Cover of SCUM Manifesto (Verso Press edition)
|Subject||Feminism; gender studies|
1968 (commercial publication)
|Pages||Original edition: 21 & cover p.|
SCUM Manifesto is a radical feminist manifesto by Valerie Solanas, published in 1967. It argues that men have ruined the world, and that it is up to women to fix it. To achieve this goal, it suggests the formation of SCUM, an organization dedicated to overthrowing society and eliminating the male sex. The Manifesto is widely regarded as satirical, but based on legitimate philosophical and social concerns. It has been reprinted at least 10 times in English, translated into 13 languages, and excerpted several times.
The term "SCUM" appeared on the cover of the first edition from Olympia Press as "S.C.U.M." and was said to stand for "Society for Cutting Up Men". Solanas objected, insisting that it was not an acronym, although the expanded term appeared in a Village Voice ad she had written in 1967. Solanas held a series of recruitment meetings for SCUM at the Chelsea Hotel where she lived, but a decade later insisted that the organization was "just a literary device" and never really existed.
The Manifesto was little-known until Solanas attempted to kill Andy Warhol in 1968. This event brought significant public attention to the Manifesto and Solanas herself. While some feminists, such as Florynce Kennedy and Ti-Grace Atkinson, defended Solanas and considered the Manifesto a valid criticism of the patriarchal order, others, such as Betty Friedan, considered Solanas's views to be too radical and polarizing. Although Solanas's motives for shooting Warhol remain unclear, the Manifesto is still frequently associated with this event.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Contents
- 3 SCUM as literary device
- 4 Reception and criticism
- 5 SCUM organization
- 6 Influence
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Solanas wrote SCUM Manifesto between 1965 and 1967. In 1967, she self-published the first edition by making two thousand mimeographed copies and selling them on the streets of Greenwich Village in New York City. Solanas charged women one dollar and men two dollars each. By the following spring, about 400 copies had been sold. Solanas signed a publishing contract with Maurice Girodias in August 1967 for a novel and asked him to accept the SCUM Manifesto in its place later that year.
The first commercial edition of the Manifesto was published by Olympia Press in New York in 1968. It includes a preface by Maurice Girodias and an essay titled "Wonder Waif Meets Super Neuter" by Paul Krassner. According to Jansen, there are subtle differences between the 1968 Olympia Press edition and Solanas' original mimeographed version. In an interview with The Village Voice, Solanas commented on the Olympia Press edition, complaining that "none of the corrections ... [she] wanted made were included and that many other changes in wording were made—all for the worse—and that there were many 'typographical errors': words and even extended parts of sentences left out, rendering the passages they should've been in incoherent." In 1977, Solanas self-published a "correct" edition which was closer to the original version and included an introduction written by her.
The SCUM Manifesto has been reprinted at least 10 times in English and translated into Croatian, Czech, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, Portuguese, Dutch, and Danish. It has also been excerpted in several feminist anthologies, including Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From The Women's Liberation Movement (1970), a collection of radical feminist writing edited by Robin Morgan. Verso Books published an edition in 2004 with an introduction by feminist philosopher Avital Ronell. Jon Purkis and James Bowen describe the SCUM Manifesto as a "pamphlet which has become one of the longest surviving perennials of anarchist publishing".
Solanas's sister, Judith A. Solanas Martinez, is the reported copyright holder of the SCUM Manifesto by 1997 renewal.
The Manifesto opens with the following declaration:
"Life" in this "society" being, at best, an utter bore and no aspect of "society" being at all relevant to women, there remains to civic-minded, responsible, thrill-seeking females only to overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and eliminate the male sex.
Solanas begins by presenting a theory of the male as an "incomplete female" who is genetically deficient due to the Y chromosome. According to Solanas, this genetic deficiency causes the male to be emotionally limited, egocentric, and incapable of mental passion or genuine interaction. She describes the male as lacking empathy and unable to relate to anything apart from his own physical sensations. The Manifesto continues by arguing that the male spends his life attempting to become female, and thereby overcome his inferiority. He does this by "constantly seeking out, fraternizing with and trying to live though and fuse with the female." Solanas rejects Freud's theory of penis envy, and argues that men have "pussy envy". Solanas then accuses men of turning the world into a "shitpile" and presents a long list of grievances.
The bulk of the Manifesto consists of a litany of grievances against the male sex. The grievances are divided into the following sections:
- Niceness, Politeness and "Dignity"
- Money, Marriage and Prostitution, Work and Prevention of an Automated Society
- Fatherhood and Mental Illness (fear, cowardice, timidity, humility, insecurity, passivity)
- Suppression of Individuality, Animalism (domesticity and motherhood) and Functionalism
- Prevention of Privacy
- Isolation, Suburbs and Prevention of Community
- Authority and Government
- Philosophy, Religion and Morality Based on Sex
- Prejudice (racial, ethnic, religious, etc.)
- Competition, Prestige, Status, Formal Education, Ignorance and Social and Economic Classes
- Prevention of Conversation
- Prevention of Friendship and Love
- "Great Art" and "Culture"
- Secrecy, Censorship, Suppression of Knowledge and Ideas, and Exposés
- Hate and Violence
- Disease and Death
Due to the aforementioned grievances, the Manifesto concludes that the elimination of the male sex is a moral imperative. It also argues that women must replace the "money-work system" with a system of complete automation, as this will lead to the collapse of the government and the loss of men's power over women.
In order to accomplish these goals, the Manifesto proposes that a revolutionary vanguard of women be formed. This vanguard is referred to as SCUM. The Manifesto argues that SCUM should employ sabotage and direct action tactics rather than civil disobedience, as civil disobedience is only useful for making small changes to society. In order to destroy the system, violent action is necessary: "If SCUM ever marches, it will be over the President's stupid, sickening face; if SCUM ever strikes, it will be in the dark with a six-inch blade."
The Manifesto ends by describing a female-dominated utopian future with, eventually, no men. There would be no money, and disease and death would have been eliminated. It argues that men are irrational to defend the current system and should accept the necessity of their destruction.
SCUM as literary device
In a 1977 interview for The Village Voice, Solanas stated that SCUM was "just a literary device. There's no organization called SCUM—there never was, and there never will be." Solanas said that she "thought of it as a state of mind .... [in that] women who think a certain way are in SCUM .... [and] [m]en who think a certain way are in the men's auxiliary of SCUM."
Reception and criticism
Various critics, scholars, and journalists have analyzed the Manifesto and Solanas's statements regarding it. Prof. James Martin Harding said she "propose[d]" a "radical program". Prof. Dana Heller said the author had an "anarchic social vision" and the Manifesto had "near-utopian theories" and a "utopian vision of a world in which mechanization and systems of mass (re)production would render work, sexual intercourse, and the money system obsolete." According to Village Voice reviewer B. Ruby Rich, "SCUM was an uncompromising global vision" that criticized men for many faults including war and not curing disease; many but not all points were "quite accurate"; some kinds of women were also criticized, subject to women's changing when men are not around; and sex (as in sexuality) was criticized as "exploitative". According to Janet Lyon, the Manifesto "pitt[ed] ... 'liberated' women ... against 'brainwashed' women".
Feminist critic Germaine Greer said that Solanas argued that both genders were separated from their humanity and that men want to be like women. Alice Echols says the Manifesto articulates gender as absolute rather than relative.
Heller argued that the Manifesto shows women's separation from basic economic and cultural resources and, because of psychological subordination to men, women's perpetuation of that separation.[a] Robert Marmorstein of the Voice said that SCUM's main message included that "men have fouled up the world" and "are no longer necessary (even biologically)".[b] Jansen said Solanas considered men "biological[ly] inferior". According to Laura Winkiel, the Manifesto wants heterosexual capitalism overthrown and the means of production taken over by women. Rich and Jansen said that technology and science would be welcome in the future.
Jansen describes the plan for creating a women's world as mainly nonviolent, as based on women's nonparticipation in the current economy and having nothing to do with any men, thereby overwhelming police and military forces, and, if solidarity among women was insufficient, some women could take jobs and "unwork", causing systemic collapse; and describes the plan as anticipating that by eliminating money there'd be no need to kill men. Heller said the Manifesto would let drag queens live and be "useful" and "productive". Jansen and Winkiel say that Solanas imagined a women-only world. Daily News reporters Frank Faso and Henry Lee, two days after Solanas shot Warhol, said Solanas "crusades for a one-sex world free of men". Winkiel says the Manifesto imagines a violent revolutionary coup by women.[c] Prof. Ginette Castro found the Manifesto was "the feminist charter on violence", supporting terrorist hysteria. According to Jansen, Solanas posited men as animals who will be stalked and killed as prey, the killers using weapons as "phallic symbols turned against men". Rich, Castro, reviewer Claire Dederer, Friedan, Prof. Debra Diane Davis, Deborah Siegel, Winkiel, Marmorstein, and Greer said that Solanas' plan was largely to eliminate men, including by men murdering each other, although Rich thought it might be Swiftian satire and that men's retraining was an alternative in the Manifesto, Castro did not take the elimination of men as serious, and Marmorstein included criminal sabotage of men.
While, according to Lyon, the Manifesto is irreverent and witty, according to Siegel the Manifesto "articulated bald female rage"[d] and Jansen says the Manifesto is "shocking" and breathtaking. Rich described Solanas as a "one-woman scorched-earth squad" and Siegel says the stance was "extreme"[e] and "reflected a more general disaffection with nonviolent protest in America overall." Rich says the Manifesto brought out women's "despair and anger" and advanced feminism and, according to Winkiel, U.S. radical feminism emerged because of this "declaration of war against capitalism and patriarchy". Heller suggests the Manifesto is chiefly socialist-materialist. Echols has argued that Solanas had "unabashed misandry", and people associated with Andy Warhol (whom she shot) and various media saw it as "man-hating".
As parody and satire
Laura Winkiel, an associate professor of English at the University of Colorado at Boulder, argues that the "SCUM manifesto parodies the performance of patriarchal social order it refuses". Winkiel further suggests that the manifesto is "an illicit performance, a mockery of the 'serious' speech acts of patriarchy". The SCUM women mock the way in which certain men run the world and legitimize their power, Winkiel contends. Similarly, sociologist Ginette Castro states:
If we examine the text more closely, we see that its analysis of patriarchal reality is a parody [...] The content itself is unquestionably a parody of the Freudian theory of femininity, where the word woman is replaced by man [...] All the cliches of Freudian psychoanalytical theory are here: the biological accident, the incomplete sex, "penis envy" which has become "pussy envy," and so forth [...] Here we have a case of absurdity being used as a literary device to expose an absurdity, that is, the absurd theory which has been used to give "scientific" legitimacy to patriarchy [...] What about her proposal that men should quite simply be eliminated, as a way of clearing the dead weight of misogyny and masculinity? This is the inevitable conclusion of the feminist pamphlet, in the same way that Jonathan Swift's proposal that Irish children (as useless mouths) should be fed to the swine was the logical conclusion of his bitter satirical pamphlet protesting famine in Ireland. Neither of the two proposals is meant to be taken seriously, and each belongs to the realm of political fiction, or even science fiction, written in a desperate effort to arouse public consciousness.
James Penner reads the manifesto as a satirical text. He states, "Like other feminist satires, the 'SCUM Manifesto' attempts to politicize women by attacking particular masculine myths that are embedded in American popular culture." He adds, "As a work of satire, the 'SCUM Manifesto' is rhetorically effective in that it deconstructs the reader's received notions of masculinity and femininity."[f] English professor Carl Singleton notes the "outrageous nature" of the manifesto and Solanas' increasing mental instability, which, he argues, led many people to trivialize the text. Singleton adds, "Others saw the document as a form of political satire in the style of Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal." Similarly, Jansen compared it to Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal, describing it as having "satiric brilliance" and calling Solanas "cool and mordantly funny". The bulletin of the Project of Transnational Studies echoes the comparison to Jonathan Swift, stating, "A more common strategy is to read SCUM as an instance of political fiction or parody in the vein of Jonathan Swift." Writing for Spin in September 1996, Charles Aaron calls the SCUM Manifesto a "riotous, pre-feminist satire". Film director Mary Harron called the manifesto a "brilliant satire" and described its tone as "very funny".[g] According to Rich of The Village Voice, the work possibly was "satire" and could be read as "literal or symbolic". Winkiel said, "The humor and anger of satire invites women to produce this feminist script by taking on the roles of the politically performative SCUM females." Paul Krassner, who was a personal acquaintance of Solanas, called the manifesto a "dittoed document of pathological proselytization with occasional overtones of unintentional satire".
Solanas's first publisher, Maurice Girodias, thought of it as "a joke" and described the manifesto, according to J. Hoberman, as "a Swiftian satire on the depraved behavior, genetic inferiority, and ultimate disposability of the male gender". Solanas, however, disagreed with Girodias on several points.[h] Faso and Lee said that the "Scum ["program"] .... [is] [a]pparently not a put-on" and that unnamed people "who profess to know Valerie say she isn't joking ... [but] that deep down she likes men." In 1968, speaking to Marmorstein, she characterized herself on the "'SCUM thing'" as "'dead serious.'" Alexandra DeMonte, however, argues that Solanas "later claimed that her manifesto was simply a satire".
SCUM as acronym
The phrase "Society for Cutting Up Men" is on the cover of the 1967 self-published edition, after the title, in "'Presentation of ... SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men) ....'" This edition precedes all commercial editions. Additionally, in the August 10, 1967 issue of The Village Voice, a letter to the editor appears that was signed by a Valerie Solanas (of SCUM, West 23rd Street) that responds to a previous letter signed by a Ruth Herschberger (published in the August 3, 1967 issue) that asks why women do not rebel against men. Solanas's response reads: "I would like to inform her and other proud, independent, females like her of the existence of SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men), a recently conceived organization which will be getting into high gear (and I mean high) within a few weeks.
However, though "SCUM" originally stood for "Society For Cutting Up Men", as evidenced inside one edition,[i] this phrase actually occurs nowhere in the text. Heller argued that "there is no reliable evidence that Solanas intended SCUM to stand as an acronym for 'Society for Cutting Up Men'." Susan Ware et al. state that it was Solanas' publisher Girodias who claimed that SCUM was an acronym for "Society for Cutting Up Men", something Solanas never seems to have intended. Gary Dexter contends that Solanas called it the SCUM Manifesto without periods after the letters of SCUM. Dexter adds: "The spelling out of her coded title by Girodias was one more act of patriarchal intervention, an attempt to possess."[j]
The word "SCUM" is used in the text in reference to a certain type of women, not to men. It refers to empowered women, "SCUM - dominant, secure, self-confident, nasty, violent, selfish, independent, proud, thrill-seeking, free-wheeling, arrogant females, who consider themselves fit to rule the universe, who have free-wheeled to the limits of this 'society' and are ready to wheel on to something far beyond what it has to offer". According to Avitel Ronell, that "SCUM" was intended as an acronym was a "belated add-on", which Solanas later rejected.[k]
Solanas organized "a public forum on SCUM" at which about 40 people, mostly men she characterized as "creeps" and "masochists", showed up; SCUM had no members beside her. According to Greer, "little evidence [existed] that S.C.U.M. ever functioned" other than as Solanas.
The Manifesto, according to Lyon, is "notorious and influential" and was "one of the earliest ... [and] one of the most radical" tracts produced by "various strands of the American women's liberation movement". Lyon said that "by 1969 it had become a kind of bible" for Cell 16, in Boston. According to a 2012 article by Arthur Goldwag on the Southern Poverty Law Center Hatewatch blog, "Solanas continues to be much-read and quoted in some feminist circles." Whether the Manifesto should be considered a feminist classic is challenged by Heller because the Manifesto rejected a hierarchy of greatness, but she said it "remains an influential feminist text."
Women and shooting
Laura Winkiel argues that Solanas' shooting of Andy Warhol and Mario Amaya was directly tied to the Manifesto.[l][m] After shooting Warhol, Solanas told a reporter, "Read my manifesto and it will tell you what I am." Heller, however, states that Solanas "intended no connection between the manifesto and the shooting". Harding suggests that "there is no clear indication in Solanas' ambiguous statement to reporters that the contents of the manifesto would explain the specifics of her actions, at least not in the sense of providing a script for them." Harding views the SCUM Manifesto as an "extension, not the source, of performative acts, even a violent one act like the shooting of Warhol."
Winkiel argues that revolutionary Roxanne Dunbar moved to the U.S. "convinced that a women's revolution had begun", forming Cell 16 with a program based on the Manifesto. According to Winkiel, although Solanas was "outraged" at the women's movement's "appropriat[ion]" of the Manifesto, "the shooting [of Warhol] represented the feminist movement's righteous rage against patriarchy" and Dunbar and Ti-Grace Atkinson considered the Manifesto as having initiated a "revolutionary movement", Atkinson (according to Rich) calling Solanas the "'first outstanding champion of women's rights'" and probably (according to Greer) having been "radicalized" by the language of the Manifesto to leave the National Organization for Women (NOW), and (according to Winkiel) women organized in support of Solanas. Solanas was viewed as too mentally ill and too bound up with Warhol, according to Greer, "for her message to come across unperverted." According to Prof. Davis, the Manifesto was a "forerunner" as a "call to arms among pragmatic American feminists" and was "enjoy[ing] ... wide contemporary appeal". According to Winkiel, the Manifesto "was ... influential in the spread of 'womansculture' and lesbian separatism" and is also "credited with beginning the antipornography movement."[n] Friedan opposed the Manifesto as bad for the feminist movement and NOW.
Scum Manifesto is also the title of a 1976 short film directed by Carole Roussopoulos and Delphine Seyrig. In the film, Seyrig reads several passages from a French translation of Solanas's manifesto.
Warhol later satirized the whole event in a subsequent movie, Women in Revolt, calling a group similar to Solanas's S.C.U.M., "P.I.G." (Politically Involved Girlies).
Solanas's creative work and relationship with Warhol is depicted in the 1996 film, I Shot Andy Warhol, a significant portion of which relates to the SCUM Manifesto, and Solanas's disputes on notions of authorship with Warhol.
In 2006, Swedish author Sara Stridsberg published a semi-fictional biography of Valerie Solanas, Drömfakulteten (The Dream Faculty), in which the Manifesto is referred to on several occasions. Parts of the Manifesto are also cited in the book.
Nick Cave said that Solanas in the Manifesto "talks at length about what she considers maleness and the male psyche ... basically men being halfway between humans and apes, these kind of lumbering lumps of meat, predatory lumps of meat", and that "it's quite wonderful to read .... [and] [t]here was an aspect of that I felt rang true." Cave wrote a novel, The Death of Bunny Munro, for which he "invented a character that was Valerie Solanas's male incarnate."
Solanas is quoted on the sleeve notes of the Manic Street Preachers debut album Generation Terrorists. Liverpool punk band Big in Japan composed the song "Society for Cutting Up Men" directly inspired by the manifesto. The British band S.C.U.M. is named after the manifesto. On Matmos' 2006 album The Rose Has Teeth in the Mouth of a Beast, one of the tracks is "Tract for Valerie Solanas" which features excerpts of the S.C.U.M. Manifesto.
- Manifesto is a "strident analysis of women's remove from basic economic and cultural resources, and their unthinking complicity in perpetuating these impoverished circumstances through their psychological subordination to men."
- "[t]he central theme of SCUM is that men have fouled up the world, are no longer necessary (even biologically), and should be completely destroyed, preferably by criminal means such as sabotage and murder .... [t]he quicker, the better.").
- The Manifesto "imagines a ... violent coup"; a "fantas[y] ... of political violence", Solanas' shooting of Andy Warhol also being one of Solanas' "fantasies of political violence"; including as to men a "genocidal political practice"; an "imagined group of vanguard feminist revolutionaries [who] proclaim their takeover of the world"; "a vanguard of revolutionary women"; & "Solanas imagines that women openly declare war on ... men", a declaration that "parodies masculine politics" "SCUM females will take over all aspects of society by ... [inter alia] murder".
- See also Jansen (2011), pp. 131 ("female rage"), 132 ("profound anger and ... fearless expression of ... [Solanas'] rage"), 134 ("[f]emale anger"), 147 ("downright cold—her anger is icy hot" & "[she is] angry ... but the tone ... is matter-of-fact"), 208 ("fury" & "anger"), & 218 ("incandescent rage burned")
- The Weathermen, a politically left organization that sought the overthrow of the U.S. government
- See also Winkiel (1999), pp. 63 ("SCUM's satiric cool"), 66 (on "public performances that are satiric" & "satiric feminism"), 68 (the Manifesto "parod[ies] ... positions of power" & "parodies ... performance of patriarchal social order", its language is "sarcastic" and "street-smart", & internal quotations "parody naturalized meanings"), 70 ("SCUM females ... [may] parody ..."), 73 (her solution "if women took over" is "[i]n the satiric tradition of Jonathan Swift's 'A Modest Proposal ...'"; "hyperbol[e]"; "parody"; & that, outside of the Manifesto, in her shooting of Warhol she "parodied its masculine form"), 74 (outside of the Manifesto, she "pushed to ... parodic proportions ... [a] publicity mania"), 74–75 (the Manifesto "posit[s] ... an ideal vantage of a world run by women from which to satirize the world run by men"), 76 (the Manifesto "renders each ["the categories of 'male' and 'female'"] a mimed, parodic signifier"; "parodies" "sexology" & "parodies sexological dscourse"; "renegade insults and urgent calls for immediate change underscore SCUM's illegitimacy"), 77 ("her rhetoric ... parodies ... authorizing language"), 78 ("parody of sexology" & "imagined SCUM females .... rendering themselves parodic ... and artificial") and 79 ("satire of men")
- "Eine brillante Satire – so als hätte Oscar Wilde beschlossen, Terrorist zu werden. Für meinen Warhol-Film hatte ich Dutzende von Zeitzeugen zu den Hintergründen von Solanas Attentat befragt und Berge von Berichten gelesen. Niemand hatte erwähnt, dass Valerie Solanas Talent und einen ausgeprägten Hang zur Komik hatte."
- Whether Winkiel could be certain that Solanas was the person who "checked out" New York Public Library's copy of the Manifesto from the rare books collection, per Winkiel (1999), p. 74, and marked the copy up is unclear given that the Library may not have retained records of who accessed material after its return.
- "the ["acronymiz[ing]"] gloss on SCUM permitted the title to pass into other languages with annihilating precision: Manifest der Gesellschaft zur Vernichtung der Männer (1969), Manifesto de la Organización para el Extermino del Hombre (1977), Manifesto per l'eliminzione dei masch (1994), and whatever it says to the same effect in Czech (1998)", in The New York Times, and elsewhere,
- "She called it the SCUM Manifesto, with the acronym not spelled out, and with no full stops after the letters of SCUM. This was the title used for all subsequent editions. In fact, even in earlier versions of the book, 'Society for Cutting Up Men' had not been mentioned anywhere in the text (...) SCUM was the voice of those women, like Valerie, an enraged, impoverished loner-lesbian, outside any group or any society, who were the rejected, the dregs, the refuse, the outcast. The scum, in fact. The spelling out of her coded title by Girodias was one more act of patriarchal intervention, an attempt to possess."
- "There were moments when ... ["Solanas"] disclaimed the acronymization of her title, refuting that it stood for 'Society for Cutting Up Men.' A mere 'literary device' and belated add-on ...."
- See also Hoberman (1996), p. 49: "Valerie Solanas really was a nobody until she shot Andy Warhol. But once The SCUM Manifesto was underlined in blood, Solanas hardly had to wait for admirers.... Solanas was claimed as an 'important spokeswoman' by the radical wing of NOW ...."
- See also Siegel (2007), p. 2: "Valerie Solanas, author of the man-hating tract known as the S.C.U.M. (Society for Cutting Up Men) Manifesto, shot Andy Warhol.... [¶] To women of the Baby Boomer generation, th[is and other] ... opening salvos of a revolution are moments of canonical—and personal—feminist history." & Siegel (2007), pp. 71–72: "Solanas's supporters argued that the shooting of a prominent male avant-garde figure was a bold political statement offered in the name of women's liberation".
- Anti-pornography movement, a movement opposed to pornography on feminist and other grounds
- Penner (2011), p. 232
- Jansen (2011), pp. 137 & 134 and see pp. 6, 129–160 (ch. 6, esp. pp. 131–135, 137–142, 145–148, & 150–160), 208 & 218.
- Castro (1990), pp. 73–74
- Ronell (2004), pp. 1–31
- Jansen (2011), pp. 159–160
- Fahs (2014), p. 85
- Fahs (2014), p. 306
- Drake & Kerekes (2004), p. 199
- Bernstein Weiss, Tracey (1978). The Rhetoric of Radical Feminism: A Pentadic Analysis of the Inception of a Rhetorical Movement. Temple University. p. 3.
- Fahs (2014), p. 61
- Winkiel (1999), p. 62
- Castro (1990), p. 264 (Chronology)
- Singleton, Knight & Wildin (1999), p. 636
- Rich (1993), p. 16
- Marmorstein (1968), p. 10
- Jansen (2011), p. 139 and see p. 146
- Jansen (2011), p. 156
- Solanas (1968)
- Jansen (2011), pp. 140–142
- Valerie Solanas Replies, in Smith, Howard, & Brian Van der Horst, Scenes, in The Village Voice, vol. XXII, no. 31, Aug. 1, 1977, p. 29, cols. 1–2 (emphasis so in original).
- Jansen (2011), pp. 140–142 ("CORRECT" in capitals).
- Jarla, Pertti (30 September 2011). "Vintage vihapuhe (Vintage hate speech)". Suomen Kuvalehti (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
- Lord (2010)
- "Denne bog burde slet ikke tildeles hjerter (This book should not be awarded hearts)". Politiken (in Danish). March 8, 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Hewitt (2004), p. 603
- Morgan, Robin, ed., Sisterhood Is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From the Women's Liberation Movement (N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 1970), pp. 514–519. See also Rich (1993), p. 17.
- Heller (2008), p. 165 (and see pp. 15–16), citing as excerpting SCUM Manifesto Kolmar, Wendy, & Frances Bartkowski, eds., Feminist Theory: A Reader (Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 2000), & Albert, Judith Clavir, & Stewart Edward Albert, eds., The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade (1984).
- Solanas, Valerie; Avital Ronell (2004). SCUM manifesto. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-553-3.
- Purkis & Bowen (1997), p. 93
- Jansen (2011), p. 141
- Solanas, Valerie, SCUM Manifesto (1967), p.  (self-published) (copy from Northwestern University).
- Solanas (1968), p. 31
- Solanas (1968), pp. 32–33
- Solanas (1968), pp. 34–35
- Solanas (1968), pp. 35–67
- Solanas (1968), pp. 67–70
- Solanas (1968), pp. 70–71, 80–81
- Solanas (1968), pp. 71–80
- Solanas (1968), pp. 80–84
- Smith & Van der Horst (1977), p. 32 (words "'the society'" by interviewer S (Scenes) & other words by V (Valerie)) (microfilm).
- Smith & Van der Horst (1977), p. 32
- Harding (2010), p. 155
- Heller (2008), p. 158
- Heller (2008), p. 154
- Heller (2008), p. 165
- Rich (1993), pp. 16–17
- Rich (1993), p. 17
- Lyon (1991), p. 106 and see p. 107.
- Greer (1971), p. 307 "Solanas argued that 'men and women [were "divide[d]"] from humanity'; '[to] allow ... women to move back to humanity[,] ... they exterminate men.'"
- Greer (1971), p. 99 (Solanas said "that men covet all that women are, seeking degradation and effeminization at their hands.") and see p. 81, p. 99 n. 6 citing Solanas (1968), p. 73.
- Echols (1983), p. 440
- Heller (2008), p. 163
- Marmorstein (1968), p. 9
- Jansen (2011), p. 150
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 68 ("the rhetoric [of the Manifesto] polemically urges the complete overthrow of heterosexual capitalism") & 78 (including "SCUM females .... tak[ing] ... over the means of production")
- Rich (1993), p. 17 (Solanas favored science and technology and wanted computers distributed).
- Jansen (2011), p. 151
- Heller (2008), pp. 157–158
- Jansen (2011), p. 131 and see p. 150.
- Winkiel (1999), p. 69 (Solanas "imagin[ed]... a world run by women") and see p. 79 ("a better world run by women").
- Faso & Lee (1968), p. 42
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 65
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 69
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 78
- Castro (1990), p. 101 ("certainly" "the feminist charter on violence", "legitimiz[ing] ... hysteria as a terrorist force").
- Jansen (2011), pp. 147–148 (Solanas posited men as animals who will be stalked and killed as prey, the killers using weapons as "phallic symbols turned against men") (emphasis so in original)) ("men are the real animals", per p. 148 and see p. 208).
- Dederer, Claire, Cutting Remarks, in The Nation, Jun. 14, 2004 (book review), as accessed Jun. 29, 2011 ("[t]he Manifesto is a call to rid the planet of men.")
- Rich (1993), p. 16 (Solanas, perhaps in a Swiftian tradition of satire, "believed that men ... should be retrained or eliminated.")
- Castro (1990), pp. 64 (Solanas "recommended the gradual elimination of all males") & 74 (the proposal of the Manifesto "that men should quite simply be eliminated" was "[not] meant to be taken seriously"
- Friedan, Betty, "It Changed My Life": Writings on the Women's Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. ed. 1998 ( 1963–1964, 1966, 1970–1976, 1985, 1991, & 1998) (ISBN 0-674-46885-6)), p. 138 (in unnumbered chap. "Our Revolution Is Unique": Excerpt from the President's Report to NOW, 1968, in pt. II, The Actions: Organizing the Women's Movement for Equality) ("the elimination of men [w]as proposed by that SCUM Manifesto!").
- Davis (2000), p. 147: men were to help eliminate each other, including by "rational murder." (emphasis in original)
- Siegel (2007), p. 71: it "argued for men's collective annihilation."
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 74 ("eliminat[ion] ... [of] the male sex") & 78 (except for "men in the Men's Auxiliary of SCUM")
- Jansen (2011), p. 152
- Lyon (1991), p. 106
- Siegel (2007), p. 26
- Jansen (2011), p. 133 and see p. 155 ("visceral responses").
- Siegel (2007), p. 26, referring to "the stances taken by the likes of Solanas and The Weathermen".
- Heller (2008), p. 163 (at its center, the manifesto is a "socialist-materialist critique", Heller suggests).
- Echols (1989), p. 104
- Winkiel (1999), p. 71
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 68–69
- Penner (2011), pp. 232–233
- Singleton, Knight & Wildin (1999), p. 639
- Jansen (2011), p. 147 and see p. 155.
- Public Culture: Bulletin of the Project for Transnational Cultural Studies, vol. 8 (1995), p. 524.
- Aaron, Charles (September 1996). "Rebel Girl". Spin Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 6, p. 86.
- Mary Harron (March/April 1997). "S.C.U.M. Die Vernichtung". EMMA. Retrieved on November 29, 2011
- Winkiel (1999), p. 79
- Solanas (1968), p. 89
- Girodias, Maurice, Publisher's Preface (N.Y.: 1968), in Solanas, Valerie, SCUM Manifesto (London: Olympia Press, 1971 (ISBN 0 700 410 30 9)), p. xi.
- Hoberman (2003), p. 48
- Winkiel (1999), p. 74
- Marmorstein (1968), p. 9 ("'SCUM thing'" interviewer Marmorstein's words (who also asked if it was "'a put on'") & "'Of course I'm serious. I'm dead serious'" interviewee Solanas's words).
- DeMonte, Alexandra (2010). "Feminism: Second-Wave". In Chapman, Roger (ed). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, p. 178, ISBN 978-1-84972-713-6.
- Solanas, Valerie, "SCUM : High Gear" in The Village Voice (August 3, 1967), 31.
- Solanas, Valerie, SCUM Manifesto (London: Verso, New ed. 2004 (ISBN 1-85984-553-3)), right-hand page facing cover II (before half-title page) ("SOCIETY FOR CUTTING UP MEN" (full text of p.))
- Ronell (2004), p. 6
- Quote: "an extremist tract calling for the establishment of a 'Society for Cutting Up Men.'"
- Donovan, Josephine, Feminist Theory: The Intellectual Traditions (N.Y.: Continuum, 3d ed. 2000 (ISBN 0-8264-1248-3)), p. 157 n. 7
- Morgan, Robin, ed., Sisterhood Is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From the Women's Liberation Movement (N.Y.: Random House, 1st ed. 1970), p. 514.
- Heller (2008), p. 152
- Susan Ware, Stacy Lorraine Braukman, et al. (2005). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 603, ISBN 978-0-674-01488-6.
- Dexter (2007), pp. 210–211
- Solanas, Valerie, SCUM Manifesto (Valerie Solanas, 1967), pp. 16–17 (self-published) (Northwestern Univ. copy) (hyphen surrounded by spaces after "SCUM" so in original).
- Marmorstein (1968), p. 10. See also Rich (1993), p. 16.
- Greer (1971), p. 306
- Goldwag, Arthur (May 15, 2012). "Intelligence Report Article Provokes Fury Among Men's Rights Activists". Hatewatch. Montgomery, Alab.: Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
- Winkiel (1999), p. 73 ("the only act of violence to come as a direct result of the manifesto") and p. 79 (the Manifesto "result[ing] in one failed assassination").
- Smith, Howard (June 6, 1968). "The Shot That Shattered the Velvet Underground". Village Voice.
- Harding (2010), p. 159
- Harding (2010), p. 160
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 66–67. See also Siegel (2007), p. 72
- Winkiel (1999), p. 67
- Winkiel (1999), p. 71 (point unsourced & unclear if so as to all of the movement or all use of her Manifesto).
- Winkiel (1999), pp. 71–72
- Davis (2000), p. 147 and see pp. 147-148.
- Davis (2000), p. 148
- Winkiel (1999), p. 78 and see p. 79 (the Manifesto "result[ing] in ... lesbian separatism").
- Siegel (2007), p. 72
- Biet, Christian; Olivier Neveux (2007). Une histoire du spectacle militant: théâtre et cinéma militants 1966-1981 (in French). Entretemps. p. 294. ISBN 2-912877-63-6.
- E. J. Feddes (2013). "The Venture Bros. – "Viva Los Muertos!"". Spunkybean. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Rosenberg, Tiina (December 2010). "Still Angry after All These Years, or Valerie Solanas under Your Skin" (PDF). Theatre Journal 62 (4): 529–534.
- Nick Cave's Bunny Novel No Soft Touch, on Q (CBC News (CBC Radio-Canada)), last updated September 17, 2009, 10:14 p.m. (E.T.), as accessed November 20, 2012.
- "S.C.U.M. - Whitechapel (2011)". Recent blog singles. New Music United. 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- "Tract for Valerie Solanas". Archived from the original on July 26, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2006.
- Castro, Ginette (1990). American Feminism: A Contemporary History. Translated by Elizabeth Loverde-Bagwell. New York, NY: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1448-X. (translated from Radioscopie du féminisme américain (Paris, France: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1984)
- Davis, Debra Diane (2000). Breaking up [at] Totality: a Rhetoric of Laughter. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0809322285.
- Dexter, Gary (2007). Why not Catch-21?: The Stories behind the Titles. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2796-5.
- Drake, Temple; Kerekes, David (2004). Headpress Guide to the Counterculture: A Sourcebook for Modern Readers. Manchester: Headpress. ISBN 1900486350.
- Echols, Alice (1983). "The new feminism of yin and yang". In Ann Barr Snitow, Christine Stansell & Sharon Thompson. Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality. New York, NY: Monthly Review Press. ISBN 0-85345-610-0.
- Echols, Alice (1989). Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America 1967–1975. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1787-2.
- Fahs, Breanne (2014). Valerie Solanas. The Feminist Press. ISBN 9781558618480.
- Faso, Frank; Lee, Henry (5 June 1968). "Actress defiant: 'I'm not sorry'" 49 (297). New York Daily News.
- Greer, Germaine (1971). The Female Eunuch. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Harding, James Martin (2010). "Forget Fame. Valerie Solanas, the Simplest Surrealist Act, and the (Re)Assertion of Avant-Garde Priorities". Cutting Performances: Collage Events, Feminist Artists, and the American Avant-Garde. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11718-5.
- Heller, Dana (2008). "Shooting Solanas: radical feminist history and the technology of failure". In Victoria Hesford & Lisa Diedrich. Feminist Time against Nation Time: Gender, Politics, and the Nation-State in an Age of Permanent War. Lanham, MD: Lexington. ISBN 978-0-7391-1123-9.
- Hewitt, Nancy A. (2004). "Solanas, Valerie". In Susan Ware & Stacy Lorraine Braukman. Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-01488-X.
- Hoberman, J. (2003). The Magic Hour: Film at Fin de Siècle. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-996-3.
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- Lord, Catherine (2010). "Wonder Waif Meets Super Neuter". October (132): 135–163. doi:10.1162/octo.2010.132.1.135.
- Lyon, Janet (1991). Transforming manifestoes: a second-wave problematic. Yale Journal of Criticism 5. pp. 101–127.
- Marmorstein, Robert (13 June 1968). "SCUM goddess: a winter memory of Valerie Solanis". The Village Voice: 9–20.
- Penner, James (2011). Pinks, Pansies, and Punks: The Rhetoric of Masculinity in American Literary Culture. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-22251-0.
- Purkis, Jon; Bowen, James (1997). Twenty-First Century Anarchism: Unorthodox Ideas for a New Millennium. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0304337422.
- Rich, B. Ruby (1993). "Manifesto destiny: drawing a bead on Valerie Solanas". Voice Literary Supplement (New York, NY: The Village Voice) 119: 16–17. (review of Valerie Solanas' SCUM Manifesto)
- Ronell, Avitel (2004). "Deviant payback: the aims of Valerie Solanas". SCUM Manifesto. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-553-3.
- Siegel, Deborah (2007). Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9.
- Singleton, Carl; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Wildin, Rowena (1999). The Sixties in America. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press. ISBN 0-89356-982-8.
- Smith, Howard; Van der Horst, Brian (25 July 1977). "Scenes: Valerie Solanas interview". The Village Voice XXII (30).
- Solanas, Valerie (1968). SCUM Manifesto. Olympia Press.
- Winkiel, Laura (1999). "The 'Sweet Assassin' and the Performative Politics of SCUM Manifesto". In Patricia Juliana Smith. The Queer Sixties. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-472-11718-5.
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