Experiments in Challenger's payload bay
|Mission type||Astronomical observations|
|Mission duration||7 days, 22 hours, 45 minutes, 26 seconds|
|Distance travelled||5,284,350 kilometres (3,283,543 mi)|
|Spacecraft||Space Shuttle Challenger|
|Launch mass||114,693 kilograms (252,855 lb)|
|Landing mass||98,309 kilograms (216,735 lb)|
|Payload mass||16,309 kilograms (35,955 lb)|
|Members||C. Gordon Fullerton|
Roy D. Bridges, Jr.
Karl G. Henize
F. Story Musgrave
Anthony W. England
Loren W. Acton
John-David F. Bartoe
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||July 29, 1985, 21:00:00UTC|
|Launch site||Kennedy LC-39A|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||August 6, 1985, 19:45:26UTC|
|Landing site||Edwards Runway 23|
|Perigee||312.1 kilometres (193.9 mi)|
|Apogee||321.1 kilometres (199.5 mi)|
Front row (seated) L–R: Fullerton, Bridges, Back row (standing) L–R: England, Henize, Musgrave, Acton, Bartoe
STS-51-F (also known as Spacelab 2) was the nineteenth flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the eighth flight of Space Shuttle Challenger. It launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on July 29, 1985, and landed just under eight days later on August 6.
While STS-51-F's primary payload was the Spacelab 2 laboratory module, the payload that received the most publicity was the Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Evaluation, which was an experiment in which both Coca-Cola and Pepsi tried to make their carbonated drinks available to astronauts. A helium-cooled infrared telescope (IRT) was also flown on this mission, and while it did have some problems, it observed 60% of the galactic plane.
During launch Challenger experienced multiple sensor failings in its Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) and had to perform an "Abort to Orbit" (ATO) emergency procedure. It is the only mission to have carried out an abort after launching. As a result of the ATO, the mission was carried out at a slightly lower orbital altitude.
|Commander||C. Gordon Fullerton |
Second and last spaceflight
|Pilot||Roy D. Bridges, Jr. |
|Mission Specialist 1||Karl G. Henize |
|Mission Specialist 2||F. Story Musgrave |
|Mission Specialist 3||Anthony W. England |
|Payload Specialist 1||Loren W. Acton |
|Payload Specialist 2||John-David F. Bartoe |
|Payload Specialist 1||George W. Simon |
|Payload Specialist 2||Dianne K. Prinz |
Crew seating arrangements
Seats 1–4 are on the Flight Deck. Seats 5–7 are on the Middeck.
As with previous Spacelab missions, the crew was divided between two 12-hour shifts. Acton, Bridges and Henize made up the "Red Team" while Bartoe, England and Musgrave comprised the "Blue Team"; commander Fullerton could take either shift when needed. Challenger carried two EMUs in the event of an emergency spacewalk, which would have been performed by England and Musgrave.
STS-51-F's first launch attempt on July 12, 1985 was halted with the countdown at T−3 seconds after main engine ignition, when a malfunction of the number two Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) coolant valve caused the shutdown of all three main engines. Challenger launched successfully on its second attempt on July 29, 1985, at 17:00 EDT, after a delay of 1 hour 37 minutes due to a problem with the table maintenance block update uplink.
At 3 minutes 31 seconds into the ascent, one of the central engine's two high-pressure fuel turbopump turbine discharge temperature sensors failed. 2 minutes and 12 seconds later, the second sensor failed, causing the shutdown of the central engine. This was the only in-flight main-engine failure of the Shuttle program. Approximately 8 minutes into the flight, one of the same temperature sensors in the right engine failed, and the remaining right-engine temperature sensor displayed readings near the redline for engine shutdown. Booster Systems Engineer Jenny M. Howard acted quickly to command the crew to inhibit any further automatic SSME shutdowns based on readings from the remaining sensors, preventing the potential shutdown of a second engine and a possible abort mode that may have resulted in the loss of the vehicle and crew.
The failed SSME resulted in an Abort to Orbit (ATO) trajectory, whereby the shuttle achieved a lower-than-planned orbital altitude.
|Attempt||Planned||Result||Turnaround||Reason||Decision point||Weather go (%)||Notes|
|1||12 Jul 1985, 3:30:00 pm||scrubbed||—||technical||12 Jul 1985, 3:29 pm (T-0:03)||pad abort: malfunction in SSME #2 coolant valve shutdown of all three main engines|
|2||29 Jul 1985, 5:00:00 pm||success||17 days, 1 hour, 30 minutes||29 Jul 1985, 5:00 pm|
STS-51-F's primary payload was the laboratory module Spacelab 2. A special part of the modular Spacelab system, the "igloo", which was located at head of a three-pallet train, provided on-site support to instruments mounted on pallets. The main mission objective was to verify performance of Spacelab systems, determine the interface capability of the orbiter, and measure the environment created by the spacecraft. Experiments covered life sciences, plasma physics, astronomy, high-energy astrophysics, solar physics, atmospheric physics and technology research. Despite mission replanning necessitated by Challenger's abort to orbit trajectory, the Spacelab mission was declared a success.
The flight marked the first time the ESA Instrument Pointing System (IPS) was tested in orbit. This unique pointing instrument was designed with an accuracy of one arcsecond. Initially, some problems were experienced when it was commanded to track the Sun, but a series of software fixes were made and the problem was corrected. In addition, Tony England became the second amateur radio operator to transmit from space during the mission.
The Spacelab Infrared Telescope (IRT) was also flown on the mission. The IRT was a 15.2 cm aperture helium-cooled infrared telescope, observing light between wavelengths of 1.7 to 118 μm. The experiment experienced some problems, it was thought heat emissions from the Shuttle corrupting long-wavelength data, but it still returned useful astronomical data. Another problem was that a piece of mylar insulation broke loose and floated in the line-of-sight of the telescope. IRT collected infrared data on 60% of the galactic plane. (see also List of largest infrared telescopes) A later space mission that experienced a stray light problem from debris was Gaia astrometry spacecraft launch in 2013 by the ESA—the source of the stray light was later identified as the fibers of the sunshield, protruding beyond the edges of the shield.
The Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP), which had been previously flown on STS-3, made its return on the mission, and was part of a set of plasma physics experiments designed to study the Earth's ionosphere. During the third day of the mission, it was grappled out of the payload bay by the Remote Manipulator System and released for six hours. During this time, Challenger maneuvered around the PDP as part of a targeted proximity operations exercise. The PDP was successfully grappled by the RMS and returned to the payload bay at the beginning of the fourth day of the mission.
In a heavily publicized marketing experiment, astronauts aboard STS-51-F drank carbonated beverages from specially-designed cans provided by competitors Coca-Cola and Pepsi. Post-flight, the astronauts revealed that they preferred Tang, in part because it could be mixed on-orbit with existing chilled-water supplies, whereas there was no dedicated refrigeration equipment on board to chill the cans, which also fizzed excessively in microgravity.
In an intriguing experiment, during a 1985 launch, thruster rockets were fired at a point over Tasmania and also above Boston to create two "holes" – plasma depletion regions – in the ionosphere. A worldwide group of geophysicists collaborated with the observations made from Spacelab 2.
Challenger landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on August 6, 1985, at 12:45:26 p.m. PDT. Its rollout distance was 8,569 feet (2,612 m). The mission had been extended by 17 orbits for additional payload activities due to the Abort to Orbit. The orbiter arrived back at Kennedy Space Center on August 11, 1985.
The mission insignia was designed by Houston artist Skip Bradley. Space Shuttle Challenger is depicted ascending toward the heavens in search of new knowledge in the field of solar and stellar astronomy, with its Spacelab 2 payload. The constellations Leo and Orion are shown in the positions they were in relative to the Sun during the flight. The nineteen stars indicate that the mission is the 19th shuttle flight.
- List of human spaceflights
- List of Space Shuttle missions
- Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
- Salyut 7 (a space station of the Soviet Union also in orbit at this time)
- Soyuz T-13 (a mission to salvage that space station in the summer of '85)
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (May 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- 9 Weird Things That Flew on NASA's Space Shuttles | Final Shuttle Missions & NASA's Space Shuttle Souvenirs | NASA Shuttle Program | Space.com
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- Pearlman, Robert (May 31, 2001). "A Brief History of Space Marketing". SPACE.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
- "Elizabeth A. Essex-Cohen Ionospheric Physics Papers". Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Robert Z. Pearlman (2013). "Gordon Fullerton, space shuttle test pilot, dies at 76". collectSPACE. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- Tom Read, Freefall, Pages 224-235 (Little Brown, Edition 1, 1998). ISBN 0-316-64303-3.
- https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-karl-henize-1512511.html - The Independent Newspaper reporting on the Death of Karl Heinze, 23 October 1993
- http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/news/releases/1993_1995/93-077.html - NASA: Press Release: Former Astronaut Karl Henize dies on Mt. Everest Expedition, 8 October 1993
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to STS-51-F.|
- NASA mission summary
- Press Kit
- STS-51F Video Highlights
- Space Coke Can
- Carbonated Drinks in Space
- YouTube: STS-51F launch, abort & landing
- July 12 launch attempt