^ Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo; Lam, Evan; Denis, Kerri (18 February 2021). "Circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants escape neutralization by vaccine-induced humoral immunity". medrxiv. doi:10.1101/2021.02.14.21251704. Retrieved 3 March 2021.

External links[edit]