|Design capacity||0.02 Tbit/s (1999)
0.96 Tbit/s (2007)
1.28 Tbit/s (2009)
4.6 Tbit/s (2015)
|Lit capacity||2.3 Tbit/s per pair (two fibre pairs)|
|Owner(s)||92 Party Consortium (5 Suppliers)|
SEA-ME-WE3 or South-East Asia - Middle East - Western Europe 3 is an optical submarine telecommunications cable linking those regions and is the longest in the world, completed in late 2000. It is led by France Telecom and China Telecom, and is administered by Singtel, a telecommunications operator owned by the Government of Singapore. The Consortium is formed by 92 other investors from the telecom industry. It was commissioned in March 2000.
It is 39,000 kilometres (24,000 mi) in length and uses Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology with Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) transmission to increase capacity and enhance the quality of the signal, especially over long distances (this cable stretches from North Germany to Australia and Japan).
According to the cable system network administrator's website, the system capacity has been upgraded several times. The cable system itself has two fibre pairs, each carrying (as of May 2007) 48 wavelengths of 10 Gbit/s.
On 1 Jan 2015, the 5th Capacity Expansion was distributed to all the owners. Data capacity of the submarine network is increased significantly with 100G technologies.
It has 39 landing points which are in:
- Norden, Germany
- Oostende, Belgium
- Goonhilly, United Kingdom
- Penmarch, France
- Sesimbra, Portugal
- Tetuan, Morocco
- Mazara del Vallo, Italy
- Chania, Greece
- Marmaris, Turkey
- Yeroskipou, Cyprus
- Alexandria, Egypt
- Suez, Egypt
- Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
- Djibouti, Djibouti
- Muscat, Oman
- Fujairah, United Arab Emirates
- Karachi, Pakistan
- Mumbai, India
- Kochi, India
- Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka
- Pyapon, Myanmar
- Satun, Thailand
- Penang, Malaysia
- Medan, Indonesia
- Tuas, Singapore
- Jakarta, Indonesia
- Perth, Australia
- Mersing, Malaysia
- Tungku, Brunei
- Da Nang, Vietnam
- Batangas, Philippines
- Taipa, Macau
- Deep Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
- Shantou, China
- Fangshan, Taiwan
- Toucheng, Taiwan
- Shanghai, China
- Geoje, South Korea
- Okinawa, Japan
In December 1994, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed by 16 Parties for the development of the SEA-ME-WE3 project between Western Europe and Singapore. In November 1996, additional MOUs were signed to extend the system from Singapore to the Far East and to Australia. Finally in January 1997, the Construction and Maintenance Agreement for SEA-ME-WE3 was signed by 92 International Carriers. By end-2000 the entire network was completed.
In July 2005, a portion of the SEA-ME-WE3 submarine cable located 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of Karachi that provided Pakistan's major outer communications became defective, disrupting almost all of Pakistan's communications with the rest of the world, and affecting approximately 10 million Internet users.
On 26 December 2006 this link severed, causing major disruption to internet services to and from the Far East. The cause of this was suspected to be a magnitude 7.1 earthquake off the coast of Taiwan. It was stated that the link would take 3 weeks to repair.
On 30 January 2008 an apparent ship's anchor off Egypt's Alexandria coast is thought to have cut the newer SEA-ME-WE 4 cable, which is intended to provide redundancy, causing slow Internet connections and disruption to international calls to the U.S. and Europe from the Middle East and South Asia. Over 70 percent of the network in Egypt was down. Although central to India's largest carrier, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, the deputy-director general of that organisation said "Only 10 to 15 percent of our connectivity with the international gateway faced problems".
On 10 January 2013, the cable was again severed, this time 1,126 kilometres from the Tuas Cable Landing Station in Singapore, between repeaters 345 and 346. The repair ship ASEAN Explorer was sent to the site. A permit is required from the Indonesian Authorities to effect repairs: on 3 March 2013 it was reported that "The cable ship operator has advised that the required permit to undertake works has not been granted. A tentative repair date of 09 April 2013 has been posted but still position isn't clear when it will get restore."
On 30 November 2014, the cable again experienced a problem in the Jakarta to Perth sector. The fault is still being investigated. ASEAN Explorer appeared onsite of the Cable Breakage point on the 24th December 2014 which involved over a week of repairs. Cable restored on 1 January 2015.
On 8 January 2015, the cable once again experienced problems on the Perth to Jakarta Section. The fault is being investigated.
On 15 September 2015 the cable was again cut at segment 3.3 causing significant disruption to services from Australia to Singapore. Service disruptions caused particular impact for Apple customers due to the release of the iPhone 6, iOS9 and OSX just prior to the cable cut. Apple's services were reported as being crippled for Telstra customers but the impact was noticeable for all other Australian ISP's. This disruption is expected to be repaired sometime after Mid October 2015. This is the third time that the cable has been cut in this segment in just over 2 and a half years.
On 25 September 2015 at 03:07 UTC, the cable once again experienced problems at SEA-ME-WE3's S3.3 (Perth-BU) at about 1143 km from Tuas cable station (between repeater R346 and R345). ironically this is the same location as where the previous problem occurred, which took 3 months for Indonesian authorities to permit a cable ship to repair the damage. On 29 September 2015, it was advised that a cable ship had been mobilized to the area, to isolate and resolve the fault, with a tentative fix date of mid to late October 2015, however due to the complexity of repairing cables, this time frame was only an estimated time frame for a fix.
On 27 September 2015 at 01:49 UTC, further faults have been identified in the cable in SEA-ME-WE3's S3.1. The fault location is at 360 km from Ancol Cable Station (between repeater R108 & R109)., cable ship ASEAN Explorer has already been mobilized to this location.
On 11 December 2016 at 9:30 AEST, Vocus Group confirmed that SEA-ME-WE3 failed due to a cable cut 1125km from the Singapore Tuas Cable Landing Station. The ASEAN Explorer arrived at the location of the cable fault on the 10th January 2017. A tentative repair window from the 11 - 14th January 2017 was scheduled, subject to permit approvals. On 16th January 2017 Vocus advised that the repair works to SEA-ME-WE3 has been completed and all Ethernet and transit traffic in and out of Singapore has been restored.
On 29 August 2017 Vocus Group confirmed a cable break on the Perth to Singapore segment (S3.3). On 27 September 2017, Cable Ship ASEAN Explorer confirmed a "shunt fault" on the insulating material either caused by ship anchors or sea currents. On 3 October 2017, a new issue was detected. On 16 October 2017, ASEAN Explorer completed repairs on the cable, and traffic was restored.
On 3 December 2017 at 10:24 AEST, Vocus Group confirmed that SEA-ME-WE3 suffered a fault approximately 1126 km from the cable landing station in Singapore. Vocus confirmed that the break had been fixed as of 01:24 UTC 15 January 2018.
In August 2013 a major German newspaper claimed that an alliance of Western and Asian intelligence agencies has managed to tap into the cable. The Süddeutsche Zeitung, Germany’s largest broadsheet newspaper, wrote that GCHQ has been leading the interception effort, supported by the National Security Agency, which is GCHQ’s American equivalent. The paper cited Edward Snowden as the source of the information. Australian media subsequently revealed that Australia’s Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) also participates in the undersea cable interception operation, sharing massive amounts of intercepted data with its British and American counterparts: The Age said that the Australian interception activity is facilitated with the help of the Security and Intelligence Division of Singapore’s Ministry of Defense.
SEA-ME-WE3 was based on the success of the earlier shorter cable SEA-ME-WE2. At the time of commissioning, 18 October 1994, SEA-ME-WE2 was the world's longest optical fibre submarine cable system at 18,751 km. The cable has two single mode fibre pairs with a combined capacity of 1.12 Gbit/s, (2*560 Mbit/s), 151 repeaters and 9 branches.
|Construction finished||October 1994|
|Design capacity||1.12 Gbit/s|
|Lit capacity||0.56 Gbit/s per pair (two fibre pairs)|
|Owner(s)||Consortium (52 Owners)|
- Sri Lanka
- Saudi Arabia
The SEA-ME-WE cable history started in June 1985 when the first 12/25 MHz capacity, 13.500 km long SEA-ME-WE cable was commissioned using Analog/Copper technology. SEA-ME-WE cable was decommissioned in June 1999.
- List of international submarine communications cables
- Other Australian international submarine cables (and year of first service):
Several other cable systems following a substantially similar route to SEA-ME-WEA 3 between Asia and Western Europe:
- "Background". SEA-ME-WE 3. n.d. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- "Background". SEA-ME-WE 3. n.d. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
- The main trunk shall contain at least 2 fibre pairs and each fibre pair shall be capable of operating at a minimum of 10Gbit/s, providing a minimum of 64 Basic System Payload Modules in each fibre pair. "Standard IRU Agreement" (PDF). SEA-ME-WE 3. 2012-11-30. p. 23. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- SEA-ME-WE 3 4th 10G Upgrade (Dec 2009) "Capacity Upgrade of In-service Systems using WDM Technology" (PDF). FUJITSU. 2014-04-23. p. 12. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- "Background". SEA-ME-WE 3. n.d. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Pakistan Times | Top Story: Standby Net arrangements terminated in Pakistan
- "Communication breakdown in Pakistan". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 June 2005.
- "Pakistan cut off from the world". The Times Of India. 28 June 2005.
- "Asia phone links start to recover". BBC News. 28 December 2006.
- "Severed Cables in Mediterranean Disrupt Communication". Bloomberg. 19 December 2008.
- "GO submarine cable fault part of wider disruption between Italy and Egypt". Times of Malta. 19 December 2008.
- "Perth-Singapore cable severed". iTnews. 15 January 2013.
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- Internode. "Internode :: Support :: Network Status and Advisories". advisories.internode.on.net. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
- iiNet. "Whirlpool Forums - iiNET subforum". Retrieved 2015-09-29.
- Vocus Group. "Vocus Group - Incident Summary". Retrieved 2016-12-13.
- Vocus Group. "Vocus Group - Incident Summary". Retrieved 2017-10-18.
- "Vocus Status". status.vocus.com.au. Retrieved 2018-01-15.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung, 28 August 2013 (accessed 30.8.2013)
- John Goetz, Hans Leyendecker and Frederik Obermaier (28 August 2013). "British Officials Have Far-Reaching Access To Internet And Telephone Communications" (accessed 30.8.2013)
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- Anton A. Huurdeman (31 July 2003). The Worldwide History of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 462–. ISBN 978-0-471-20505-0. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- "Tasman Global Access (TGA) Cable". Submarine Cable Map. Retrieved 10 July 2017.