Andimba Toivo ya Toivo
|Founded||19 April 1960|
|Newspaper||Namibia Today (inactive)|
|Think tank||SWAPO Think Tank|
|Women's wing||SWAPO Women's Council|
|Elder's wing||SWAPO Elders Council|
|Paramilitary wing||People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) (integrated into Namibian Defence Force)|
|Political position||Centre-left to left-wing|
|International affiliation||Socialist International|
|African affiliation||Former Liberation Movements of SA|
77 / 96
226 / 327
0 / 5
4 / 5
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
SWAPO (//), formerly the South West African People's Organisation (German: Südwestafrikanische Volksorganisation, SWAVO; Afrikaans: Suidwes-Afrikaanse Volk-Organisasie, SWAVO) and officially known as SWAPO Party of Namibia, is a political party and former independence movement in Namibia. It has been the governing party in Namibia since the country achieved independence in 1990. The party continues to be dominated in number and influence by Ovambo people.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Finances and business interests
- 4 Alleged human rights abuses
- 5 Memberships
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Background and foundation
After World War I the League of Nations gave South West Africa, formerly a German colony, to the United Kingdom as a mandate under the administration of South Africa. When the National Party won the 1948 election in South Africa and subsequently introduced apartheid legislation, these laws were applied as well to South West Africa. It was considered the de facto fifth province of South Africa.
SWAPO was founded on 19 April 1960 as the successor of the Ovamboland People's Organization. Leaders renamed the party to show that it represented all Namibians. But, the organisation had its base among the Ovambo people of northern Namibia, who constituted nearly half the total population.
Struggle for independence
During 1962 SWAPO had emerged as the dominant nationalist organisation for the Namibian people. It co-opted other groups such as the South West Africa National Union (SWANU), and later in 1976 the Namibia African People's Democratic Organisation. SWAPO used guerrilla tactics to fight the South African Defence Force. On 26 August 1966, the first major clash of the conflict took place, when a unit of the South African Police, supported by the South African Air Force, exchanged fire with SWAPO forces.
This date is generally regarded as the start of what became known in South Africa as the Border War. In 1972 the United Nations General Assembly recognised SWAPO as the 'sole legitimate representative' of Namibia's people. The Norwegian government began giving aid directly to SWAPO in 1974.
The country of Angola gained its independence on 11 November 1975 following its war for independence. The leftist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union, came to power. In March 1976, the MPLA offered SWAPO bases in Angola for launching attacks against the South African military.
When Namibia gained its independence in 1990, SWAPO became the dominant political party. Though the organisation rejected the term South West Africa and insisted on replacing it with Namibia, the organisation's own name—derived from the territory's old name—was too deeply rooted in the independence movement to be changed. However, the original full name is no longer used; only the acronym remains. SWAPO, and with it much of Namibia's government and administration, continues to be dominated by Ovambo people, despite "considerable efforts to counter [that] perception".
SWAPO president Sam Nujoma was declared Namibia's first President after SWAPO won the inaugural election in 1989. A decade later Nujoma had the constitution changed so he could run for a third term in 1999, as it limits the presidency to two terms.
In 2004 the SWAPO presidential candidate was Hifikepunye Pohamba, described as Nujoma's hand-picked successor. In 2014 the SWAPO presidential candidate was Hage Geingob who was the Vice-President of SWAPO.
53 / 72
55 / 78
55 / 78
54 / 72
77 / 96
The party president is the top position of SWAPO; in 2012 this was held by Namibia's former president Pohamba. The vice-president is Namibia's current president Hage Geingob, who was elected to that position in 2007 and reconfirmed at the SWAPO congress in December 2012. The third highest position in SWAPO is the Secretary-General, a position held in December 2012 by Nangolo Mbumba. Number four is the Deputy Secretary-General, Omaheke Governor Laura McLeod-Katjirua.
- The Party President: Hage Geingob
- The Party former President: Hifikepunye Pohamba
- The Secretary-General: Sophia Shaningwa
- The Deputy Secretary-General: Marco Hausiku
- Two Members appointed by the Party President: ? and ?
- 18 Members elected by the SWAPO Central Committee
SWAPO's Central Committee consists of:
- The President
- The Vice-President
- The Secretary-General
- The Deputy Secretary-General
- The Founding President of SWAPO as a permanent member
- 13 SWAPO Party Regional Coordinators
- 54 members elected at the party congress
- 10 members appointed by the party president
- Hage Geingob (ex officio, SWAPO President)
- Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah (ex officio, SWAPO Vice-President)
- Sophia Shaningwa (ex officio, SWAPO Secretary-General)
- Marco Hausiku (ex officio, SWAPO Deputy Secretary-General)
- Sam Nujoma (ex officio SWAPO founding President)
- Hifikepunye Pohamba (ex officio SWAPO former President)
- Nahas Angula
- Abraham Iyambo
- Ben Amathila
- Marco Hausiku
- Nickey Iyambo
- Jerry Ekandjo
- John Mutorwa
- Utoni Nujoma
- Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila
- Theo-Ben Gurirab
- Libertine Amathila
- Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah
- Pendukeni Iivula-Ithana
- Bernard Esau
- Pohamba Shifeta
- Richard Kamwi
- Petrus Iilonga
- Joel Kaapanda
- Albert Kawana
- David Namwandi
- Isak Katali
- Katrina Hanse-Himarwa
- Erkki Nghimtina
- Tjikero Tweya
- Erastus Uutoni
- Samuel Ankama
- Margaret Mensah-Williams
- Pohamba Mandume
- Doreen Sioka
- Kazenambo Kazenambo
- Helmut Angula
- Peya Mushelenga
- Loide Kasingo
- Alpheus ǃNaruseb
- Peter Katjavivi
- Leon Jooste
- Asser Kapere
- Charles Namoloh
- Lempy Lucas
- Veikko Nekundi
- Hilma Nikanor
- Lucia Witbooi
- Penda Ya Ndakolo
- Usko Nghaamwa
- Immanuel Ngatjizeko
- Eunice Iipinge
- Elia Kaiyamo
- Moses Amweelo
- Sophia Shaningwa
- Samuel Nuuyoma
- Martha Namundjebo-Tilahun
- Rosalia Nghidinwa
- Clemens Kashuupulwa
- Henock Ya Kasita
- Uahekua Herunga
- Willem Konjore
President-appointed members (2017):
- Calle Schlettwein
- Erkki Nghimtina
- Penda Ya Ndokolo
- Christina Hoebes
- Jennely Matundu
- Collien Van Wyk
List of Presidents
- Sam Nujoma, 1960 – 2007
- Hifikepunye Pohamba, 2007 – 2015
- Hage Geingob, 2015 – 2017 (acting), 2017 – present
Finances and business interests
Although SWAPO receives finances from government for its operations, the party also holds extensive business interests. Through Kalahari Holdings it entered into joint ventures with several companies, most prominently the Namibian branch of MultiChoice, a private satellite TV provider, of which it owns 51%. Kalahari Holdings has further joint ventures with Radio Energy, Africa Online, and businesses in the tourism, farming, security services and health insurance sectors. It owns Namib Contract Haulage, Namprint, Kudu investment, and the Ndilimani Cultural Troupe.
Alleged human rights abuses
Various groups have claimed that SWAPO committed serious human rights abuses against suspected spies during the independence struggle. Since the early 21st century, they have pressed the government more strongly on this issue. Breaking the Wall of Silence (BWS) is one of the groups founded by people who were detained by SWAPO during the war and abused during interrogations. In 2004, BWS alleged that "In exile, hundreds of SWAPO dependants and members were detained, tortured and killed without trial." SWAPO denies serious infractions and claims anything that did happen was in the name of liberation. Because of a series of successful South African raids, the SWAPO leadership believed that spies existed in the movement. Hundreds of SWAPO cadres were imprisoned, tortured and interrogated.
In 2005 the P.E.A.C.E. Centre (People's Education, Assistance and Counselling for Empowerment) conducted an extensive study on the lives of Namibian ex-fighters and their families fifteen years after Independence. Their published ebook investigates the post-independence lives of those who fought on both sides of the Namibian War of Independence. Data from this research indicate that ex-fighters still[update] exhibit symptoms of long-term post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The findings indicate there is a correlation between the life circumstances of ex-fighters and their lack of resilience to traumatic war experiences. Resiliency has been linked to a number of protective factors, such as the socio-economic situation of the survivors, their socio-political environment, their social support networks, and their cognitive processes.
The study says that, in the case of Namibian ex-fighters, long-term psychological distress is different from a simple PTSD diagnosis. The survivors have almost invariably gone for nearly two decades without seeking treatment, adding to their burdens. During this time, the ex-fighters have been exposed to additional social and psychological stressors through life events. For a person without PTSD, such stressors may have fleeting effects, but for a sufferer of long-term psychological distress, each life incident could reduce the survivor's resilience to trauma, as well as triggering "flashbacks" to events during the war.
- People's Liberation Army of Namibia
- Namibia African People's Democratic Organisation
- Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola
- South African Border War
- South West Africa National Union
- SWAPO for Justice
- Andimba Toivo ya Toivo
- Iileka, Sakeus (9 November 2017). "Politburo approves sweeping changes". The Namibian. p. 1.
- Tötemeyer, Gerhard (December 2007). "The Management of a Dominant Political Party system with particular reference to Namibia" (PDF). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Dauth, Timothy (17 January 1995). "From Liberation Organisations to Ruling Parties: The ANC and SWAPO in Transition". NamNet Digest, Vol. 95, no. 3. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Seibeb, Henny (12 May 2017). "Social Movements, Party Politics And Democracy In Namibia". The Namibian. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Populism on the rise as South Africa and Namibia gear up to elect new presidents". The Conversation. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- Soiri, Iina (May 1996). "The Radical Motherhood: Namibian Women's Independence Struggle". Nordiska Afrikainstitutet Research Report, No 99. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- Eerikäinen, Marjo (14 July 2008). "The South Africa Mandate 1915–1989". Vantaa. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "Formation of the South African Republic". South Africa History Online. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Namibia: Apartheid, resistance and repression (1945–1966)". Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa. August 2009. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Matundu-Tjiparuro, Kae (19 April 2010). "The founder of Swapo". New Era.
- Google Books: A History of Resistance in Namibia,, Page 99, Peter H. Katjavivi, ISBN 0-86543-144-2
- "Country Profiles – Timeline: Namibia". BBC News.
- Eriksen, Tore Linné. Norway and National Liberation in Southern Africa. p. 90.
- Düsing, Sandra (2002). Traditional Leadership and Democratisation in Southern Africa: A Comparative Study of Botswana, Namibia, and Southern Africa. Studien zur Politikwissenschaft. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 125–126. ISBN 9783825850654.
- "NAMIBIA: Election expected to be low-key". IRIN. 2004. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- "Elections in Namibia". Retrieved 7 February 2009.
- Immanuel, Shinovene; Shipanga, Selma (3 December 2012). "Moderates prevail". The Namibian.
- Nakale, Albertina (4 December 2017). "Swapo elects new politburo". New Era. p. 1.
- "Newly elected members of the Swapo Politburo". The Namibian. 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012.
- Poolman, Jan. "New blood in Swapo CC". The Namibian. Retrieved 3 December 2012. The offline version of the article contains the list of elected CC members.
- "Matter of Fact". The Namibian. 4 December 2012.
|url=(help) This erratum was only published offline.
- Immanuel, Shinovene (29 November 2017). "Govt is Swapo's cash cow". The Namibian. p. 1.
- "SWAPO distances itself from mouthpiece's Kameeta attack" Archived 31 July 2003 at the Wayback Machine., The Namibian, 18 February 2003.
- "Namibia Today Archive". SWAPOParty.org/. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- "Church council's stance on detainees revives apartheid rhetoric, charges the NSHR", The Namibian, 18 November 2003
- "Ex-detainee issue still runs deep", The Namibian, 4 October 2005
- Gewald, Jan-Bart (September 2004). "Who Killed Clemens Kapuuo?" (PDF). Journal of Southern African Studies. 30 (3). doi:10.1080/0305707042000254100. ISSN 0305-7070.
- Leys, C.; S. Brown (2005). Histories of Namibia. London: Merlin Press. ISBN 0-85036-499-X.
- LeBeau, Debie (September 2005). "An Investigation into the lives of Namibian Ex-fighters fifteen years after Independence" (PDF). People's Education, Assistance and Counselling for Empowerment (P.E.A.C.E.). Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- List of Socialist International parties in Africa.
- Website of SWAPO
- Website of the SWAPO Youth League
- "Namibian Voters Deny Total Power to SWAPO," by Michael Johns, The Wall Street Journal, 19 November 1989.