High-dynamic-range video

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from SMPTE ST 2084)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

High-dynamic-range video (HDR video) is video having a dynamic range greater than that of standard-dynamic-range video (SDR video).[1][2] HDR video involves capture, production, content/encoding, and display. HDR capture and displays[3] are capable of brighter whites and deeper blacks.[4] To accommodate this, HDR encoding standards allow for a higher maximum luminance and use at least a 10-bit color depth (compared to 8-bit for non-professional and 10-bit for professional SDR video[5]) in order to maintain precision across this extended range.

While technically "HDR" refers strictly to the ratio between the maximum and minimum luminance, the term "HDR video" is commonly understood to imply wide color gamut (WCG) as well.[6] HDR combined with WCG allow for a large color volume.[7]

One must switch to HDR when the HDR transfer function is signalled (PQ or HLG), neither 10 bit mode, nor BT.2020 primaries and matrix means that it is HDR.

Technology[edit]

Transfer function[edit]

Perceptual quantizer[edit]

The perceptual quantizer (PQ),[8][9] published by SMPTE as SMPTE ST 2084, is a transfer function that allows for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) video with a luminance level of up to 10,000 cd/m2 and can be used with the Rec. 2020 color space.[10][11][12][13] PQ is a non-linear electro-optical transfer function (EOTF). On 18 April 2016, the Ultra HD Forum announced industry guidelines for UHD Phase A, which uses Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) and PQ transfer functions with a bit depth of 10-bits and the Rec. 2020 color space.[14] On 6 July 2016, the ITU announced Rec. 2100, which uses HLG or PQ as transfer functions with a Rec. 2020 color space.[6][15]

The PQ inverse EOTF is as follows:[6][16]

where

  • is the signal value, with a range of .
  • is the normalized linear optical luminance, with representing the peak luminance of 10,000 cd/m2 (minimal luminance[17] is 0.0001 cd/m2)

Hybrid Log-Gamma[edit]

Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) is a royalty-free[18][19] HDR standard jointly developed by the BBC and NHK.[18] HLG is designed to be better-suited for television broadcasting, where the metadata required for other HDR formats is not backward compatible with non-HDR displays, consumes additional bandwidth, and may also become out-of-sync or damaged in transmission. HLG defines a non-linear optical-electro transfer function, in which the lower half of the signal values use a gamma curve and the upper half of the signal values use a logarithmic curve.[1][20] In practice, the signal is interpreted as normal by standard-dynamic-range displays (albeit capable of displaying more detail in highlights), but HLG-compatible displays can correctly interpret the logarithmic portion of the signal curve to provide a wider dynamic range.[21][22][23] In contrast the other HDR formats it does not use metadata.[24]

HLG is defined in ATSC 3.0, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) UHD-1 Phase 2, and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Rec. 2100.[6][25][26] HLG is supported by HDMI 2.0b, HEVC, VP9, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.[27][28][29][30] HLG is supported by video services such as the BBC iPlayer, DirecTV, Freeview Play, and YouTube.[31][32][33][34][35]

SDR transfer function[edit]

BT.1886 describes the transfer function of SDR content (including SDR content with BT.2020 primaries).[36] sRGB transfer function is different from both the inverse of BT.709 and BT.1886. SMPTE 240M defines its own EOTF, again different.

Metadata[edit]

Static metadata[edit]

For consumers displays that have limited color volume (i.e. do not provide peak brightness/contrast and color gamut required by the standards), SMPTE defines metadata for describing the scenes as they appear on the mastering display. SMPTE ST 2086 "Mastering Display Color Volume Metadata Supporting High Luminance and Wide Color Gamut Images" describes static data such as MaxFALL (Maximum Frame Average Light Level) and MaxCLL (Maximum Content Light Level).

Dynamic metadata[edit]

The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) created a standard for dynamic metadata: SMPTE ST 2094 or Dynamic Metadata for Color Volume Transform (DMCVT).[37] SMPTE ST 2094 was published in 2016 as six parts and includes four applications from Dolby, Philips, Samsung, and Technicolor.[37]

SMPTE ST 2094 "Content-Dependent Metadata for Color Volume Transformation of High Luminance and Wide Color Gamut Images" includes dynamic metadata that can change from scene to scene. This includes ST 2094-10 (Dolby Vision format), Colour Volume Reconstruction Information (CVRI) SMPTE ST 2094-20 (Philips format) and Colour Remapping Information (CRI) defined in ST 2094-30 (Technicolor format), and HDR10+ ST 2094-40 (Samsung format).

Chromaticity[edit]

SDR for HD video uses a system chromaticity (chromaticity of color primaries and white point) specified in Rec. 709 (same as sRGB).[38] SDR for SD used many different primaries, as said in BT.601, SMPTE 170M.

HDR is commonly associated to a Wide Color Gamut (a system chromaticity wider than BT.709). Rec. 2100 (HDR-TV) uses the same system chromaticity that is used in Rec. 2020 (UHDTV).[39][40] HDR formats such as HDR10, HDR10+, Dolby Vision and HLG also use Rec. 2020 chromaticities.

System chromaticity
Color space Chromaticity coordinate (CIE, 1931)
Primary colors White point
Red Green Blue
xR yR xG yG xB yB Name xW yW
Rec. 709[38] 0.64 0.33 0.30 0.60 0.15 0.06 D65 0.3127 0.3290
sRGB
DCI-P3[41][42] 0.680 0.320 0.265 0.690 0.150 0.060 P3-D65 (Display) 0.3127 0.3290
P3-DCI (Theater) 0.314 0.351
P3-D60 (ACES Cinema) 0.32168 0.33767
Rec. 2020[40] 0.708 0.292 0.170 0.797 0.131 0.046 D65 0.3127 0.3290
Rec. 2100[39]

Bit depth[edit]

Because of the increased dynamic range, HDR contents need to use more bit depth than SDR to avoid banding. While SDR uses a bit depth of 8 or 10 bits,[38] HDR uses 10 or 12 bits.[39] This, combined with the use of more efficient transfer function (i.e. PQ or HLG), is enough to avoid banding.[43][44]

Signal format[edit]

Rec. 2100 specifies the use of the RGB, the YCbCr or the ICTCP signal formats for HDR-TV.[39]

ICTCP is a color representation designed by Dolby for HDR and wide color gamut (WCG)[45] and standardized in Rec. 2100.[39]

IPTPQc2 (or IPTPQc2) with reshaping is a proprietary format by Dolby and is similar to ICTCP.[46] It is used by Dolby Vision profile 5.[46]

Dual layer video[edit]

Some Dolby Vision profiles use a dual layer video composed of a base layer and an enhancement layer.[46][47] Depending of the Dolby Vision profile, the base layer can be backward compatible with SDR, HDR10, HLG, Blu-ray or no video format.[46]

Formats[edit]

HDR10[edit]

HDR 10 logo (black).svg

HDR10 Media Profile, more commonly known as HDR10, was announced on 27 August 2015, by the Consumer Technology Association and uses the wide-gamut Rec. 2020 color space, a bit depth of 10 bits, and the SMPTE ST 2084 (PQ) transfer function – a combination later also standardized in ITU-R BT.2100.[48]

It also uses SMPTE ST 2086 "Mastering Display Color Volume" static metadata to send color calibration data of the mastering display, such as MaxFALL (Maximum Frame Average Light Level) and MaxCLL (Maximum Content Light Level) static values, encoded as SEI messages within the video stream. HDR10 is an open standard supported by a wide variety of companies, which include monitor and TV manufacturers such as Dell, LG, Samsung, Sharp, VU, Sony, and Vizio,[49][50] as well as Sony Interactive Entertainment, Microsoft and Apple which support HDR10 on their PlayStation 4, Xbox One video game console and Apple TV platforms, respectively.[51][52][53] It is the most wide spread of the HDR formats.[24]

HDR10 is based on Static HDR.[54] In the Static HDR, metadata for Dynamic Range is provided to the display, and that setting remains constant for the entire video/movie. HDR10 has a single metadata for things like MaxFALL and MaxCLL applied across the entire video/content (changing it per segment on Blu-rays is nevertheless allowed and must be supported by the display[55]). The values should be calculated from the video stream itself (not including black borders for MaxFALL) and it is not recommended to set them arbitrary.[56]

HDR10+[edit]

HDR 10 plus logo (black).svg

HDR10+, also known as HDR10 Plus, was announced on 20 April 2017, by Samsung and Amazon Video. HDR10+ updates HDR10 by adding dynamic metadata that can be used to more accurately adjust brightness levels up to 10,000 nits maximum brightness on a scene-by-scene or frame-by-frame basis and supports up to 10-bit colour depth and 8K resolution.[57][58][59][60] This function is based on Samsung application SMPTE ST 2094-40 Application #4.[61][37][62][58][59][60] HDR10+ is an open standard and is royalty-free; it is supported by Colorfront's Transkoder and MulticoreWare's x265.[58][59][60] A certification and logo program for HDR10+ device manufacturers will be made available with an annual administration fee and no per unit royalty.[63] An authorized test center conducts a certification program for HDR10+ devices.[63]

On 28 August 2017, Samsung, Panasonic, and 20th Century Fox created the HDR10+ Alliance[64] to promote the HDR10+ standard.[65] HDR10+ video started being offered by Amazon Video on 13 December 2017.[66] On 5 January 2018, Warner Bros. announced their support for the HDR10+ standard.[67] On 6 January 2018, Panasonic announced Ultra HD Blu-ray players with support for HDR10+.[68] On 4 April 2019, Universal Pictures Home Entertainment announced a technology collaboration with Samsung Electronics to release new titles mastered with HDR10+.[69] It is considered to have most of the advantages of Dolby Vision over HDR10, despite being fee free.[24]

Dolby Vision[edit]

Dolby Vision is an HDR format from Dolby Laboratories that can be optionally supported by Ultra HD Blu-ray discs and streaming video services.[70][71] Dolby Vision is a proprietary format and Dolby SVP of Business Giles Baker has stated that the royalty cost for Dolby Vision is less than $3 per TV.[72][73][74] Dolby Vision includes the Perceptual Quantizer (SMPTE ST 2084) electro-optical transfer function, up to 8K resolution, and a wide-gamut color space (ITU-R Rec. BT.2020 in YCBCR or IPTPQc2). Some Dolby Vision profiles allow for 12-bit color depth and 10,000 cd/m2 maximum brightness[75] (as of 2018, according to the Dolby Vision white paper, professional reference monitors, such as the Dolby Vision HDR reference monitor, are currently limited to 4,000 cd/m2 of peak brightness).[76] It can encode mastering display colorimetry information using static metadata (SMPTE ST 2086) but also provide dynamic metadata (SMPTE ST 2094-10, Dolby format) for each scene[37] or frame, like on iPhone 12.[citation needed]

Examples of Ultra HD (UHD) TVs that support Dolby Vision include LG, TCL, VU, Sony and Vizio.[77] MulticoreWare's x265 encoder supports Dolby Vision as of version 3.0.[78] Dolby Vision IQ is an update designed to optimise Dolby Vision content according to the ambient light.[79] It is considered to be future proof.[24]

This dynamic metadata or Dynamic HDR allows adjusting of brightness and contrast (in reality, the tone curve) on the scene by scene or even frame by frame bases as and when required and adjusts it many times during the video/movie.[54]

HLG10 / HLG[edit]

HLG10, commonly referred as HLG, is a video format using the HLG transfer function, a bit depth of 10-bits and the wide-gamut Rec. 2020 color space.[80] The HLG transfer function is backward compatible with SDR video[21][22][23] but the Rec. 2020 color space is not compatible with SDR color space (Rec.709).

Technicolor Advanced HDR[edit]

An HDR format which aims to be backwards compatible with SDR.[24] As of 19 December 2020 there is no content in this format.[24]

SL-HDR1 (Single-Layer HDR system Part 1) is a HDR standard that was jointly developed by STMicroelectronics, Philips International B.V., and Technicolor R&D France.[81] It was standardised as ETSI TS 103 433 in August 2016.[82] SL-HDR1 provides direct backwards compatibility by using static (SMPTE ST 2086) and dynamic metadata (using SMPTE ST 2094-20 Philips and 2094-30 Technicolor formats) to reconstruct a HDR signal from a SDR video stream that can be delivered using SDR distribution networks and services already in place. SL-HDR1 allows for HDR rendering on HDR devices and SDR rendering on SDR devices using a single layer video stream.[82] The HDR reconstruction metadata can be added either to HEVC or AVC using a supplemental enhancement information (SEI) message.[82]

Comparison of video formats[edit]

HDR formats comparison table
HDR10 HDR10+ Dolby Vision HLG10
Developed by CTA Samsung Dolby NHK and BBC
Year 2015 2017 2014 2015
Cost Free Free (for content company)

Yearly license (for manufacturer) [83]

Proprietary Free
Technical charasteristics
Metadata Static

(SMPTE ST 2086, MaxFALL, MaxCLL)

Dynamic Dynamic

(Dolby Vision L0, L1, L2 trim, L8 trim)

None
Transfer function PQ PQ PQ, HLG (Not always[84]) HLG
Bit Depth 10 bit 10 bit (or more) 10 bit or 12 bit 10 bit
Peak luminance Technical limit 10,000 nits 10,000 nits 10,000 nits Variable
Contents No rules

1,000 - 4,000 nits (common) [85]

No rules

1,000 - 4,000 nits (common)[85]

(At least 1,000 nits[86])

4,000 nits common[85]

1,000 nits common[87][88]
Color primaries Technical limit Rec. 2020 Rec. 2020 Rec. 2020 Rec. 2020
Contents DCI-P3 (common)[89] DCI-P3 (common)[89] At least DCI-P3[86] DCI-P3 (common)[89]
Backward compatibility None HDR10 It depends on the profile used:
Notes PQ10 format is same as HDR10 without the metadata[90] Technical characteristics of Dolby Vision depend on the profile used, but all profiles support the same Dolby Vision dynamic metadata.[84] On SDR displays that don't support Rec. 2020 color primaries (WCG), HLG formats using Rec. 2020 color primaries will show a de-saturated image with visible hue shifts.[90]
Sources [91][85][89] [92][93][85][89] [84][94][86][89][95][85] [88][90][87][89]

Displays[edit]

Display devices capable of greater dynamic range have been researched for decades, primarily with flat panel technologies like plasma, SED/FED and OLED.

TV sets with enhanced dynamic range and upscaling of existing SDR/LDR video/broadcast content with reverse tone mapping have been anticipated since early 2000s.[96][97] In 2016, HDR conversion of SDR video was released to market as Samsung's HDR+ (in LCD TV sets)[98] and Technicolor SA's HDR Intelligent Tone Management.[99]

As of 2018, high-end consumer-grade HDR displays can achieve 1,000 cd/m2 of luminance, at least for a short duration or over a small portion of the screen, compared to 250-300 cd/m2 for a typical SDR display.[3]

Video interfaces that support at least one HDR Format include HDMI 2.0a, which was released in April 2015 and DisplayPort 1.4, which was released in March 2016.[100][101] On 12 December 2016, HDMI announced that Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) support had been added to the HDMI 2.0b standard.[27][102][103] HDMI 2.1 was officially announced on 4 January 2017, and added support for Dynamic HDR, which is dynamic metadata that supports changes scene-by-scene or frame-by-frame.[104][105]

Compatibility[edit]

As of 2020, no display is capable of rendering the full range of brightness and color of HDR formats.[80] A display is called an HDR display if it can accept HDR content and map them to its display characteristics.[80] Thus, the HDR logo only provides information about content compatibility and not display capability.

Certifications[edit]

Certifications have been made in order to give consumers information about the display rendering capability of a screen.

VESA DisplayHDR[edit]

The DisplayHDR standard from VESA is an attempt to make the differences in HDR specifications easier to understand for consumers, with standards mainly used in computer monitors and laptops. VESA defines a set of HDR levels; all of them must support HDR10, but not all are required to support 10-bit displays.[106] DisplayHDR is not an HDR format, but a tool to verify HDR formats and their performance on a given monitor. The most recent standard is DisplayHDR 1400 which was introduced in September 2019, with monitors supporting it released in 2020.[107][108] DisplayHDR 1000 and DisplayHDR 1400 are primarily used in professional work like video editing. Monitors with DisplayHDR 500 or DisplayHDR 600 certification provide a noticeable improvement over SDR displays, and are more often used for general computing and gaming.[109]

Minimum peak luminance Range of color Typical dimming technology Maximum black level luminance Maximum backlight adjustment latency
Brightness in cd/m2 Color gamut Brightness in cd/m2 Number of video frames
DisplayHDR 400 400 sRGB Screen-level 0.4 8
DisplayHDR 500 500 WCG* Zone-level 0.1 8
DisplayHDR 600 600 WCG* Zone-level 0.1 8
DisplayHDR 1000 1000 WCG* Zone-level 0.05 8
DisplayHDR 1400 1400 WCG* Zone-level 0.02 8
DisplayHDR 400 True Black 400 WCG* Pixel-level 0.0005 2
DisplayHDR 500 True Black 500 WCG* Pixel-level 0.0005 2

*Wide Color Gamut, at least 90% of DCI-P3 in specified volume (peak luminance)

Ultra HD Premium[edit]

Ultra HD Premium is a certification from the UHD Alliance, at least 90% of DCI-P3 in area.[110]

Mobile HDR Premium[edit]

Mobile HDR Premium is a certification from the UHD Alliance for mobile devices.[110][111]

HDR in still images[edit]

HDR image formats[edit]

The following image formats are compatible with HDR (Rec.2100 color space, PQ and HLG transfer functions, Rec.2100/Rec.2020 color primaries):

Adoption[edit]

Panasonic: Panasonic's S-series cameras (including Lumix S1, S1R, S1H and S5) can capture photos in HDR using the HLG transfer function and output them in a HSP file format.[117][118][114] The captured HDR pictures can be viewed in HDR by connecting the camera to an HLG-compliant display with an HDMI cable.[117][114]

Canon: EOS-1D X Mark III and EOS R5 are able to capture still images in the Rec.2100 color space by using the PQ transfer function, the HEIC format (HEVC codec in HEIF file format), the Rec. 2020 color primaries, a bit depth of 10 bit and a 4:2:2 YCbCr subsampling.[119][120][121][122][123] The captured HDR pictures can be viewed in HDR by connecting the camera to an HDR display with an HDMI cable.[122] Captured HDR pictures can also be converted to SDR JPEG (sRGB color space) and then viewed on any standard display.[122] Canon refers to those SDR pictures as "HDR PQ-like JPEG". Canon's Digital Photo Professional software is able to show the captured HDR pictures in HDR on HDR displays or in SDR on SDR displays.[122][124] It is also able to convert the HDR PQ to SDR sRGB JPEG.[125]

Sony: Sony α7S III and α1 cameras can capture HDR photos in the Rec.2100 color space with the HLG transfer function, the HEIF format, Rec. 2020 color primaries, a bit depth of 10 bit and a 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 subsampling.[126][127][128][129] The captured HDR pictures can be viewed in HDR by connecting the camera to an HLG-compliant display with an HDMI cable.[129]

Qualcomm: Snapdragon 888 mobile SoC allow the capture of 10-bit HDR HEIF still photos.[130][131]

Guidelines and recommendations[edit]

ITU-R Rec. 2100[edit]

Rec. 2100 is a technical recommendation by ITU-R for production and distribution of HDR content using 1080p or UHD resolution, 10-bit or 12-bit color, HLG or PQ transfer functions, the Rec. 2020 wide color gamut and YCBCR or ICTCP as color space.[6][15]

UHD Phase A and Phase B[edit]

UHD Phase A are guidelines from the Ultra HD Forum for distribution of SDR and HDR content using Full HD 1080p and 4K UHD resolutions. It requires color depth of 10-bits per sample, a color gamut of Rec. 709 or Rec. 2020, a frame rate of up to 60 fps, a display resolution of 1080p or 2160p, and either standard dynamic range (SDR) or high dynamic range that uses Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) transfer functions.[132] UHD Phase A defines HDR as having a dynamic range of at least 13 stops (213=8192:1) and WCG as a color gamut that is wider than Rec. 709.[132] UHD Phase A consumer devices are compatible with HDR10 requirements and can process Rec. 2020 color space and HLG or PQ at 10 bits.

UHD Phase B will add support to 120 fps (and 120/1.001 fps), 12 bit PQ in HEVC Main12 (that will be enough for 0.0001 to 10000 nits), Dolby AC-4 and MPEG-H 3D Audio, IMAX sound in DTS:X (without LFE). It will also add ITU's ICtCp and Color Remapping Information (CRI).

History[edit]

Before HDR video[edit]

Example of HDR time-lapse video

In February and April 1990, Georges Cornuéjols introduced the first real-time HDR camera combining two successively[133] or simultaneously[134]-captured images.

In 1991, the first commercial video camera using consumer-grade sensors and cameras was introduced that performed real-time capturing of multiple images with different exposures, and producing an HDR video image, by Hymatom, licensee of Cornuéjols.

Also in 1991, Cornuéjols introduced the principle of non linear image accumulation HDR+ to increase the camera sensitivity:[135] in low-light environments, several successive images are accumulated, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio.

Later, in the early 2000s, several scholarly research efforts used consumer-grade sensors and cameras.[136] A few companies such as RED and Arri have been developing digital sensors capable of a higher dynamic range.[137][138] RED EPIC-X can capture time-sequential HDRx[139] images with a user-selectable 1–3 stops of additional highlight latitude in the "x" channel. The "x" channel can be merged with the normal channel in post production software. The Arri Alexa camera uses a dual gain architecture to generate an HDR image from two exposures captured at the same time.[140]

With the advent of low-cost consumer digital cameras, many amateurs began posting tone mapped HDR time-lapse videos on the Internet, essentially a sequence of still photographs in quick succession. In 2010, the independent studio Soviet Montage produced an example of HDR video from disparately exposed video streams using a beam splitter and consumer grade HD video cameras.[141] Similar methods have been described in the academic literature in 2001 and 2007.[142][143]

Modern movies have often been filmed with cameras featuring a higher dynamic range, and legacy movies can be converted even if manual intervention would be needed for some frames (as when black-and-white films are converted to color)[citation needed]. Also, special effects, especially those that mix real and synthetic footage, require both HDR shooting and rendering[citation needed]. HDR video is also needed in applications that demand high accuracy for capturing temporal aspects of changes in the scene. This is important in monitoring of some industrial processes such as welding, in predictive driver assistance systems in automotive industry, in surveillance video systems, and other applications. HDR video can be also considered to speed image acquisition in applications that need a large number of static HDR images are, for example in image-based methods in computer graphics.

OpenEXR was created in 1999 by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and released in 2003 as an open source software library.[144][145] OpenEXR is used for film and television production.[145]

Academy Color Encoding System (ACES) was created by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and released in December 2014.[146] ACES is a complete color and file management system that works with almost any professional workflow and it supports both HDR and wide color gamut. More information can be found at https://www.ACESCentral.com (WCG).[146]

HDR video[edit]

The HEVC specification incorporates the Main 10 profile on their first version that supports 10 bits per sample.[147]

On 8 April 2015, The HDMI Forum released version 2.0a of the HDMI Specification to enable transmission of HDR. The Specification references CEA-861.3, which in turn references the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ), which was standardized as SMPTE ST 2084.[100] The previous HDMI 2.0 version already supported the Rec. 2020 color space.[148]

On 24 June 2015, Amazon Video was the first streaming service to offer HDR video using HDR10 Media Profile video.[149][150]

On 17 November 2015, Vudu announced that they had started offering titles in Dolby Vision.[151]

On 1 March 2016, the Blu-ray Disc Association released Ultra HD Blu-ray with mandatory support for HDR10 Media Profile video and optional support for Dolby Vision.[70]

On 9 April 2016, Netflix started offering both HDR10 Media Profile video and Dolby Vision.[152]

On 6 July 2016, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced Rec. 2100 that defines two HDR transfer functions—HLG and PQ.[6][15]

On 29 July 2016, SKY Perfect JSAT Group announced that on 4 October, they will start the world's first 4K HDR broadcasts using HLG.[153]

On 9 September 2016, Google announced Android TV 7.0, which supports Dolby Vision, HDR10, and HLG.[29][154]

On 26 September 2016, Roku announced that the Roku Premiere+ and Roku Ultra will support HDR using HDR10.[155]

On 7 November 2016, Google announced that YouTube would stream HDR videos that can be encoded with HLG or PQ.[156][31]

On 17 November 2016, the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Steering Board approved UHD-1 Phase 2 with a HDR solution that supports Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) and Perceptual Quantizer (PQ).[25][157] The specification has been published as DVB Bluebook A157 and will be published by the ETSI as TS 101 154 v2.3.1.[25][157]

On 2 January 2017, LG Electronics USA announced that all of LG's SUPER UHD TV models now support a variety of HDR technologies, including Dolby Vision, HDR10, and HLG (Hybrid Log Gamma), and are ready to support Advanced HDR by Technicolor.

On 12 September 2017, Apple announced the Apple TV 4K with support for HDR10 and Dolby Vision, and that the iTunes Store would sell and rent 4K HDR content.[53]

On 13 October 2020, Apple announced the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro series, the first smartphone that can record and edit video in Dolby Vision right in the camera roll[158] on frame-by-frame basis. iPhone uses HLG compatible profile 8 of Dolby Vision with only L1 trim.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b T. Borer; A. Cotton. "A "Display Independent" High Dynamic Range Television System" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  2. ^ High dynamic range video: from acquisition, to display and applications, Dufaux, Frédéric, Patrick Le Callet, Rafal Mantiuk, and Marta Mrak, eds, Academic Press, 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Summary of DisplayHDR Specs". VESA Certified DisplayHDR. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  4. ^ stevewhims. "High Dynamic Range and Wide Color Gamut - Win32 apps". docs.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ a b c d e f "BT.2100 : Image parameter values for high dynamic range television for use in production and international programme exchange". International Telecommunication Union. 4 July 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  7. ^ "Color Volume: What It Is and Why It Matters for TV". news.samsung.com. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  8. ^ Eilertsen, Gabriel (2018). The high dynamic range imaging pipeline. Linköping University Electronic Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9789176853023. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  9. ^ An Introduction to Dolby Vision (PDF). Dolby Vision. Dolby Laboratories. 2016.
  10. ^ Adam Wilt (20 February 2014). "HPA Tech Retreat 2014 – Day 4". DV Info Net. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  11. ^ "ST 2084:2014". IEEE Xplore. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2084.2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  12. ^ Chris Tribbey (10 July 2015). "HDR Special Report: SMPTE Standards Director: No HDR Format War, Yet". MESA. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  13. ^ Bryant Frazer (9 June 2015). "Colorist Stephen Nakamura on Grading Tomorrowland in HDR". studiodaily. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  14. ^ "End-to-end guidelines for phase A implementation". Ultra HD Forum. 18 April 2016. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "ITU announces BT.2100 HDR TV standard". Rasmus Larsen. 5 July 2016. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  16. ^ "BT.2124 : Objective metric for the assessment of the potential visibility of colour differences in television". www.itu.int. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  17. ^ "HDR Video Part 3: HDR Video Terms Explained". Mystery Box. Archived from the original on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  18. ^ a b "High Dynamic Range" (PDF). European Broadcasting Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  19. ^ "High Dynamic Range with Hybrid Log-Gamma" (PDF). BBC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  20. ^ ARIB, Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (3 July 2015). "ARIB STD-B67" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  21. ^ a b Morrison, Geoffrey. "What is HLG? Hybrid log gamma. Say what?". CNET. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  22. ^ a b St. Leger, Henry. "Hybrid Log Gamma: everything you need to know about HLG HDR". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  23. ^ a b "High Dynamic Range Television and Hybrid Log-Gamma". BBC R&D. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Michael Bizzaco; Ryan Waniata; Simon Cohen (19 December 2020). "HDR TV: What it is and why your next TV should have it". Digital Trends. Designtechnica Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  25. ^ a b c "DVB SB Approves UHD HDR Specification". Digital Video Broadcasting. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  26. ^ "ATSC Standard: Video" (PDF). Advanced Television Systems Committee. 19 May 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  27. ^ a b "Introducing HDMI 2.0b". HDMI.org. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  28. ^ Rajan Joshi; Shan Liu; Gary Sullivan; Gerhard Tech; Jizheng Xu; Yan Ye (5 September 2015). "HEVC Screen Content Coding Draft Text 4". JCT-VC. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  29. ^ a b "HDR Video Playback". Android. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  30. ^ "ITU-T Recommendation H.264 (04/2017)". ITU. 13 April 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  31. ^ a b "Upload High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos". Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  32. ^ Julian Clover (23 September 2016). "Freeview updates for HEVC and Ultra HD". Broadband TV News. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  33. ^ Leo Kelion (5 December 2017). "Blue Planet II comes to iPlayer in 4K HDR". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  34. ^ Jason Dachman (14 December 2017). "AT&T DirecTV To Deliver First Live 4K HDR Telecast in U.S. With Tonight's Penguins-Golden Knights Game". Sportsvideo. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  35. ^ Greg Tarr (15 December 2017). "DirecTV Presents NHL 4K Game With Live HDR, But Was Anyone Watching?". HDGuru. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  36. ^ "BT.1886 - Reference electro-optical transfer function for flat panel displays used in HDTV studio production". www.itu.int. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  37. ^ a b c d "SMPTE ST 2094 and Dynamic Metadata" (PDF). Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  38. ^ a b c "BT.709 : Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  39. ^ a b c d e "BT.2100 : Image parameter values for high dynamic range television for use in production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  40. ^ a b "BT.2020 : Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  41. ^ Kid Jansen (19 February 2014). "The Pointer's Gamut". tftcentral. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  42. ^ Rajan Joshi; Shan Liu; Gary Sullivan; Gerhard Tech; Ye-Kui Wang; Jizheng Xu; Yan Ye (31 January 2016). "HEVC Screen Content Coding Draft Text 5". JCT-VC. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  43. ^ "HDR Video Part 3: HDR Video Terms Explained". Mystery Box. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  44. ^ T. Borer; A. Cotton. "A "Display Independent" High Dynamic Range Television System" (PDF). BBC. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  45. ^ Dolby. "ICtCp Dolby White Paper - What is ICTCP ? - Introduction" (PDF). Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  46. ^ a b c d Dolby. "Dolby Vision Profiles and Levels Version 1.3.2 - Specification" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  47. ^ "ETSI - GS CCM 001 - Compound Content Management Specification" (PDF). Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  48. ^ Rachel Cericola (27 August 2015). "What Makes a TV HDR-Compatible? The CEA Sets Guidelines". Big Picture Big Sound. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  49. ^ Adrienne Maxwell (2 May 2016). "Dolby Vision vs. HDR10: What You Need to Know". hometheaterreview.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  50. ^ David Katzmaier (10 August 2016). "Vizio upgrades TVs to work with both HDR formats (hands-on)". CNET. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  51. ^ "Sony will wake a sleeping HDR beast via firmware. What else hides in PS4?". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  52. ^ "Forza Horizon 3 uses the Xbox One S high dynamic range tech". Eurogamer. 14 June 2016. Archived from the original on 15 June 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  53. ^ a b "Apple TV 4K - Technical Specifications". Apple. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  54. ^ a b Agarwal, Aditya (11 November 2020). "Dolby Vision vs HDR 10 vs HDR 10+ vs HLG vs AHDR Which HDR Should You Get?". Milyin. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  55. ^ "Re: [FFmpeg-devel] [PATCH 8/8] RFC: editing HDR properties in H.265 metadata BSF". www.mail-archive.com. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  56. ^ "A DTV Profile for Uncompressed High Speed Digital Interfaces (CTA-861-G), Annex P". Consumer Technology Association®. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  57. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  58. ^ a b c "Samsung and Amazon Video Deliver Next Generation HDR Video Experience with Updated Open Standard HDR10+". Samsung. 20 April 2017. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  59. ^ a b c Cho Mu-Hyun (20 April 2017). "Samsung, Amazon partner for HDR10 Plus". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  60. ^ a b c John Archer (20 April 2017). "Samsung And Amazon Just Made The TV World Even More Confusing". Forbes. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  61. ^ Dynamic Metadata for Color Volume Transform — Application #4. September 2016. pp. 1–26. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2094-40.2016. ISBN 978-1-68303-048-5.
  62. ^ John Laposky (20 April 2017). "Samsung, Amazon Video Team To Deliver Updated Open Standard HDR10+". Twice. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  63. ^ a b "20th Century Fox, Panasonic and Samsung Gain Momentum for Best Possible TV-Viewing Experience with HDR10+ Technology". hdr10plus.org. 4 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  64. ^ "HDR10+LLC". hdr10+llc. 24 May 2019. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  65. ^ Ramus Larsen (28 August 2017). "Samsung, Panasonic & 20th Century Fox form HDR10+ alliance". flatpanelshd. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  66. ^ John Archer (13 December 2017). "Amazon Video Has Made All Of Its HDR Shows Available In HDR10+". Forbes. Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  67. ^ John Archer (5 January 2018). "Warner Bros Boards The HDR10+ Bandwagon". Forbes. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  68. ^ John Archer (6 January 2018). "Panasonic Unveils New 4K Blu-ray Players - Including World First Dolby Vision And HDR10+ Support". Forbes. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  69. ^ Samsung Electronics (24 May 2019). "Samsung Electronics and Universal Pictures Home Entertainment Announce HDR10+ Content Collaboration". Samsung Newsroom. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  70. ^ a b Caleb Denison (28 January 2016). "Ultra HD Blu-ray arrives March 2016; here's everything we know". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  71. ^ Michael S. Palmer (10 February 2016). "Hands On First Look: Samsung UBD-K8500 Ultra HD Blu-ray Player". High-Def Digest. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  72. ^ Tim Moynihan (20 January 2016). "What you need to know before buying an HDR TV". Wired. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  73. ^ Giles Baker (20 September 2016). "Dolby Vision and HDR10: What Format War?". LinkedIn. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  74. ^ Lee Neikirk (9 September 2016). "Dolby Says The "HDR Format War" Doesn't Exist". Reviewed.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  75. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  76. ^ Dolby Laboratories. "Dolby Vision" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  77. ^ HD Report (19 April 2016). "How To Stream 4k Ultra HD with High Dynamic Range (HDR)". hd-report.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  78. ^ MulticoreWare (23 January 2019). "v3.0 is now out!". x265.org. MulticoreWare. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  79. ^ January 2020, Becky Roberts 22. "Dolby Vision IQ: everything you need to know". whathifi. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  80. ^ a b c "Ultra HD Forum Guidelines v2.4" (PDF). 19 October 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  81. ^ "High-Performance Single Layer Directly Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) Compatible High Dynamic Range (HDR) System for use in Consumer Electronics devices (SL-HDR1)". ETSI. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  82. ^ a b c "ETSI Technical Specification TS 103 433 V1.1.1" (PDF). ETSI. 3 August 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  83. ^ "License Program - HDR10+". hdr10plus.org. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  84. ^ a b c Dolby. "Dolby Vision Profiles and Levels Version 1.3.2 - Specification" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  85. ^ a b c d e f "HDR10 vs HDR10+ vs Dolby Vision: Which is better?". RTINGS.com. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  86. ^ a b c "Dolby Vision for Content Creators". professional.dolby.com. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  87. ^ a b "Guidance for operational practices in HDR television production". www.itu.int. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  88. ^ a b "BT.2100 : Image parameter values for high dynamic range television for use in production and international programme exchange". www.itu.int. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  89. ^ a b c d e f g "Understanding HDR10 and Dolby Vision". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  90. ^ a b c "UHD-Guidelines-V2.4" (PDF).
  91. ^ Consumer Technology Association (27 August 2015). "CEA Defines 'HDR Compatible' Displays". Archived from the original on 11 June 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  92. ^ HDR10+ Technologies, LLC (4 September 2019). "HDR10+ System Whitepaper" (PDF). Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  93. ^ Archer, John. "Samsung And Amazon Just Made The TV World Even More Confusing". Forbes. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  94. ^ Dolby. "Dolby Vision Whitepaper - An introduction to Dolby Vision" (PDF). Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  95. ^ Pocket-lint (13 October 2020). "What is Dolby Vision? Dolby's own HDR tech explained". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  96. ^ Karol Myszkowski; Rafal Mantiuk; Grzegorz Krawczyk (2008). High Dynamic Range Video (First ed.). Morgan & Claypool. p. 8. ISBN 9781598292145. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  97. ^ Ldr2Hdr: on-the-fly reverse tone mapping of legacy video and photographs Archived 22 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. SIGGRAPH 2007 paper
  98. ^ Steven Cohen (27 July 2016). "Samsung Releases HDR+ Firmware Update for 2016 SUHD TV Lineup". High-Def Digest. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  99. ^ Carolyn Giardina (11 April 2016). "NAB: Technicolor, Vubiquity to Unwrap HDR Up-Conversion and TV Distribution Service". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  100. ^ a b "HDMI 2.0a Spec Released, HDR Capability Added". Twice. 8 April 2015. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  101. ^ "VESA Updates Display Stream Compression Standard to Support New Applications and Richer Display Content". PRNewswire. 27 January 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  102. ^ Ramus Larsen (12 December 2016). "HDMI 2.0b standard gets support for HLG HDR". flatpanelshd. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  103. ^ Andrew Cotton (31 December 2016). "2016 in Review - High Dynamic Range". BBC. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  104. ^ "HDMI Forum announces version 2.1 of the HDMI specification". HDMI.org. 4 January 2017. Archived from the original on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  105. ^ "Philips HDR technology" (PDF). Philips. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  106. ^ "DisplayHDR – The Higher Standard for HDR Monitors". displayhdr.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  107. ^ Coberly, Cohen (5 September 2019). "VESA's DisplayHDR specification now covers ultra-bright 1,400-nit monitors - Meet DisplayHDR 1400". techspot.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  108. ^ Byford, Sam (10 January 2020). "This year's monitors will be faster, brighter, and curvier than ever". The Verge. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  109. ^ Harding, Scharon (15 January 2021). "How to Choose the Best HDR Monitor: Make Your Upgrade Worth It - Understand HDR displays and how to find the best one for you". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  110. ^ a b "UHD Alliance". alliance.experienceuhd.com. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  111. ^ Pocket-lint (26 January 2021). "Mobile HDR: Dolby Vision, HDR10 and Mobile HDR Premium explained". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  112. ^ "AV1 Image File Format (AVIF)". aomediacodec.github.io. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  113. ^ "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC29/WG1" (PDF). 9–15 April 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  114. ^ a b c "Press Release - A New Hybrid Full-Frame Mirrorless Camera, the LUMIX S5 Featuring Exceptional Image Quality in High Sensitivity Photo/Video And Stunning Mobility" (PDF). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  115. ^ "ICC HDR Working Group". www.color.org. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  116. ^ Blog, Netflix Technology (24 September 2018). "Enhancing the Netflix UI Experience with HDR". Medium. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  117. ^ a b "How HDR display could change your photography forever". DPReview. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  118. ^ Pocket-lint (10 September 2019). "What is HLG Photo? Panasonic S1 feature explained in full". Pocket-lint. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  119. ^ Europe, Canon. "Specifications & Features - EOS-1D X Mark III". Canon Europe. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  120. ^ Canon. "EOS-1D X Mark III specifications" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  121. ^ Europe, Canon. "Canon EOS R5 Specifications and Features -". Canon Europe. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  122. ^ a b c d "HDR PQ HEIF: Breaking Through the Limits of JPEG". SNAPSHOT - Canon Singapore Pte. Ltd. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  123. ^ "Canon EOS-1D X Mark III Review". The-Digital-Picture.com. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  124. ^ "HEIF – What you need to know". Photo Review. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  125. ^ Canon. "Working with files saved in HEVC format". Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  126. ^ "Sony α1 with superb resolution and speed". Sony. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  127. ^ "Sony α7S III with pro movie/still capability". Sony. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  128. ^ "Characteristics of HEIF format | Sony". support.d-imaging.sony.co.jp. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  129. ^ a b Sony (July 2020). "ILCE-7SM3 brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  130. ^ "Qualcomm Snapdragon 888 5G Mobile Platform | Latest 5G Snapdragon Processor". Qualcomm. 17 November 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  131. ^ Judd Heap, VP of Product Management, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. "Triple down on the future of photography with Snapdragon 888" (PDF). Retrieved 21 February 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  132. ^ a b "Ultra HD Forum: Phase A Guidelines" (PDF). Ultra HD Forum. 15 July 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  133. ^ "Device for increasing the dynamic range of a camera". espacenet.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  134. ^ "Camera with very wide dynamic range". Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  135. ^ "Device for increasing the dynamic range of a camera". espacenet.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  136. ^ Kang, Sing Bing; Uyttendaele, Matthew; Winder, Simon; Szeliski, Richard (2003). ACM SIGGRAPH 2003 Papers – on SIGGRAPH '03. ch. High dynamic range video (pages 319–325). doi:10.1145/1201775.882270. ISBN 978-1-58113-709-5. S2CID 13946222.
  137. ^ "RED Digital Cinema | 8K & 5K Professional Cameras". Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  138. ^ "ARRI | Inspiring your Vision". Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  139. ^ Zimmerman, Steven (12 October 2016). "Sony IMX378: Comprehensive Breakdown of the Google Pixel's Sensor and its Features". XDA Developers. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  140. ^ "ARRI Group: ALEXA´s Sensor". www.arri.com. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  141. ^ "HDR video accomplished using dual 5D Mark IIs, is exactly what it sounds like". Engadget. Archived from the original on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  142. ^ "A Real Time High Dynamic Range Light Probe". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  143. ^ McGuire, Morgan; Matusik, Wojciech; Pfister, Hanspeter; Chen, Billy; Hughes, John; Nayar, Shree (2007). "Optical Splitting Trees for High-Precision Monocular Imaging". IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. 27 (2): 32–42. doi:10.1109/MCG.2007.45. PMID 17388201. S2CID 3055332. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  144. ^ "Industrial Light & Magic Releases Proprietary Extended Dynamic Range Image File Format OpenEXR to Open Source Community" (PDF) (Press release). 22 January 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  145. ^ a b "Main OpenEXR web site". Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  146. ^ a b "ACES". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  147. ^ "The emergence of HEVC and 10-bit colour formats - With Imagination". web.archive.org. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  148. ^ "HDMI :: Manufacturer :: HDMI 2.0 :: FAQ for HDMI 2.0". 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  149. ^ John Archer (24 June 2015). "Amazon Grabs Key Tech Advantage Over Netflix With World's First HDR Streaming Service". Forbes. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  150. ^ Kris Wouk (24 June 2015). "Amazon brings Dolby Vision TVs into the HDR fold with short list of titles". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  151. ^ "Dolby and VUDU launch the future home theater experience with immersive sound and advanced imaging". Business Wire. 17 November 2015. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  152. ^ Rasmus Larsen (9 April 2016). "Netflix is now streaming in HDR / Dolby Vision". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  153. ^ Colin Mann (29 July 2016). "4K HDR from SKY Perfect JSAT". Advanced Television. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  154. ^ Ramus Larsen (7 September 2016). "Android TV 7.0 supports Dolby Vision, HDR10 and HLG". flatpanelshd. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  155. ^ David Katzmaier (26 September 2016). "Roku unveils five new streaming boxes with prices as low as $30". CNET. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  156. ^ Steven Robertson (7 November 2016). "True colors: adding support for HDR videos on YouTube". Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  157. ^ a b James Grover (17 November 2016). "UHD-1 Phase 2 approved". TVBEurope. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  158. ^ "Why the iPhone 12's Dolby Vision HDR Recording Is a Big Deal". howtogeek. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.