SM U-78

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History
German Empire
Name: U-78
Ordered: 6 January 1915
Builder: AG Vulkan, Hamburg ( 56)
Launched: 31 October 1915
Commissioned: 26 January 1916
Fate: 27 October 1918 - Torpedoed by HMS G2 N of North Sea at 56°2′N 5°8′E / 56.033°N 5.133°E / 56.033; 5.133. 40 dead (all hands lost).[1]
General characteristics [2]
Class and type: German Type UE I submarine
Displacement:
  • 755 t (743 long tons) surfaced
  • 832 t (819 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 5.90 m (19 ft 4 in) (o/a)
  • 5.00 m (16 ft 5 in) (pressure hull)
Height: 8.25 m (27 ft 1 in)
Draught: 4.86 m (15 ft 11 in)
Installed power:
  • 2 × 900 PS (662 kW; 888 shp) surfaced
  • 2 × 900 PS (662 kW; 888 shp) submerged
Propulsion: 2 shafts, 2× 1.41 m (4 ft 8 in) propellers
Speed:
  • 9.9 knots (18.3 km/h; 11.4 mph) surfaced
  • 7.9 knots (14.6 km/h; 9.1 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 7,880 nmi (14,590 km; 9,070 mi) at 7 knots (13 km/h; 8.1 mph) surfaced
  • 83 nmi (154 km; 96 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 50 m (164 ft 1 in)
Complement: 4 officers, 28 enlisted
Armament:
Service record
Part of:
Commanders:
  • Kptlt. Otto Dröscher[3]
  • 20 April 1916 – 15 January 1918
  • Oblt.z.S. Karl Thouret[4]
  • 16–31 January 1918
  • Oblt.z.S. Johann Vollbrecht[5]
  • 1–27 February 1918
  • Kptlt. Karl Vesper[6]
  • 1 March – 26 April 1918
  • Kptlt. Wilhelm Meyer[7]
  • 27 April – 24 May 1918
  • Oblt.z.S. Johann Vollbrecht[5]
  • 25 May – 28 October 1918
Operations: 12 patrols
Victories:
  • 17 ships sunk 27,488 GRT
  • 2 ships damaged 11,332 GRT
  • 2 merchant ships taken as prize 3,427 GRT[1]

SM U-78 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I. U-78 was engaged in the naval warfare and took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic as a minelayer. On 27 October 1918 low frequency communications from U-78 in the Skagerrak were detected by the British submarine HMS G2 which sank her with the loss of her crew of 40. The commonly listed sinking date of 28 October 1918 is in error.[1]

The wreck has been identified in April 2014.

Original documents from Room 40[edit]

The following is a verbatim transcription of the recorded activities of SM U-78 known to British Naval Intelligence, Room 40 O.B.:[8]

SM U-78. Kptlt. Dröscher, later to U-117, but not before May 1917; then Kptlt. Vollbrecht. Was completed at Hamburg (Vulcan) in May 1916, joined the Kiel School and remained there until the 8th of July, when she went to Wilhelmshaven, and was attached to the 1st Half Flotilla.

  • 11–27 July 1916. Left for the north. By about the 20th had laid 34 mines off Skerryvore. On the 23rd she was in action with the armed trawler CHRYSEA off Fair Island. Took 1 Danish S.S. as prize on the day before she returned to Heligoland.
  • 20 August – 12 September 1916. Left, going northabout, for the south of Ireland and laid 34 mines off St. Govan’s Head on the night of the 1/2 September, and on the 27th August had chased S.S. FLOREAL off the Butt of Lewis. Returned northabout.
  • 18–23 October 1916. Apparently on North Sea patrol. Stopped 6 Scandinavian S.S, allowing them to proceed. On last day out took as prize a Norwegian steamer.
  • 29 October – 22 November 1916. Apparently went to coast of Norway to observe shipping; sank 1 Norwegian steamer.
  • 3–22 February 1917. Laid mines at various points off the west coast of Scotland, going northabout both ways. Sank 1 steamer N. of Ireland, and possibly another N. of the Orkney Islands.
  • 30 March – 19 April 1917. Went north, and watched the traffic on north coast of Ireland. Sand 3 S.S, 2 sailing vessels (6,500 tons). Laid mines in the Little Minch and Lough Swilly.
  • 29 May – 22 June 1917. Went northabout and laid mines off Inishtrahull, and at points off the N.W. coast of Scotland. Was engaged by HMS HELGOLAND (a submarine trap) near Tory Island on 9 June. Claimed 5,000 tons sinkings. She asked permission to return by Little Belt, but was told for a special reason she must come in by Nordmands Tief.
  • 27 July – 13 August 1917. Laid mines in Sound of Islay. Claimed 2,500 tons sinkings. Returned at slow speed owing to failure of port engine.
  • She was to have gone out again in October 1917 but nothing is known of any cruise, and she was apparently not ready for service before June 1918.
  • 16 June - ? 27 June 1918. Apparently laid mines east of Scotland.
  • ? 14–21 July 1918. Left by the Kattegat, returned by the Bight. Had completed an unknown task in the North Sea by the 18th July.
  • ? 19 August - ? 26 August 1918. In the North Sea. Made no report as to her undertaking, but returned at 3 knots with double motor trouble.
  • 24 September – 1 October 1918. Laid mines on the east coast of Scotland.
  • About the end of October 1918 she left to lay mines in the North Sea and was sunk by HM submarine G2 in 56°2′N 5°8′E / 56.033°N 5.133°E / 56.033; 5.133"

Note: S.S. = Steam Ship; S.V. = Sailing Vessel; northabout, Muckle Flugga, Fair I. = around Scotland; Sound, Belts, Kattegat = via North of Denmark to/from German Baltic ports; Bight = to/from German North Sea ports; success = sinking of ships [9]

Summary of raiding history[edit]

Date Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[10]
16 July 1916 Vidar  Sweden 2,178 Captured as a prize
5 August 1916 Aranda  Norway 1,838 Sunk
2 September 1916 Kelvinia  United Kingdom 5,039 Sunk
26 September 1916 HMT Loch Shiel  Royal Navy 216 Sunk
21 October 1916 Atle Jarl  Norway 1,249 Captured as a prize
16 November 1916 Vega  Norway 1,204 Sunk
13 December 1916 Kursk  Russian Empire 7,869 Damaged
7 February 1917 Väring  Sweden 2,107 Sunk
13 February 1917 Barnsley  United Kingdom 144 Sunk
15 February 1917 Stralsund  Norway 510 Sunk
3 March 1917 Meldon  United Kingdom 2,514 Sunk
2 April 1917 Sagitta  Norway 1,981 Sunk
2 April 1917 Tithonus  Royal Navy 3,463 Damaged
4 April 1917 Vladimir Reitz  Denmark 2,128 Sunk
5 April 1917 Bris  Denmark 101 Sunk
7 April 1917 HMS Jason  Royal Navy 810 Sunk
13 April 1917 Strathcona  Canada 1,881 Sunk
14 April 1917 Andromache  United Kingdom 313 Sunk
19 April 1917 HMT Lobelia  Royal Navy 184 Sunk
17 June 1917 Fornebo  United Kingdom 4,259 Sunk
13 December 1917 Arnewood  United Kingdom 2,259 Sunk

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 78". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  2. ^ Gröner 1991, pp. 10-11.
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Otto Dröscher (Royal House Order of Hohenzollern)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Karl Thouret". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Johann Vollbrecht". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  6. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Karl Vesper (Royal House Order of Hohenzollern)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  7. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Wilhelm Meyer". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  8. ^ National Archives, Kew: HW 7/3, Room 40, History of German Naval Warfare 1914-1918 (Published below - Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918)
  9. ^ Koerver, Hans Joachim (2009). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol II., The Fleet in Being. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-77-0.
  10. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U 78". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
  • Spindler, Arno (1966) [1932]. Der Handelskrieg mit U-Booten. 5 Vols. Berlin: Mittler & Sohn. Vols. 4+5, dealing with 1917+18, are very hard to find: Guildhall Library, London, has them all, also Vol. 1-3 in an English translation: The submarine war against commerce.
  • Beesly, Patrick (1982). Room 40: British Naval Intelligence 1914-1918. London: H Hamilton. ISBN 978-0-241-10864-2.
  • Halpern, Paul G. (1995). A Naval History of World War I. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85728-498-0.
  • Roessler, Eberhard (1997). Die Unterseeboote der Kaiserlichen Marine. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-5963-7.
  • Schroeder, Joachim (2002). Die U-Boote des Kaisers. Bonn: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 978-3-7637-6235-4.
  • Koerver, Hans Joachim (2008). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol I., The Fleet in Action. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-76-3.
  • Koerver, Hans Joachim (2009). Room 40: German Naval Warfare 1914-1918. Vol II., The Fleet in Being. Steinbach: LIS Reinisch. ISBN 978-3-902433-77-0.

External links[edit]