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SQRRR or "SQ3R" is a reading comprehension method named for its five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review. The method was introduced by Francis Pleasant Robinson in his 1946 book Effective Study.[1]

The method, created for college students, can also be used by elementary school students, who can practice all of the steps once they have begun to read longer and more complex texts (around fourth grade).[2]

Similar methods developed subsequently include PQRST and KWL table.[3]


  1. Survey
    The first step, survey or skim, advises that one should resist the temptation to read the book and instead glance through a chapter in order to identify headings, sub-headings and other outstanding features in the text. This is in order to identify ideas and formulate questions about the content of the chapter.
  2. Question
    Formulate questions about the content of the reading. For example, convert headings and sub-headings into questions, and then look for answers in the content of the text. Other more general questions may also be formulated:
    • What is this chapter about?
    • What question is this chapter trying to answer?
    • How does this information help me?
  3. Read (R1)
    Use the background work done with "S" and "Q" in order to begin reading actively. This means reading in order to answer the questions raised under "Q". Passive reading, in contrast, results in merely reading without engaging with the study material.
  4. Recite (R2)
    The second "R" refers to the part known as "Recite/wRite" or "Recall." Using key phrases, one is meant to identify major points and answers to questions from the "Q" step for each section. This may be done either in an oral or written format. It is important that an adherent to this method use his/her own words in order to evoke the active listening quality of this study method.
  5. Review (R3)
    The final "R" is "Review." In fact, before becoming acquainted with this method a student probably just uses the R & R method; Read and Review. Provided the student has followed all recommendations, the student should have a study sheet and should test himself or herself by attempting to recall the key phrases. This method instructs the diligent student to immediately review all sections pertaining to any key words forgotten

6 stages of effective comprehension[edit]

Best's process of effective comprehension suggests 6 stages for better understanding a topic while in a learning process.

  • Knowing vs Understanding (Fact finding vs Making meaning with time management)
  • Reflecting (Bringing the information to life in your own words to personalize and consolidate)
  • Interpersonal understanding (Checking whether the reader understood the topic e.g. Explaining the idea to someone, doing seminars...etc.)
  • Intrapersonal understanding (Finding personal significance (interpret, compare & conclude tentatively) of the topic in real world aspects)
  • Visualisation (Tony Buzan's Mind Mapping)
  • Mindfulness and Acceptance

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Robinson, Francis Pleasant (1978). Effective Study (6th ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-045521-7. 
  2. ^ Gunning, T.G. (2002). Creating Literacy Instruction for All Children (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-35539-6. 
  3. ^ "Reading Course Textbooks". Office of Academic Support & Counseling. 

External links[edit]