STAT3 Identifiers Aliases , ADMIO, APRF, HIES, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, ADMIO1 STAT3 External IDs OMIM: 102582 MGI: 103038 HomoloGene: 7960 GeneCards: STAT3
Gene ontology Molecular function • protein dimerization activity • GO:0001131, GO:0001151, GO:0001130, GO:0001204 DNA-binding transcription factor activity • GO:0001077, GO:0001212, GO:0001213, GO:0001211, GO:0001205 DNA-binding transcription activator activity, RNA polymerase II-specific • GO:0038050, GO:0004886, GO:0038051 nuclear receptor activity • protein phosphatase binding • GO:0000980 RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding • GO:0001948 protein binding • protein kinase binding • DNA binding • sequence-specific DNA binding • chromatin DNA binding • protein homodimerization activity • identical protein binding • GO:0001200, GO:0001133, GO:0001201 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific • signal transducer activity • transcription factor binding • CCR5 chemokine receptor binding • glucocorticoid receptor binding Cellular component • cytoplasm • mitochondrion • nucleus • plasma membrane • nucleoplasm • RNA polymerase II transcription regulator complex • mitochondrial inner membrane • cytosol • GO:0097483, GO:0097481 postsynaptic density • Schaffer collateral - CA1 synapse • glutamatergic synapse • transcription regulator complex Biological process • negative regulation of glycolytic process • protein import into nucleus • regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II • transcription by RNA polymerase II • response to organic substance • positive regulation of gene silencing by miRNA • radial glial cell differentiation • stem cell population maintenance • cellular response to hormone stimulus • regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability • growth hormone receptor signaling pathway • miRNA mediated inhibition of translation • eye photoreceptor cell differentiation • positive regulation of metalloendopeptidase activity • temperature homeostasis • cell population proliferation • response to leptin • response to ethanol • positive regulation of Notch signaling pathway • negative regulation of cell population proliferation • response to cytokine • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated • glucose homeostasis • negative regulation of cell death • transcription, DNA-templated • positive regulation of growth factor dependent skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated • negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide biosynthetic process • energy homeostasis • GO:0022415 viral process • negative regulation of neuron death • sexual reproduction • phosphorylation • leptin-mediated signaling pathway • cellular response to organic cyclic compound • negative regulation of apoptotic process • negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II • regulation of feeding behavior • nervous system development • positive regulation of ATP biosynthetic process • intracellular receptor signaling pathway • acute-phase response • negative regulation of neuron migration • receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT • response to estradiol • response to organic cyclic compound • eating behavior • somatic stem cell population maintenance • regulation of multicellular organism growth • aging • response to peptide hormone • cellular response to leptin stimulus • regulation of cell cycle • astrocyte differentiation • response to drug • signal transduction • positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II • growth hormone receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT • positive regulation of gene expression • negative regulation of stem cell differentiation • positive regulation of cell population proliferation • mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II • inflammatory response • positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation • T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment • positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II • positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein • interleukin-15-mediated signaling pathway • interleukin-7-mediated signaling pathway • positive regulation of angiogenesis • positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway • interleukin-21-mediated signaling pathway • interleukin-23-mediated signaling pathway • interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway • interleukin-27-mediated signaling pathway • interleukin-35-mediated signaling pathway • cellular response to cytokine stimulus • interleukin-9-mediated signaling pathway • modulation of chemical synaptic transmission • postsynapse to nucleus signaling pathway • negative regulation of autophagy • positive regulation of cell migration • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity • defense response • regulation of cell population proliferation Sources: Amigo / QuickGO Orthologs Species Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl UniProt RefSeq (mRNA) RefSeq (protein) Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 42.31 – 42.39 Mb Chr 11: 100.89 – 100.94 Mb PubMed search   Wikidata
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ( STAT3) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT3 gene. It is a member of the  STAT protein family.
Function [ edit ]
STAT3 is a member of the
STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT3 is phosphorylated by receptor-associated Janus kinases (JAK), form homo- or heterodimers, and translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. Specifically, STAT3 becomes activated after phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 in response to such ligands as interferons, epidermal growth factor (EGF), Interleukin (IL-)5 and IL-6. Additionally, activation of STAT3 may occur via phosphorylation of serine 727 by Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and through  c-src non-receptor tyrosine kinase.  STAT3 mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as  cell growth and apoptosis.
embryos cannot develop beyond embryonic day 7, when gastrulation begins. It appears that at these early stages of development, STAT3 activation is required for self-renewal of  embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Indeed, LIF, which is supplied to murine ESC cultures to maintain their undifferentiated state, can be omitted if STAT3 is activated through some other means.
STAT3 is essential for the differentiation of the
TH17 helper T cells, which have been implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases. During viral infection, mice lacking STAT3 in T-cells display impairment in the ability to generate T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells and fail to maintain antibody based immunity. 
STAT3 caused upregulation in E-selectin, a factor in metastasis of cancers.
Clinical significance [ edit ]
Loss-of-function mutations in the STAT3 gene result in
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome, associated with recurrent infections as well as disordered bone and tooth development.
Gain-of-function mutations in the STAT3 gene have been reported to cause multi-organ early onset auto-immune diseases; such as thyroid disease, diabetes, intestinal inflammation, and low blood counts,
while constitutive STAT3 activation is associated with various human cancers and commonly suggests poor prognosis.     It has anti-apoptotic as well as proliferative effects. 
STAT3 can promote oncogenesis by being constitutively active through various pathways as mentioned elsewhere. A tumor suppressor role of STAT3 has also been reported.
  In the report on human glioblastoma tumor, or brain cancer, STAT3 was shown to have an oncogenic or a tumor suppressor role depending upon the mutational background of the tumor. A direct connection between the PTEN-Akt-FOXO axis (suppressive) and the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor beta (LIFRbeta)-STAT3 signaling pathway (oncogenic) was shown.
Increased activity of STAT3 in cancer cells, leads to changes in the function of protein complexes that control expression of inflammatory genes, with result profound change in the secretome and the cell phenotypes, their activity in the tumor, and their capacity for metastasis.
Interactions [ edit ]
STAT3 has been shown to
AR,  
EGFR,  
JAK1,  
mTOR,  
NR3C1,  
RET,   
STAT1,   
Src, and 
TRIP10.  KPNA4. 
Niclosamide seems to inhibit the STAT3 signalling pathway.
References [ edit ]
^ a b c
GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168610 - Ensembl, May 2017
^ a b c
GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000004040 - Ensembl, May 2017
"Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
"Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Akira S, Nishio Y, Inoue M, Wang XJ, Wei S, Matsusaka T, Yoshida K, Sudo T, Naruto M, Kishimoto T (April 1994). "Molecular cloning of APRF, a novel IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 p91-related transcription factor involved in the gp130-mediated signaling pathway". Cell. 77 (1): 63–71. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90235-6. PMID 7512451. S2CID 42211976.
Tkach M, Rosemblit C, Rivas MA, Proietti CJ, Díaz Flaqué MC, Mercogliano MF, Beguelin W, Maronna E, Guzmán P, Gercovich FG, Deza EG, Elizalde PV, Schillaci R (April 2013). "p42/p44 MAPK-mediated Stat3Ser727 phosphorylation is required for progestin-induced full activation of Stat3 and breast cancer growth". Endocrine-Related Cancer. 20 (2): 197–212. doi: . 10.1530/ERC-12-0194 PMID 23329648.
Silva CM (October 2004). "Role of STATs as downstream signal transducers in Src family kinase-mediated tumorigenesis". Oncogene. 23 (48): 8017–23. doi: . 10.1038/sj.onc.1208159 PMID 15489919.
Lim CP, Cao X (November 2006). "Structure, function, and regulation of STAT proteins". Molecular BioSystems. 2 (11): 536–50. doi: 10.1039/B606246F. PMID 17216035. .
Yuan ZL, Guan YJ, Wang L, Wei W, Kane AB, Chin YE (November 2004). "Central role of the threonine residue within the p+1 loop of receptor tyrosine kinase in STAT3 constitutive phosphorylation in metastatic cancer cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 24 (21): 9390–400. doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.21.9390-9400.2004. PMC . 522220 PMID 15485908. 15485908.
Takeda K, Noguchi K, Shi W, Tanaka T, Matsumoto M, Yoshida N, Kishimoto T, Akira S (April 1997). "Targeted disruption of the mouse Stat3 gene leads to early embryonic lethality". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (8): 3801–4. Bibcode: 1997PNAS...94.3801T. doi: 10.1073/pnas.94.8.3801. PMC . 20521 PMID 9108058.
Matsuda T, Nakamura T, Nakao K, Arai T, Katsuki M, Heike T, Yokota T (August 1999). "STAT3 activation is sufficient to maintain an undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells". The EMBO Journal. 18 (15): 4261–9. doi: 10.1093/emboj/18.15.4261. PMC . 1171502 PMID 10428964.
Yang XO, Panopoulos AD, Nurieva R, Chang SH, Wang D, Watowich SS, Dong C (March 2007). "STAT3 regulates cytokine-mediated generation of inflammatory helper T cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (13): 9358–63. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.C600321200 PMID 17277312.
McIlwain DR, Grusdat M, Pozdeev VI, Xu HC, Shinde P, Reardon C, Hao Z, Beyer M, Bergthaler A, Häussinger D, Nolan GP, Lang KS, Lang PA (February 2015). "T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV". European Journal of Immunology. 45 (2): 418–27. doi: 10.1002/eji.201445060. PMC . 4383653 PMID 25393615.
Levy DE, Loomis CA (October 2007). "STAT3 signaling and the hyper-IgE syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (16): 1655–8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe078197. PMID 17881746.
Milner JD, Vogel TP, Forbes L, Ma CA, Stray-Pedersen A, Niemela JE, Lyons JJ, Engelhardt KR, Zhang Y, Topcagic N, Roberson ED, Matthews H, Verbsky JW, Dasu T, Vargas-Hernandez A, Varghese N, McClain KL, Karam LB, Nahmod K, Makedonas G, Mace EM, Sorte HS, Perminow G, Rao VK, O'Connell MP, Price S, Su HC, Butrick M, McElwee J, Hughes JD, Willet J, Swan D, Xu Y, Santibanez-Koref M, Slowik V, Dinwiddie DL, Ciaccio CE, Saunders CJ, Septer S, Kingsmore SF, White AJ, Cant AJ, Hambleton S, Cooper MA (January 2015). "Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations". Blood. 125 (4): 591–9. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-09-602763. PMC . 4304103 PMID 25359994.
^ a b
Klampfer L (March 2006). "Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs): Novel targets of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic drugs". . Current Cancer Drug Targets 6 (2): 107–21. doi: 10.2174/156800906776056491. PMID 16529541.
Alvarez JV, Greulich H, Sellers WR, Meyerson M, Frank DA (March 2006). "Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 is required for the oncogenic effects of non-small-cell lung cancer-associated mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor". Cancer Research. 66 (6): 3162–8. doi: . 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3757 PMID 16540667.
Yin W, Cheepala S, Roberts JN, Syson-Chan K, DiGiovanni J, Clifford JL (April 2006). "Active Stat3 is required for survival of human squamous cell carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions". Molecular Cancer. 5 (1): 15. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-5-15. PMC . 1502137 PMID 16603078.
Kusaba T, Nakayama T, Yamazumi K, Yakata Y, Yoshizaki A, Inoue K, Nagayasu T, Sekine I (June 2006). "Activation of STAT3 is a marker of poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer". Oncology Reports. 15 (6): 1445–51. doi: . 10.3892/or.15.6.1445 PMID 16685378.
de la Iglesia N, Konopka G, Puram SV, Chan JA, Bachoo RM, You MJ, Levy DE, Depinho RA, Bonni A (February 2008). "Identification of a PTEN-regulated STAT3 brain tumor suppressor pathway". Genes & Development. 22 (4): 449–62. doi: 10.1101/gad.1606508. PMC . 2238667 PMID 18258752.
Lee J, Kim JC, Lee SE, Quinley C, Kim H, Herdman S, Corr M, Raz E (May 2012). "Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein suppresses adenoma-to-carcinoma transition in Apcmin/+ mice via regulation of Snail-1 (SNAI) protein stability". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 22. 287 (22): 18182–9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.328831. PMC . 3365759 PMID 22496368.
Musteanu M, Blaas L, Mair M, Schlederer M, Bilban M, Tauber S, Esterbauer H, Mueller M, Casanova E, Kenner L, Poli V, Eferl R (March 2010). "Stat3 is a negative regulator of intestinal tumor progression in Apc(Min) mice". Gastroenterology. 138 (3): 1003–11.e1–5. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.11.049. PMID 19962983.
Vlahopoulos, SA (August 2017). "Aberrant control of NF-κB in cancer permits transcriptional and phenotypic plasticity, to curtail dependence on host tissue: molecular mode". Cancer Biology & Medicine. 14 (3): 254–270. doi: 10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2017.0029. PMC . 5570602 PMID 28884042.
^ a b
Ueda T, Bruchovsky N, Sadar MD (March 2002). "Activation of the androgen receptor N-terminal domain by interleukin-6 via MAPK and STAT3 signal transduction pathways". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (9): 7076–85. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.M108255200 PMID 11751884.
Matsuda T, Junicho A, Yamamoto T, Kishi H, Korkmaz K, Saatcioglu F, Fuse H, Muraguchi A (April 2001). "Cross-talk between signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and androgen receptor signaling in prostate carcinoma cells". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 283 (1): 179–87. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2001.4758. PMID 11322786.
Collum RG, Brutsaert S, Lee G, Schindler C (August 2000). "A Stat3-interacting protein (StIP1) regulates cytokine signal transduction". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (18): 10120–5. Bibcode: 2000PNAS...9710120C. doi: 10.1073/pnas.170192197. PMC . 27739 PMID 10954736.
Nakashima K, Yanagisawa M, Arakawa H, Kimura N, Hisatsune T, Kawabata M, Miyazono K, Taga T (April 1999). "Synergistic signaling in fetal brain by STAT3-Smad1 complex bridged by p300". Science. 284 (5413): 479–82. doi: 10.1126/science.284.5413.479. PMID 10205054.
^ a b
Yuan ZL, Guan YJ, Wang L, Wei W, Kane AB, Chin YE (November 2004). "Central role of the threonine residue within the p+1 loop of receptor tyrosine kinase in STAT3 constitutive phosphorylation in metastatic cancer cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 24 (21): 9390–400. doi: 10.1128/MCB.24.21.9390-9400.2004. PMC . 522220 PMID 15485908.
Olayioye MA, Beuvink I, Horsch K, Daly JM, Hynes NE (June 1999). "ErbB receptor-induced activation of stat transcription factors is mediated by Src tyrosine kinases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (24): 17209–18. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.274.24.17209 PMID 10358079.
Jung JE, Kim HS, Lee CS, Shin YJ, Kim YN, Kang GH, Kim TY, Juhnn YS, Kim SJ, Park JW, Ye SK, Chung MH (October 2008). "STAT3 inhibits the degradation of HIF-1alpha by pVHL-mediated ubiquitination". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 40 (5): 479–85. doi: 10.3858/emm.2008.40.5.479. PMC . 2679355 PMID 18985005.
^ a b
Spiekermann K, Biethahn S, Wilde S, Hiddemann W, Alves F (August 2001). "Constitutive activation of STAT transcription factors in acute myelogenous leukemia". European Journal of Haematology. 67 (2): 63–71. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0609.2001.t01-1-00385.x. PMID 11722592. S2CID 38074766.
Zhang X, Wrzeszczynska MH, Horvath CM, Darnell JE (October 1999). "Interacting regions in Stat3 and c-Jun that participate in cooperative transcriptional activation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (10): 7138–46. doi: 10.1128/MCB.19.10.7138. PMC . 84707 PMID 10490649.
Sanchez-Margalet V, Martin-Romero C (July 2001). "Human leptin signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: activation of the JAK-STAT pathway". Cellular Immunology. 211 (1): 30–6. doi: 10.1006/cimm.2001.1815. PMID 11585385.
Yokogami K, Wakisaka S, Avruch J, Reeves SA (January 2000). "Serine phosphorylation and maximal activation of STAT3 during CNTF signaling is mediated by the rapamycin target mTOR". Current Biology. 10 (1): 47–50. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)00268-7. PMID 10660304. S2CID 14181036.
Kusaba H, Ghosh P, Derin R, Buchholz M, Sasaki C, Madara K, Longo DL (January 2005). "Interleukin-12-induced interferon-gamma production by human peripheral blood T cells is regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (2): 1037–43. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.M405204200 PMID 15522880.
Kataoka Y, Matsumura I, Ezoe S, Nakata S, Takigawa E, Sato Y, Kawasaki A, Yokota T, Nakajima K, Felsani A, Kanakura Y (November 2003). "Reciprocal inhibition between MyoD and STAT3 in the regulation of growth and differentiation of myoblasts". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (45): 44178–87. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.M304884200 PMID 12947115.
Zhang J, Yang J, Roy SK, Tininini S, Hu J, Bromberg JF, Poli V, Stark GR, Kalvakolanu DV (August 2003). "The cell death regulator GRIM-19 is an inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (16): 9342–7. Bibcode: 2003PNAS..100.9342Z. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1633516100. PMC . 170920 PMID 12867595.
^ a b
Yu Z, Zhang W, Kone BC (October 2002). "Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibits transcription of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene by interacting with nuclear factor kappaB". The Biochemical Journal. 367 (Pt 1): 97–105. doi: 10.1042/BJ20020588. PMC . 1222853 PMID 12057007.
Lerner L, Henriksen MA, Zhang X, Darnell JE (October 2003). "STAT3-dependent enhanceosome assembly and disassembly: synergy with GR for full transcriptional increase of the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene". Genes & Development. 17 (20): 2564–77. doi: 10.1101/gad.1135003. PMC . 218150 PMID 14522952.
Zhang Z, Jones S, Hagood JS, Fuentes NL, Fuller GM (December 1997). "STAT3 acts as a co-activator of glucocorticoid receptor signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (49): 30607–10. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.272.49.30607 PMID 9388192.
Giraud S, Bienvenu F, Avril S, Gascan H, Heery DM, Coqueret O (March 2002). "Functional interaction of STAT3 transcription factor with the coactivator NcoA/SRC1a". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (10): 8004–11. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.M111486200 PMID 11773079.
Kawasaki A, Matsumura I, Kataoka Y, Takigawa E, Nakajima K, Kanakura Y (May 2003). "Opposing effects of PML and PML/RAR alpha on STAT3 activity". Blood. 101 (9): 3668–73. doi: . 10.1182/blood-2002-08-2474 PMID 12506013.
Simon AR, Vikis HG, Stewart S, Fanburg BL, Cochran BH, Guan KL (October 2000). "Regulation of STAT3 by direct binding to the Rac1 GTPase". Science. 290 (5489): 144–7. Bibcode: 2000Sci...290..144S. doi: 10.1126/science.290.5489.144. PMID 11021801.
Hwang JH, Kim DW, Suh JM, Kim H, Song JH, Hwang ES, Park KC, Chung HK, Kim JM, Lee TH, Yu DY, Shong M (June 2003). "Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by oncogenic RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinoma) tyrosine kinase: roles in specific gene regulation and cellular transformation". Molecular Endocrinology. 17 (6): 1155–66. doi: . 10.1210/me.2002-0401 PMID 12637586.
Schuringa JJ, Wojtachnio K, Hagens W, Vellenga E, Buys CH, Hofstra R, Kruijer W (August 2001). "MEN2A-RET-induced cellular transformation by activation of STAT3". Oncogene. 20 (38): 5350–8. doi: . 10.1038/sj.onc.1204715 PMID 11536047.
Kim J, Kim D, Chung J (2000). "Replication protein a 32 kDa subunit (RPA p32) binds the SH2 domain of STAT3 and regulates its transcriptional activity". Cell Biology International. 24 (7): 467–73. doi: 10.1006/cbir.2000.0525. PMID 10875894. S2CID 23783745.
Gunaje JJ, Bhat GJ (October 2001). "Involvement of tyrosine phosphatase PTP1D in the inhibition of interleukin-6-induced Stat3 signaling by alpha-thrombin". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 288 (1): 252–7. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2001.5759. PMID 11594781.
Xia L, Wang L, Chung AS, Ivanov SS, Ling MY, Dragoi AM, Platt A, Gilmer TM, Fu XY, Chin YE (August 2002). "Identification of both positive and negative domains within the epidermal growth factor receptor COOH-terminal region for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (34): 30716–23. doi: . 10.1074/jbc.M202823200 PMID 12070153.
Morris EJ, Kawamura E, Gillespie JA, Balgi A, Kannan N, Muller WJ, Roberge M, Dedhar S (May 2017). "Stat3 regulates centrosome clustering in cancer cells via Stathmin/PLK1". Nature Communications. 8: 15289. Bibcode: 2017NatCo...815289M. doi: 10.1038/ncomms15289. PMC . 5424153 PMID 28474672.
Cao X, Tay A, Guy GR, Tan YH (April 1996). "Activation and association of Stat3 with Src in v-Src-transformed cell lines". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 16 (4): 1595–603. doi: 10.1128/MCB.16.4.1595. PMC . 231145 PMID 8657134.
Chung YH, Cho NH, Garcia MI, Lee SH, Feng P, Jung JU (June 2004). "Activation of Stat3 transcription factor by Herpesvirus saimiri STP-A oncoprotein". Journal of Virology. 78 (12): 6489–97. doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.12.6489-6497.2004. PMC . 416526 PMID 15163742.
Liu L, McBride KM, Reich NC (June 2005). "STAT3 nuclear import is independent of tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by importin-alpha3". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (23): 8150–5. Bibcode: 2005PNAS..102.8150L. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0501643102. PMC . 1149424 PMID 15919823.
Ren X, Duan L, He Q, Zhang Z, Zhou Y, Wu D, Pan J, Pei D, Ding K (2010). "Identification of Niclosamide as a New Small-Molecule Inhibitor of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway". ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 1 (9): 454–9. doi: 10.1021/ml100146z. PMC . 4007964 PMID 24900231.
Further reading [ edit ]
Hoey T, Grusby MJ (1999). STATs as mediators of cytokine-induced responses. Advances in Immunology. 71. pp. 145–62. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60401-0. ISBN . 978-0-12-022471-5 PMID 9917912.
Kisseleva T, Bhattacharya S, Braunstein J, Schindler CW (February 2002). "Signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway, recent advances and future challenges". Gene. 285 (1–2): 1–24. doi: 10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00398-0. PMID 12039028.
Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (January 2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Current HIV Research. 3 (1): 87–94. doi: 10.2174/1570162052773013. PMID 15638726.
Inghirami G, Chiarle R, Simmons WJ, Piva R, Schlessinger K, Levy DE (September 2005). "New and old functions of STAT3: a pivotal target for individualized treatment of cancer". Cell Cycle. 4 (9): 1131–3. doi: . 10.4161/cc.4.9.1985 PMID 16082218.
Leeman RJ, Lui VW, Grandis JR (March 2006). "STAT3 as a therapeutic target in head and neck cancer". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 6 (3): 231–41. doi: 10.1517/14712518.104.22.168. PMID 16503733. S2CID 3092794. Aggarwal BB, Sethi G, Ahn KS, Sandur SK, Pandey MK, Kunnumakkara AB, Sung B, Ichikawa H (December 2006). "Targeting signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3 for prevention and therapy of cancer: modern target but ancient solution". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1091 (1): 151–69. Bibcode: 2006NYASA1091..151A. doi: 10.1196/annals.1378.063. PMID 17341611. S2CID 814675.
External links [ edit ]