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A symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast, or SCOBY is a popular term (rather than scientific) used to refer to mixed cultures of bacteria and yeast present during production of the fermented beverages such as kefir and kombucha.[citation needed] In this regard, the appearance of the term "colony" in the name—which implies individual organisms of the same species living closely together, organisms generally clonal (all descending from a single ancestor) and therefore genetically identical apart from low frequency mutations—is a scientific misnomer, such that the acronym is essentially absent in the biomedical literature, a fact that comes from the difficulties to market any scoby and the close relationship they have with home-food. The species comprising the mixed cultures vary from preparation to preparation, but generally include Acetobacter bacterial species and various Saccharomyces and other yeast types. SCOBY cultures used in beverage productions can produce a structure referred to as a mushroom, and in similar loose uses of terminology, the term SCOBY culture and "mushroom" may be used synonymously.


A SCOBY used for brewing kombucha, made up of Acetobacter species of bacteria, and undefined yeast species.[citation needed]

Yeast and bacteria commonly found in SCOBY include:[citation needed]

Use in food production[edit]

Foods and beverages which require SCOBY in their production include:

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Outside links[edit]