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SJ X2 in snow Jonsered 2007-01.jpg
X2 train operated by SJ in Jonsered, Sweden
Built atVästerås (ABB, electrical part), Kalmar (mechanical part)
Family nameX2000 (only one trainset exported)
Entered service1990
Refurbishment2003–2007; 2018–2020
Number built43 (44 with Xinshisu)
Formation1 locomotive & 5 or 6 coaches
Fleet numbers2001 – 2043 (SJ), 2088 (Xinshisu trainset)
CapacitySeated passengers:
76 (business class saloon)
51 (first class saloon)
Car body constructionCorrugated stainless steel
Car lengthLocomotive: 17,750 mm (58 ft 2 78 in)
Coach, over couplers: 24,950 mm (81 ft 10 14 in)
Coach body: 24,400 mm (80 ft 58 in)
Width3,050 mm (10 ft 0 in)
Height3,814 mm (12 ft 6 18 in)
Floor heightCoach: 1,264 mm (49 34 in)
Wheel diameterLocomotive: 1,100 mm (43.31 in)
Coach: 880 mm (34.65 in)
WheelbaseBogie 2,900 mm (114.17 in)
bogie centres of locomotive 8,975 mm (29 ft 5 38 in)
bogie centers of coaches 17,700 mm (58 ft 78 in)
Maximum speed200 km/h (120 mph) (in service)
WeightLocomotive: 73 t (72 long tons; 80 short tons)
coach, tare: 47 t (46 long tons; 52 short tons)
Axle load17.5 t (17.2 long tons; 19.3 short tons)
Power output3,260 kW (4,370 hp)
Tractive effortLocomotive: 160 kN (36,000 lbf) max.
107 kN (24,000 lbf) cont. @108 km/h (67 mph)
110 kN (25,000 lbf) braking from 130 km/h (81 mph) to 0 km/h (0 mph)
Train heatingYes
Electric system(s)15 kV  16.7 Hz AC catenary
25 kV 50 Hz AC catenary
Current collection methodPantograph
Braking system(s)Loco: brake shoe on rim (air) and regenerative brake
Coach: disc brake and magnetic brake
Coupling systemAutomatic (which type?)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

X2 is the Swedish high speed train system operated by the operator SJ (Swedish Railways) under the SJ 2000 brand name. It has a top commercial speed of 200 km/h (120 mph), but has reached 276 km/h (171 mph) in a test. The reason the X2 was chosen was that Sweden (like most other countries) has very curved railways, and not enough traffic to justify building special high-speed railway lines (at least before 1990). As a result, a Swedish tilting train had to be developed. A tilting train provided the advantages of high speed and comfort for the passengers, as tilting trains can run through sharp (short radius or tight) curves up to 15% faster than non-tilting trains. The X2 was designed and built by Asea (later ABB Asea Brown Boveri, Adtranz ABB Daimler Benz Transportation and now Bombardier Transportation). SJ ordered 20 trainsets in August 1986 and planned to order further 30 trainsets. However, this figure was later reduced to only 43 trainsets.


The X2 was designed for old main lines with tight curves and with continuously welded rails (the train has a maximum axle load of 17 tonnes (16.7 long tons; 18.7 short tons), which causes large forces on the track). However, since 1990 a lot of new high speed lines have been constructed in Sweden, both upgraded lines and new lines. These upgraded or new lines always have ATC, continuously welded rails on concrete sleepers and no crossings with road and rail at the same level. The tilting function is not used on these lines.

The max power continuous output of the locomotive is 3,260 kW (4,370 hp), which is comparatively low for a fast train. It also enabled SJ to say that it does not consume more power at 200 km/h (120 mph) than older Rc- locomotive hauled trains at 130 km/h (81 mph).


modernised second class interior

The X2 trains have mostly run at the X 2000 service level, but have periodically been used for Linx traffic (from 2000–2004) as well as regional services, for which fewer coaches were used to improve acceleration.

Technical data X2 locomotive

Operator SJ
Manufacturing year 1989–1998
Number of manuf. 43
Supplier mechanical part KVAB
Supplier electrical part Asea/ABB
Axle arr Bo-Bo
Weight 73 t
Axle load 17.5 t
Max tractive eff 160 kN
Max speed 210 km/h
Length 17,750 mm
Bogie distance 8,975 mm
Height over pantograph x,xxx mm
Body width x,xxx mm
Coupling automatic
which type?
Surface corrugated stainless steel
Colour silver
Track width 1,435 mm
Axle distance 2,900 mm
Wheel diameter,new 1,100 mm
Primary suspension rubber pad
Secondary suspension coil
Brake shoe, regenerative
Bogie Weight NA
Min hor radius NA
Electrical equipment
Catenary voltage 15 kV / 25 kV (dual voltage variants)
Catenary frequency 16 2/3 Hz / 50 Hz (dual voltage variants)
Max cont power 3.26 MW
Traction motor MJA 385-2
Max power trainheating 360 kW

Technical data X2 passenger coaches

Operator SJ SJ
Type of coach second class saloon first class saloon
Manufacturer KVAB, Asea KVAB, Asea
Manufact year 1989-xxxx 1989-xxxx
Tare Weight 47 t 47 t
Manufact country Sweden Sweden
Number of manufact NA NA
Max allow. speed 200 km/h 200 km/h
Length 24,950 mm 24,950 mm
Body length 24,400 mm 24,400 mm
Bogie distance 17,700 mm 17,700 mm
Body height 3,814 mm 3,814 mm
Body width 3,050 mm 3,050 mm
Floor height 1,264 mm 1,264 mm
Body material stainless steel stainless steel
Type of coupling short (?) short (?)
Colour silver silver
Type of entrance door slide door, plug slide door, plug
Bogies NA
Bogie Mark NA NA
Track gauge 1,435 mm 1,435 mm
Axle distance 2,900 mm 2,900 mm
Wheel diameter- new 880 mm 880 mm
Primary suspension rubber pad rubber pad
Secondary suspension air air
Brake disk- & magnetic rail disk- & magnetic rail
No of disks per axle 2 2
Bogie weight NA NA
Electrical equipment
Train heating voltage 3 x 380 V 50 Hz 3 x 380 V 50 Hz
No of phases 3-phase 3-phase
Air conditioning yes yes
Floor plan saloon saloon
No of seats 76 seats 51 seats
Seats abreast 2 + 2 2 + 1
Seat distance 95 cm 105 cm

Each train also have a UB2X coach with a driver's place, and a URB2 coach with a simple restaurant.

In the beginning there were many more UA2 first class coaches than UB2 second class coaches. But after a decision that state employees should normally use second class for train journeys in their works instead of first class something many companies followed, many UA2 have been rebuilt into UB2.


Xinshisu trainset in China operated by Guangshen Railway Company (2006)

At the beginning, SJ believed there would be a high number of exported X2-trains. Norway, Finland, Germany, Austria, France, China, Australia, Portugal and the US were mentioned as candidates. Only one X2 trainset was exported (China), which was initially supposed to been given the number 2044, but due to the fact that the number "4" sounds the same as the word for "death" in the Chinese language, it was renumbered as 2088, of which the number "8" symbolises luck in Chinese culture.[1]

An X2 train was also loaned to the American rail operator Amtrak in 1992-93 and to the Australian State Rail Authority of New South Wales for its CountryLink services in 1995 for evaluation, but neither operator bought any X2- trains.[2] The X2 was also tested in Norway and Germany. There were competitors which had lower price, including Pendolino and ICE T.

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Beckhaus, John (January 1995), "The X2 Tilt Train", Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, pp. 15–17

External links[edit]

  • Media related to ASEA X2 at Wikimedia Commons