|Ordered:||23 June 1915|
|Laid down:||5 November 1915|
|Launched:||7 November 1916|
|Commissioned:||30 November 1916|
|Fate:||20 November 1918 - Surrendered. Sank in the English Channel on the way to be broken up in 1921.|
|General characteristics |
|Height:||8.00 m (26 ft 3 in)|
|Draught:||4.02 m (13 ft 2 in)|
|Test depth:||50 m (164 ft 1 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 31 enlisted|
On 27 June 1918, under the command of Lieutenant Helmut Patzig, U-86 sank the Canadian hospital ship HMHS Llandovery Castle off the coast of Ireland, in violation of international law and standing orders of the Imperial German Navy. When the crew took to the lifeboats, U-86 surfaced, ran down all the lifeboats except one, and shot at the people in the water. Only the 24 people in the remaining lifeboat survived. They were rescued shortly afterwards and testified as to what had happened. The 234 others on board Llandovery Castle were lost, including fourteen nursing sisters.
USS Covington, the former Hamburg America ocean liner SS Cincinnati, was torpedoed by U-86 on 1 July 1918 and sank the next day. Covington was the 17th largest ship sunk or damaged by U-boats during the war.
After the war, the captain of U-86 Helmut Patzig, and two of his lieutenants were arraigned for trial on war crimes, but Patzig fled to the Free City of Danzig, and his trial was stopped on 20 March 1931 by virtue of the Laws of Amnesty. Lieutenants Ludwig Dithmar and Johan Boldt were convicted and sentenced to four years in prison, but were released after only 4 months.
U-86 was surrendered after the war and sank in the English Channel on the way to be broken up in 1921.
German Type U 81 submarines were preceded by the shorter Type UE I submarines. U-86 had a displacement of 808 tonnes (795 long tons) when at the surface and 946 tonnes (931 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 70.06 m (229 ft 10 in), a pressure hull length of 55.55 m (182 ft 3 in), a beam of 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in), a height of 8 m (26 ft 3 in), and a draught of 4.02 m (13 ft 2 in). The submarine was powered by two 2,400 metric horsepower (1,800 kW; 2,400 shp) engines for use while surfaced, and two 1,200 metric horsepower (880 kW; 1,200 shp) engines for use while submerged. She had two propeller shafts. She was capable of operating at depths of up to 50 metres (160 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 16.8 knots (31.1 km/h; 19.3 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 9.1 knots (16.9 km/h; 10.5 mph). When submerged, she could operate for 56 nautical miles (104 km; 64 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 11,220 nautical miles (20,780 km; 12,910 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). U-86 was fitted with six 50 centimetres (20 in) torpedo tubes (four at the bow and two at the stern), twelve to sixteen torpedoes, and one 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/45 deck gun (from 1917). She had a complement of thirty-five (thirty-one crew members and four officers).
Summary of raiding history
|23 March 1917||Queenborough||United Kingdom||165||Sunk|
|5 April 1917||Dunkerquoise||France||127||Sunk|
|5 April 1917||Marie Celine||France||142||Sunk|
|5 April 1917||Siberier||Belgium||2,968||Sunk|
|6 April 1917||Rosalind||United Kingdom||6,535||Sunk|
|18 April 1917||Atalanta||Sweden||1,091||Sunk|
|28 May 1917||Antinoe||United Kingdom||2,396||Sunk|
|28 May 1917||Limerick||United Kingdom||6,827||Sunk|
|29 May 1917||Oswego||United Kingdom||5,793||Sunk|
|31 May 1917||N. Hadzikyriakos||Greece||3,533||Sunk|
|2 July 1917||Bessie||Sweden||66||Sunk|
|10 August 1917||Capella I||Norway||3,990||Sunk|
|13 August 1917||Turakina||United Kingdom||9,920||Sunk|
|15 December 1917||Baron Leopold Davilliers||France||163||Damaged|
|20 December 1917||Polvarth||United Kingdom||3,146||Sunk|
|14 February 1918||Bessie Stephens||United Kingdom||119||Sunk|
|17 February 1918||Pinewood||United Kingdom||2,219||Sunk|
|19 February 1918||Wheatflower||United Kingdom||188||Sunk|
|20 February 1918||Djerv||United Kingdom||1,527||Sunk|
|23 February 1918||Ulabrand||Norway||2,011||Sunk|
|30 April 1918||Kafue||United Kingdom||6,044||Sunk|
|30 April 1918||Kempock||United Kingdom||255||Sunk|
|2 May 1918||Medora||United Kingdom||5,135||Sunk|
|5 May 1918||Tommi||United Kingdom||138||Sunk|
|6 May 1918||Leeds City||United Kingdom||4,298||Sunk|
|11 May 1918||San Andres||Norway||1,656||Sunk|
|12 May 1918||Inniscarra||United Kingdom||1,412||Sunk|
|16 May 1918||Tartary||United Kingdom||4,181||Sunk|
|22 May 1918||Meran||Norway||656||Sunk|
|21 June 1918||Eglantine||Norway||339||Sunk|
|26 June 1918||Atlantian||United Kingdom||9,399||Sunk|
|27 June 1918||Llandovery Castle||Royal Canadian Navy||11,423||Sunk|
|1 July 1918||USS Covington||United States Navy||16,339||Sunk|
|1 July 1918||Origen||United Kingdom||3,545||Sunk|
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 86". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Gröner 1991, pp. 12-14.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Friedrich Crüsemann". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Alfred Götze". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Helmut Patzig". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Llandovery Castle at red-duster.co.uk
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: USS Covington (ID-1409)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- "Covington". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U 86". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Canadian report on loss of Llandovery Castle