Atlantis launches on STS-38
|Mission type||Satellite deployment|
|Mission duration||4 days, 21 hours, 54 minutes, 31 seconds|
|Distance travelled||3,291,199 kilometres (2,045,056 mi)|
|Spacecraft||Space Shuttle Atlantis|
|Members||Richard O. Covey
Frank L. Culbertson, Jr.
Carl J. Meade
Robert C. Springer
Charles D. Gemar
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||15 November 1990, 23:48:13UTC|
|Launch site||Kennedy LC-39A|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||20 November 1990, 21:42:42UTC|
|Landing site||Kennedy SLF Runway 33|
|Perigee||260 kilometres (160 mi)|
|Apogee||269 kilometres (167 mi)|
|Epoch||17 November 1990|
Left to right - Seated: Culbertson, Covey; Standing: Gemar, Springer, Meade
STS-38 was a Space Shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Atlantis. It was the 37th shuttle mission, and carried a classified payload for the U.S. Department of Defense. It was the 7th flight for Atlantis and the 7th flight dedicated to the Department of Defense. The mission was a 4-day mission that traveled more than 2 million miles and completed 79 revolutions. Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility's runway 33. The launch was originally scheduled for July 1990, but was rescheduled due to a hydrogen leak found on Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-35 countdown. During a rollback to the Orbiter Processing Facility Atlantis was damaged during a hail storm. The eventual launch date of 15 November 1990 was set due to a payload problem. The launch window was between 18:30 and 22:30 EST. The launch occurred at 18:48 EST.
|Commander||Richard O. Covey
|Pilot||Frank L. Culbertson, Jr.
|Mission Specialist 1||Carl J. Meade
|Mission Specialist 2||Robert C. Springer
|Mission Specialist 3||Charles D. Gemar
Crew seating arrangements
Seats 1–4 are on the Flight Deck. Seats 5–7 are on the Middeck.
Preparations and launch
The launch occurred on 15 November 1990, 18:48:13 EST. It was originally scheduled for July 1990, however, a liquid hydrogen leak found on Columbia during the STS-35 countdown prompted three precautionary tanking tests on Atlantis at the pad on 29, 13 June July – 25 July 1990. Tests confirmed the hydrogen fuel leak on the external tank side of the external tank/orbiter 432 millimetres (17.0 in) quick disconnect umbilical. This could not be repaired at the pad and Atlantis was rolled back to the VAB on 9 August, demated, then transferred to the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF). During rollback, the vehicle remained parked outside the VAB for about a day while the Columbia/STS-35 stack was transferred to the pad for launch. While outside, Atlantis suffered minor hail damage to its tiles during a thunderstorm. After repairs were made in the OPF, Atlantis was transferred to the VAB for mating on 2 October. During hoisting operations, the platform beam that was to have been removed from the orbiter's aft compartment fell and caused minor damage, which was repaired. The vehicle rolled out to Pad A on 12 October 1990. The fourth mini-tanking test was performed on 24 October, with no excessive hydrogen or oxygen leakage detected. During the Flight Readiness Review, the launch date was set for 9 November 1990. The launch was reset for 15 November due to payload problems. Liftoff occurred during a classified launch window lying within a launch period extending from 18:30 to 22:30 EST on 15 November.
According to Aviation Week, the shuttle initially entered a 204 kilometres (127 mi) x 519 kilometres (322 mi) orbit at an inclination of 28.45° to the equator. It then executed three OMS (orbital maneuvering system) burns, the last on orbit #4. The first of these circularized the orbit at 519 kilometres (322 mi).
The first classified payload was code-named USA-67, which was deployed from Atlantis' cargo bay on the 7th orbit and ignited its rocket motor at the ascending node of the 8th orbit to place it in a geo-synchronous transfer orbit. Aviation Week reported that USA-67 was a secret ELINT gathering satellite headed for geosynchronous orbit and launched to monitor the events during the first Gulf War in 1990. As a result of there being two upper stages aboard STS-38, USA-67 was originally believed to be a Magnum satellite like those deployed on STS-51-C and STS-33, which were launched via a two-stage IUS. Today it is believed that USA-67 was instead a secret SDS-2 military communications satellite, like those deployed on STS-28 and STS-53.
It is also believed that USA-67 was not the only satellite deployed during STS-38. A publicly released image of Atlantis' vertical stabilizer and upper aft bulkhead, similar to the one released from STS-53, confirms that the ASE (Airborne Support Equipment) for the IUS was absent from this flight. An explanation is that two separate satellites were deployed, using single-stage PAM-D modules. Rumors that appear to have been substantiated by the identification of an "unknown" geostationary satellite by amateur observers insist that the second payload was a stealth satellite known as Prowler, reportedly intended to covertly inspect other nation's geostationary satellites.
The mission was extended by one day due to unacceptable crosswinds at the original planned landing site of Edwards Air Force Base. Continued adverse conditions led to a decision to shift the landing to KSC. Landing occurred on November 20, 1990, 16:42:42 EST, Runway 33, at the Kennedy Space Center. The rollout distance was 9,032 feet (2,753 m) and rollout time was 57 seconds. STS-38 marked the first KSC landing for Atlantis, and the first shuttle landing at KSC since April 1985 (the last being STS-51-D). Atlantis weighed 191,091 pounds (86,677 kg) at landing.
- McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- "STS-38". Spacefacts. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- NASA Space Data Center: NSSDC ID: 1990-097B USA-67 ELINT Program
- Molczan, Ted (21 January 2011). "Unknown GEO Object 2000-653A / 90007 Identified as Prowler" (PDF). Visual Satellite Observer's Home Page. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Satobs.org: USA-67 observations
- FAS.org: GEO SIGINT Satellite
- "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth". Eol.jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- Ted Molczan, satobs.org: Unknown GEO Object 2000-653A / 90007 Identified as Prowler
- Ted Molczan, satobs.org: Evaluation of the opportunity to launch Prowler on STS-38
- Robert Windrem, NBC News: What is America's top-secret spy program?