SOFA score

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Sepsis-related organ failure assessment score, also known as sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA score), is used to track a person's status during the stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) to determine the extent of a person's organ function or rate of failure.[1][2][3][4][5] The score is based on six different scores, one each for the respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, coagulation, renal and neurological systems.

The score tables below only describe points-giving conditions. In cases where the physiological parameters do not match any row, zero points are given. In cases where the physiological parameters match more than one row, the row with most points is picked.

SOFA assists health care providers in estimating the risk of morbidity and mortality due to sepsis.[6]

Medical use[edit]

The SOFA scoring system is useful in predicting the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients.[7] According to an observational study at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Belgium, the mortality rate is at least 50% when the score is increased, regardless of initial score, in the first 96 hours of admission, 27% to 35% if the score remains unchanged, and less than 27% if the score is reduced.[8]

qSOFA has also been found to be poorly sensitive though decently specific for the risk of death with SIRS possibly better for screening.[9]

Scoring[edit]

Respiratory system[edit]

PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) SOFA score
≥ 400 0
< 400 +1
< 300 +2
< 200 and mechanically ventilated +3
< 100 and mechanically ventilated +4

Nervous system[edit]

Glasgow coma scale SOFA score
15 0
13–14 +1
10–12 +2
6–9 +3
< 6 +4

Cardiovascular system[edit]

Mean arterial pressure OR administration of vasopressors required SOFA score
MAP ≥ 70 mmHg 0
MAP < 70 mmHg +1
dopamine ≤ 5 µg/kg/min or dobutamine (any dose) +2
dopamine > 5 µg/kg/min OR epinephrine ≤ 0.1 µg/kg/min OR norepinephrine ≤ 0.1 µg/kg/min +3
dopamine > 15 µg/kg/min OR epinephrine > 0.1 µg/kg/min OR norepinephrine > 0.1 µg/kg/min +4

Liver[edit]

Bilirubin (mg/dl) [μmol/L] SOFA score
< 1.2 [< 20] 0
1.2–1.9 [20-32] +1
2.0–5.9 [33-101] +2
6.0–11.9 [102-204] +3
> 12.0 [> 204] +4

Coagulation[edit]

Platelets×103/µl SOFA score
≥ 150 0
< 150 +1
< 100 +2
< 50 +3
< 20 +4

Kidneys[edit]

Creatinine (mg/dl) [μmol/L] (or urine output) SOFA score
< 1.2 [< 110] 0
1.2–1.9 [110-170] +1
2.0–3.4 [171-299] +2
3.5–4.9 [300-440] (or < 500 ml/d) +3
> 5.0 [> 440] (or < 200 ml/d) +4

Quick SOFA score[edit]

The Quick SOFA Score (quickSOFA or qSOFA) was introduced by the Sepsis-3 group in February 2016 as a simplified version of the SOFA Score as an initial way to identify patients at high risk for poor outcome with an infection.[10] The SIRS Criteria definitions of sepsis are being replaced as they were found to possess too many limitations; the “current use of 2 or more SIRS criteria to identify sepsis was unanimously considered by the task force to be unhelpful.” The qSOFA simplifies the SOFA score drastically by only including its 3 clinical criteria and by including "any altered mentation" instead of requiring a GCS <15. qSOFA can easily and quickly be repeated serially on patients.

Assessment qSOFA score
Low blood pressure (SBP ≤ 100 mmHg) 1
High respiratory rate (≥ 22 breaths/min) 1
Altered mentation (GCS <=14) 1

The score ranges from 0 to 3 points. The presence of 2 or more qSOFA points near the onset of infection was associated with a greater risk of death or prolonged intensive care unit stay. These are outcomes that are more common in infected patients who may be septic than those with uncomplicated infection. Based upon these findings, the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis recommends qSOFA as a simple prompt to identify infected patients outside the ICU who are likely to be septic.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vincent JL, Moreno R, Takala J, Willatts S, De Mendonça A, Bruining H, Reinhart CK, Suter PM, Thijs LG. The SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure. On behalf of the Working Group on Sepsis-Related Problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med 1996 Jul;22(7):707-10. PMID 8844239.
  2. ^ Vincent JL, de Mendonça A, Cantraine F, Moreno R, Takala J, Suter PM, Sprung CL, Colardyn F, Blecher S. Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "sepsis-related problems" of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 1998 Nov;26(11):1793-800. PMID 9824069.
  3. ^ Moreno R, Vincent JL, Matos R, Mendonça A, Cantraine F, Thijs L, Takala J, Sprung C, Antonelli M, Bruining H, Willatts S. The use of maximum SOFA score to quantify organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care. Results of a prospective, multicentre study. Working Group on Sepsis related Problems of the ESICM. Intensive Care Med 1999 Jul;25(7):686-96. PMID 10470572.
  4. ^ de Mendonça A, Vincent JL, Suter PM, Moreno R, Dearden NM, Antonelli M, Takala J, Sprung C, Cantraine F. Acute renal failure in the ICU: risk factors and outcome evaluated by the SOFA score. Intensive Care Med 2000 Jul;26(7):915-21. PMID 10990106.
  5. ^ Ferreira FL, Bota DP, Bross A, Mélot C, Vincent JL. Serial evaluation of the SOFA score to predict outcome in critically ill patients. JAMA 2001 Oct 10;286(14):1754-8. PMID 11594901.
  6. ^ "National Inpatient Hospital Costs: The Most Expensive Conditions by Payer, 2013". www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  7. ^ Vincent, JL; de Mendonca, A; Cantraine, F; Monero, R; Takala, J; Suter, PM; Sprung, CL (November 1998). "Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Working group on "sepsis-related problems" of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine". Critical Care Medicine. 26 (11): 1793–800. PMID 9824069.
  8. ^ Ferreira, FL; Bota, DP; Bross, A; Melot, C; Vincent, JL (10 October 2001). "Serial evaluation of the SOFA score to predict outcome in critically ill patients". Journal of the American Medical Association. 286 (14): 1754–1758. PMID 11594901.
  9. ^ Fernando, Shannon M.; Tran, Alexandre; Taljaard, Monica; Cheng, Wei; Rochwerg, Bram; Seely, Andrew J.E.; Perry, Jeffrey J. (6 February 2018). "Prognostic Accuracy of the Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment for Mortality in Patients With Suspected Infection". Annals of Internal Medicine. 168 (4): 266. doi:10.7326/M17-2820.
  10. ^ Angus, Derek C.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Klompas, Michael; Levy, Mitchell M.; Martin, Gregory S.; Osborn, Tiffany M.; Rhee, Chanu. "A Framework for the Development and Interpretation of Different Sepsis Definitions and Clinical Criteria". Critical Care Medicine. 44 (3): e113–e121. doi:10.1097/ccm.0000000000001730. PMC 4765912.
  11. ^ "qSOFA :: What is qSOFA?". www.qsofa.org. Retrieved 2016-05-29.

External links[edit]