SAR supergroup

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Scientific classification e
Superregio: Neomura
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): SAR
Burki et al., 2007
  • Harosa Cavalier-Smith, 2010

Sar or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria.[1][2][3][4] The first letter of each group provides the "SAR" in the name (alternatively spelled "RAS").[5][6]

The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith (2010).[7] Adl et al. (2012) formalized the SAR supergroup as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as:[5]

Sar: the least inclusive clade containing Bigelowiella natans Moestrup & Sengco 2001 (Rhizaria), Tetrahymena thermophila Nanney & McCoy 1976 (Alveolata), and Thalassiosira pseudonana Cleve 1873 (Stramenopiles). This is a node-based definition in which all of the specifiers are extant.

Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata and Rhizaria, until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged together with Rhizaria. This apparently excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads, leading Okamoto et al. (2009) to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Archibald JM (January 2009). "The puzzle of plastid evolution". Curr. Biol. 19 (2): R81–8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.067. PMID 19174147. 
  2. ^ Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, et al. (2007). Butler G, ed. "Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups". PLoS ONE 2 (8): e790. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..790B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMC 1949142. PMID 17726520. 
  3. ^ Hampl V, Hug L, Leigh JW, et al. (March 2009). "Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups"". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (10): 3859–64. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3859H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807880106. PMC 2656170. PMID 19237557. 
  4. ^ Frommolt R, Werner S, Paulsen H, et al. (December 2008). "Ancient recruitment by chromists of green algal genes encoding enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (12): 2653–67. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn206. PMID 18799712. 
  5. ^ a b Sina M. Adl, Alastair G.B. Simpson, Christopher E. Lane, Julius Lukeš, David Bass, Samuel S. Bowser, Matthew W. Brown, Fabien Burki, Micah Dunthorn, Vladimir Hampl, Aaron Heiss, Mona Hoppenrath, Enrique Lara, Line Le Gall, Denis H. Lynn, Hilary McManus, Edward A.D. Mitchell, Sharon E. Mozley-Stanridge, Laura W. Parfrey, Jan Pawlowski, Sonja Rueckert, Laura Shadwick, Conrad L. Schoch, Alexey Smirnov, & Frederick W. Spiegel (2012). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes" (PDF). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872. PMID 23020233. 
  6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf (2008). "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes" (PDF). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08060. 
  7. ^ T. Cavalier-Smith (June 2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC 2880060. PMID 20031978. 
  8. ^ Fabien Burki (2014). "The eukaryotic tree of life from a global phylogenomic perspective". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 6: 1–17. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016147.