SAR supergroup

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SAR
Temporal range: 736–0Ma[1]
Harosa.png
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): SAR
Burki et al., 2007
Phyla
Synonyms
  • Harosa Cavalier-Smith, 2010

Sar or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria.[2][3][4][5] The first letter of each group provides the "SAR" in the name (alternatively spelled "RAS").[6][7]

The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith (2010).[8] Adl et al. (2012) formalized the SAR supergroup as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as:[6]

Sar: the least inclusive clade containing Bigelowiella natans Moestrup & Sengco 2001 (Rhizaria), Tetrahymena thermophila Nanney & McCoy 1976 (Alveolata), and Thalassiosira pseudonana Cleve 1873 (Stramenopiles). This is a node-based definition in which all of the specifiers are extant.

Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata and Rhizaria, until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged together with Rhizaria. This apparently excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads, leading Okamoto et al. (2009) to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them.[9]

Phylogeny[edit]

Based on a compilation of the following works.[10][11][12]

Harosa
Rhizaria

Phytomyxea Engler & Prantl 1897 em. Cavalier-Smith 1993

Vampyrellida West 1901 emend. Hess et al. 2012 {Vampyrellidea Cavalier-Smith 2017}

Filosa Leidy 1879 s.s.

Marimyxia Cavalier-Smith 2017

Retaria Cavalier-Smith 2002 s.s.

Halvaria
Alveolata

Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat. n. Copeland 1956

Myzozoa Cavalier-Smith and Chao 2004

Heterokonta

Platysulcidae Shiratori, Nkayama & Ishida 2015

Sagenista Cavalier-Smith 1995 stat. n. 2006

Bikosea Cavalier-Smith 2013

Placidozoa Cavalier-Smith 2013

Gyrista

Bigyromonadea Cavalier-Smith 1998

Oomycota Arx 1967

Hyphochytriomycota Whittaker 1969

Pirsoniales Cavalier-Smith 1998

Ochrophyta Cavalier-Smith 1986 (Brown, golden & yellow algae)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (August 16, 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–13629. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10813624P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185Freely accessible. PMID 21810989. 
  2. ^ Archibald JM (January 2009). "The puzzle of plastid evolution". Curr. Biol. 19 (2): R81–8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.067. PMID 19174147. 
  3. ^ Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, et al. (2007). Butler G, ed. "Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups". PLoS ONE. 2 (8): e790. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..790B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMC 1949142Freely accessible. PMID 17726520. 
  4. ^ Hampl V, Hug L, Leigh JW, et al. (March 2009). "Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups"". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (10): 3859–64. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3859H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807880106. PMC 2656170Freely accessible. PMID 19237557. 
  5. ^ Frommolt R, Werner S, Paulsen H, et al. (December 2008). "Ancient recruitment by chromists of green algal genes encoding enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (12): 2653–67. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn206. PMID 18799712. 
  6. ^ a b Sina M. Adl; Alastair G.B. Simpson; Christopher E. Lane; Julius Lukeš; David Bass; Samuel S. Bowser; Matthew W. Brown; Fabien Burki; Micah Dunthorn; Vladimir Hampl; Aaron Heiss; Mona Hoppenrath; Enrique Lara; Line Le Gall; Denis H. Lynn; Hilary McManus; Edward A.D. Mitchell; Sharon E. Mozley-Stanridge; Laura W. Parfrey; Jan Pawlowski; Sonja Rueckert; Laura Shadwick; Conrad L. Schoch; Alexey Smirnov & Frederick W. Spiegel (2012). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes" (PDF). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–493. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872Freely accessible. PMID 23020233. 
  7. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf (2008). "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes" (PDF). Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 46 (3): 263–273. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08060 (inactive 2018-01-20). 
  8. ^ T. Cavalier-Smith (June 2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC 2880060Freely accessible. PMID 20031978. 
  9. ^ Fabien Burki (2014). "The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (5): 1–17. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016147. PMC 3996474Freely accessible. 
  10. ^ Ruggiero; et al. (2015), "Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms", PLoS ONE, 10 (4): e0119248, Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1019248R, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248, PMC 4418965Freely accessible, PMID 25923521 
  11. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016), "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes", HAL archives-ouvertes: 1–462 
  12. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (5 September 2017). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma. 255: 1–61. doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3.