SCARB1

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SCARB1
Identifiers
Aliases SCARB1, CD36L1, CLA-1, CLA1, HDLQTL6, SR-BI, SRB1, scavenger receptor class B member 1
External IDs MGI: 893578 HomoloGene: 21132 GeneCards: SCARB1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 12 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 12 (human)[1]
Chromosome 12 (human)
Genomic location for SCARB1
Genomic location for SCARB1
Band 12q24.31 Start 124,776,856 bp[1]
End 124,882,668 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SCARB1 201819 at fs.png

PBB GE SCARB1 215834 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_005505
NM_001082959

NM_001205082
NM_001205083
NM_016741

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001076428
NP_005496

NP_001192011
NP_001192012
NP_058021

Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 124.78 – 124.88 Mb Chr 12: 125.28 – 125.34 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SRB1) also known as SR-BI is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB1 gene.[5] SR-BI functions as a receptor for high-density lipoprotein.[6]

Function[edit]

Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) is an integral membrane protein found in numerous cell types/tissues, including the liver and adrenal. It is best known for its role in facilitating the uptake of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins in the liver. This process drives the movement of cholesterol from peripheral tissues towards the liver, where cholesterol can either be secreted via the bile duct or be used to synthesise steroid hormones.[7] This movement of cholesterol is known as reverse cholesterol transport and is a protective mechanism against the development of atherosclerosis, which is the principal cause of heart disease and stroke.

SR-BI is crucial in lipid soluble vitamin uptake.[8]

In melanocytic cells SCARB1 gene expression may be regulated by the MITF.[9]

Species distribution[edit]

SR-BI has also been identified in the livers of non-mammalian species (turtle, goldfish, shark, chicken, frog, and skate), suggesting it emerged early in vertebrate evolutionary history. The turtle also seems to upregulate SB-RI during egg development, indicating that cholesterol efflux may be at peak levels during developmental stages.[10]

Clinical significance[edit]

SCARB1 along with CD81 is the receptor for the entry of the Hepatitis C virus into liver cells.[11]

Preclinical research[edit]

Although malignant tumors are known to display extreme heterogeneity, overexpression of SR-B1 is a relatively consistent marker in cancerous tissues. While SR-B1 normally mediates the transfer of cholesterol between high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and healthy cells, it also facilitates the selective uptake of cholesterol by malignant cells. In this way, upregulation of the SR-B1 receptor becomes an enabling factor for self-sufficient proliferation in cancerous tissue.[12][13]

SR-B1 mediated delivery has also been used in the transfection of cancer cells with siRNA, or small interfering RNAs. This therapy causes RNA interference, in which short segments of double stranded RNA acts to silence targeted oncogenes post-transcription. SR-B1 mediation reduces siRNA degradation and off-target accumulation while enhancing delivery to targeted tissues. In "metastatic and taxane-resistant models of ovarian cancer, rHDL-mediated siren delivery improved responses.[14]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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Statin_Pathway_WP430 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article
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Statin_Pathway_WP430 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article
|px|alt=Statin Pathway edit]]
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "Statin_Pathway_WP430". 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000073060 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037936 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ "Entrez Gene: SCARB1 Scavenger receptor class B, member 1". 
  6. ^ Acton S, Rigotti A, Landschulz KT, Xu S, Hobbs HH, Krieger M (January 1996). "Identification of scavenger receptor SR-BI as a high density lipoprotein receptor". Science. 271 (5248): 518–20. doi:10.1126/science.271.5248.518. PMID 8560269. 
  7. ^ Rhainds D, Brissette L (January 2004). "The role of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in lipid trafficking. defining the rules for lipid traders". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 36 (1): 39–77. PMID 14592533. 
  8. ^ Valacchi G, Sticozzi C, Lim Y, Pecorelli A (July 2011). "Scavenger receptor class B type I: a multifunctional receptor". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1229: E1–7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06205.x. PMID 22239457. 
  9. ^ Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Widmer DS, Praetorius C, Einarsson SO, Valgeirsdottir S, Bergsteinsdottir K, Schepsky A, Dummer R, Steingrimsson E (December 2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 21 (6): 665–76. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00505.x. PMID 19067971. 
  10. ^ Duggan AE, Marie RS, Callard IP (April 2002). "Expression of SR-BI (Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I) in turtle (Chrysemys picta) tissues and other nonmammalian vertebrates". The Journal of Experimental Zoology. 292 (5): 430–4. doi:10.1002/jez.10067. PMID 11857477. 
  11. ^ Kapadia SB, Barth H, Baumert T, McKeating JA, Chisari FV (January 2007). "Initiation of hepatitis C virus infection is dependent on cholesterol and cooperativity between CD81 and scavenger receptor B type I". Journal of Virology. 81 (1): 374–83. doi:10.1128/JVI.01134-06. PMC 1797271Freely accessible. PMID 17050612. 
  12. ^ Mooberry LK, Sabnis NA, Panchoo M, Nagarajan B, Lacko AG (December 2016). "Targeting the SR-B1 Receptor as a Gateway for Cancer Therapy and Imaging". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7 (466): 466. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00466. PMID 28018216. 
  13. ^ Gutierrez-Pajares JL, Ben Hassen C, Chevalier S, Frank PG (2016). "SR-BI: Linking Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism with Breast and Prostate Cancer". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7: 338. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00338. PMC 5054001Freely accessible. PMID 27774064. 
  14. ^ Rajora MA, Zheng G (2016). "Targeting SR-BI for Cancer Diagnostics, Imaging and Therapy". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7 (Art. 326): 326. doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00326. PMID 27729859. 

Further reading[edit]