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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Formation6 May 1966 (1966-05-06)
FoundersTage Erlander, Alva Myrdal
Stefan Löfven
Dan Smith
Websitewww.sipri.org Edit this at Wikidata

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Stockholm. It was founded in 1966[1] and provides data, analysis and recommendations for armed conflict, military expenditure and arms trade as well as disarmament and arms control. The research is based on open sources and is directed to decision-makers, researchers, media and the interested public.

SIPRI's organizational purpose is to conduct scientific research in issues on conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security, with the goal of contributing to an understanding for the conditions for a peaceful solution of international conflicts and sustainable peace.

SIPRI was ranked among the top three non-US world-wide think tanks in 2014 by the University of Pennsylvania Lauder Institute's Global Go To Think Tanks Report.[2] In 2020, SIPRI ranked 34th amongst think tanks globally.[3]


Ambassador Alva Myrdal

In 1964, Prime Minister of Sweden Tage Erlander put forward the idea of establishing a peace research institute to commemorate Sweden's 150 years of unbroken peace.

A Swedish Royal Commission chaired by Ambassador Alva Myrdal proposed in its 1966 report to establish an institute, later named the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI. The institute's research should seek to contribute to "the understanding of the preconditions for a stable peace and for peaceful solutions of international conflicts" and the Commission recommended that research be concentrated on armaments, their limitation and reduction, and arms control. The commission also recommended that SIPRI work is of "an applied research character directed towards practical-political questions [which] should be carried on in a constant interchange with research of a more theoretical kind".

SIPRI has built its reputation and standing on competence, professional skills, and the collection of hard data and precise facts, rendering accessible impartial information on weapon developments, arms transfers and production, military expenditure, as well as on arms limitations, reductions and disarmament. The task of the institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace".

The Swedish Riksdag decided that the Institute be established on 1 July 1966 with the legal status of an independent foundation.


SIPRI's organisation consists of a governing board, director, deputy director, research staff collegium and support staff. The governing board takes decisions on important matters concerning the research agenda, activities, organisation and financial administration of the institute. Other matters are decided by the director. The research staff collegium advises the Director on research matters.

SIPRI headquarters in Solna, Stockholm

The staff of 84 employees is mainly international, with a representation of 27 different nationalities reported in 2021.[4] The researchers are recruited for specific project periods and represent various academic disciplines. SIPRI also hosts guest researchers who work on issues related to research programmes as well as interns in relevant fields whose programmes of study can contribute to and benefit from SIPRI's research.

The institute works in a global network, with partnerships and cooperation between other institutes and with individual scientists. SIPRI has close cooperation with many multilateral organisations, for example, the United Nations and the European Union. SIPRI is frequently visited by government delegations, parliamentarians as well as researchers from the academic sphere. The institute keeps close connections with the diplomatic body in Stockholm.

Governing board[edit]

Current members of the Governing Board:

Stefan Löfven, Chair of SIPRI Governing Board

Former Governing Board Chairpersons:


The Director, who is appointed by the Swedish Government, has the main responsibility for SIPRI's work programme. Dr Bates Gill served as SIPRI Director from 2007 to 2012.[11] In September 2012, the Swedish Government appointed the German economist Tilman Brück as his successor.[12] Brück held the position of SIPRI Director from January 2013 to June 2014. In June 2014 the SIPRI Governing Board appointed Dr Ian Anthony as Director for an interim period.[13] The current Director, Dan Smith, was appointed in September 2015.[7]

Former SIPRI Directors:


Research is conducted at SIPRI by an international staff of about 46 researchers and research assistants. The institute's current research programme centres on the following major themes:

  • Armament and Disarmament[14]
  • Conflict, Peace and Security[15]
  • Peace and Development[16]

With the following research areas:

SIPRI Director Dan Smith briefs the UN Security Council on climate-related security risks in Somalia.
  • Arms and Military Expenditure[17]
  • Chemical and biological weapons[18]
  • Dual-use and Arms Trade Control[19]
  • Emerging Military and Security Technologies[20]
  • EU Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Consortium
  • Weapons of mass destruction[21]
  • Nuclear disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation[22]
  • Africa[23]
  • Asia[24]
  • Europe[25]
  • Middle East and North Africa[26]
  • Peace Operations and Conflict Management[27]
  • Climate Change and Risk[28] - SIPRI examines the implications of climate change for global peace and security, recognizing that environmental degradation and climate-related disasters can exacerbate resource scarcity, displace populations, and increase tensions within and between communities.
  • Environment of Peace[29] -This initiative aims to explore strategies for securing peace in an era marked by significant environmental risks, including biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the impacts of climate change on agricultural productivity.
  • Food, peace and security[30] - SIPRI's collaboration with the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) seeks to enhance the understanding of the nexus between food security and peace. Food insecurity can act both as a consequence and a cause of conflict, affecting stability and peace at local, national, and global levels.
  • Governance and Society[31] - The institute focuses on the role of governance systems in either mitigating or exacerbating conflicts. Effective governance can help resolve conflicts and foster sustainable peace by ensuring justice, promoting economic and social development, and protecting human rights.
  • Peacebuilding and Resilience[32] - This area of research looks at the conditions necessary for conflict resolution and the promotion of positive peace, which involves building the social, economic, and political foundations for long-term peace and development.

Publications and information[edit]

SIPRI's publications and information material are distributed to a wide range of policy makers, researchers, journalists, organisations and the interested public. The results of the research are disseminated through the publication of books and reports by SIPRI and commissioned authors as well as through symposia and seminars. The institute has forged its profile by concentrating on present-day realities, providing unbiased facts to states and individuals.

SIPRI Yearbook 2023

SIPRI's main publication, the SIPRI Yearbook, was first published on 12 November 1969. The Yearbook serves as a single authoritative and independent source to which politicians, diplomats and journalists can turn for an account of what has happened during the past year in armaments and arms control, armed conflicts and conflict resolution, security arrangements and disarmament. It is translated into a number of other languages, notably Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian. The summary of the SIPRI Yearbook is available in several languages, including Catalan, Dutch, French, Italian, Korean, Persian, Spanish and Swedish.[33]

SIPRI series:[34]

  • SIPRI Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security
  • SIPRI Yearbook summary Yearbook in English and a number of other languages
  • Oxford University Press publications
  • SIPRI research papers and reports
  • SIPRI policy briefs, papers and reports
  • SIPRI fact sheets and background papers
  • SIPRI databases

SIPRI Databases[edit]

SIPRI's research projects maintain large databases on military expenditure, arms-producing industries, arms transfers, chemical and biological warfare, national and international export controls, arms control agreements, annual chronologies of major arms control events, military manoeuvres and nuclear explosions.

SIPRI Arms Transfers Database[edit]

Showing all international transfers of major conventional arms since 1950, The SIPRI Arms Transfers Database is the most extensive source of information on international arms transfers available to the public. The database is updated every spring and is useful for anyone seeking to monitor and measure the international flow of major conventional arms.

Trend-indicator value[edit]

To quantify the volume of weapons as a single number, SIPRI has developed so-called trend-indicator value (TIV). It is a measure of major conventional weapons delivery volume in terms of its military capability, rather than its price.

SIPRI Mapping ATT-Relevant Cooperation and Assistance Activities Database[edit]

The SIPRI Mapping ATT-relevant Cooperation and Assistance Activities Database covers cooperation and assistance activities in regards to arms transfer and small arms and light weapons (SALW) controls since 2012. The database supports state's implementation of two treaties – the 2001 UN Programme of Action on SALW and the 2013 Arms Trade Treaty.

SIPRI Arms Industry Database[edit]

The SIPRI Arms Industry Database reports on the top 100 largest arms-producing and military services companies.[35]

SIPRI Multilateral Peace Operations Database[edit]

This database contains data on personnel, country contributions, fatalities and budgets for all multilateral peace operations from the year 2000 and onwards.

SIPRI Military Expenditure Database[edit]

The Military Expenditure Database reports on the annual military spending of most countries around the world.

Events and conferences[edit]

2023 Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development

Within the fields of study, SIPRI arranges numerous workshops, conferences, seminars and lectures, bringing together an all-encompassing spectrum of expertise to exchange views on relevant themes. Among these events, the largest are the Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development, the Stockholm Security Conference and SIPRI Lecture.[36][37][38] The 2021 Stockholm Security Conference was held in a virtual format on the topic 'Battlefields of the Future: Trends of Conflict and Warfare in the 21st Century'[39] and gathered over 870 global participants across 17 thematic sessions. In 2022, Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development was held in a hybrid format, convening over 2600 registrants from over 150 countries to live streamed high-level panels and online discussions on the theme of 'From a Human Security Crisis Towards an Environment of Peace'.[40] The 2022 SIPRI Lecture was held on the theme of 'Environment of Peace'[41] and was delivered by HE Helen Clark, former Prime Minister of New Zealand and Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme.


SIPRI is part of the Stockholm Hub on Environment, Climate and Security, which provides evidence-based insights on building security and prosperity and how to strengthen resilience in the face of a changing climate.[42] The Stockholm Hub connects the expertise of SIPRI to three other leading research institutes: the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), and the Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm University (SRC). The Stockholm Hub is funded by the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[42]



SIPRI's financial support is primarily drawn from governments and independent philanthropic organisations around the world. SIPRI also receives annual support from the Swedish government in the form of a core grant approved by the Swedish parliament.

See also[edit]

Peace research institutes[edit]

Military budgets[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "About SIPRI | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  2. ^ "ScholarlyCommons :: Home (1008) think_tanks". repository.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  3. ^ James G. McGann (2020). "ScholarlyCommons :: Home 2020 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". repository.upenn.edu (University of Pennsylvania Lauder Institute). p. 56. Retrieved 2 March 2024.
  4. ^ Sipri website (2022). "Annual Review 2021" (PDF).
  5. ^ Sipri website (17 March 2022). "SIPRI welcomes Stefan Löfven as new Chair of the Governing Board".
  6. ^ "Secretary-General's High-Level Advisory Board on Mediation". United Nations Secretary-General. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Dan Smith appointed Director of SIPRI". Mundus International. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  8. ^ "Dr Patricia Lewis | Chatham House". chathamhouse.org. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  9. ^ "SIPRI welcomes Jessica Tuchman Mathews as a new member to its Governing Board | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  10. ^ "SIPRI welcomes new Governing Board members| SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  11. ^ "Bates Gill new SIPRI Director" (Press release). Swedish Government. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
  12. ^ "SIPRI welcomes new Director" (Press release). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 20 September 2012. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  13. ^ "SIPRI announces Director for interim period" (Press release). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  14. ^ "SIPRI Armament and disarmament | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  15. ^ "SIPRI Conflict, peace and security | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  16. ^ "SIPRI Peace and development| SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  17. ^ "SIPRI Arms and military expenditure | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  18. ^ "Chemical and biological weapons | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  19. ^ "Dual–use and arms trade control | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  20. ^ "Emerging military and security technologies | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Weapons of mass destruction | SIPRI". www.sipri.org. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  22. ^ "SIPRI Arms and military expenditure | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  23. ^ "Africa | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  24. ^ "Asia | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  25. ^ "Europe | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Middle East and North Africa | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  27. ^ "Peace operations and conflict management | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  28. ^ "Climate Change and Risk | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  29. ^ "Environment of Peace 2022 | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  30. ^ "Food, Peace and Security | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  31. ^ "Governance and society | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  32. ^ "Peacebuilding and resilience | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  33. ^ "SIPRI Yearbook 2023 | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 13 February 2023.
  34. ^ "List of SIPRI Publications". SIPRI. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
  35. ^ "Global weapons sales up as US manufacturers dominate world market| CNN". CNN. 9 December 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  36. ^ "Do We Need a Global Convention of Common Principles for Building Peace? | Inter Press Service". ipsnews.net. 17 May 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  37. ^ "2017 Stockholm Security Conference | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  38. ^ "SIPRI Lecture | SIPRI". sipri.org. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  39. ^ "2021 Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development | SIPRI". sipri.org. 4 May 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  40. ^ "2022 Stockholm Forum on Peace and Development | SIPRI". sipri.org. 23 May 2022. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  41. ^ 2022 SIPRI Lecture by HE Helen Clark. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  42. ^ a b "About Stockholm Hub". climatesecurityhub.org. Retrieved 16 February 2023.

External links[edit]