Sa (Javanese)

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Aksara nglegena Aksara pasangan
Javanese script
Latin orthography sa
Phoneme [s]
Unicode U+A9B1

is one of syllable in Javanese script that represent the sound /sɔ/, /sa/. It is transliterated to Latin as "sa", and sometimes in Indonesian orthography as "so". It has another form (pasangan), which is ◌꧀ꦱ, but represented by a single Unicode code point, U+A9B1.[1][2][3]


It's pasangan form ◌꧀ꦱ, is one of six pasangan that's located on the right hand side of the previous syllable. Therefore, it is allowed to write two pasangan at the same time without having to resort to use pangkon ().

The location of the sandhangan ꦶ, ꦼ, or ꦁ is on top the pasangan, not on the previous syllable. (See glyph table below)

Extended form[edit]

The letter ꦱ has a murda form, which is .

Using cecak telu (ꦱ꦳), the syllable represents /ts/.


Nglegena forms Pasangan forms
 sa ꦱꦃ sah ꦱꦁ sang ꦱꦂ sar ◌꧀ꦱ -sa ◌꧀ꦱꦃ -sah ◌꧀ꦱꦁ -sang ◌꧀ꦱꦂ -sar
ꦱꦺ se ꦱꦺꦃ seh ꦱꦺꦁ seng ꦱꦺꦂ ser ◌꧀ꦱꦺ -se ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦃ -seh ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦁ -seng ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦂ -ser
ꦱꦼ sê ꦱꦼꦃ sêh ꦱꦼꦁ sêng ꦱꦼꦂ sêr ◌꧀ꦱꦼ -sê ◌꧀ꦱꦼꦃ -sêh ◌꧀ꦱꦼꦁ -sêng ◌꧀ꦱꦼꦂ -sêr
ꦱꦶ si ꦱꦶꦃ sih ꦱꦶꦁ sing ꦱꦶꦂ sir ◌꧀ꦱꦶ -si ◌꧀ꦱꦶꦃ -sih ◌꧀ꦱꦶꦁ -sing ◌꧀ꦱꦶꦂ -sir
ꦱꦺꦴ so ꦱꦺꦴꦃ soh ꦱꦺꦴꦁ song ꦱꦺꦴꦂ sor ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦴ -so ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦴꦃ -soh ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦴꦁ -song ◌꧀ꦱꦺꦴꦂ -sor
ꦱꦸ su ꦱꦸꦃ suh ꦱꦸꦁ sung ꦱꦸꦂ sur ◌꧀ꦱꦸ -su ◌꧀ꦱꦸꦃ -suh ◌꧀ꦱꦸꦁ -sung ◌꧀ꦱꦸꦂ -sur
ꦱꦿ sra ꦱꦿꦃ srah ꦱꦿꦁ srang ꦱꦿꦂ srar ◌꧀ꦱꦿ -sra ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦃ -srah ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦁ -srang ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦂ -srar
ꦱꦿꦺ sre ꦱꦿꦺꦃ sreh ꦱꦿꦺꦁ sreng ꦱꦿꦺꦂ srer ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺ -sre ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦃ -sreh ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦁ -sreng ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦂ -srer
ꦱꦽ srê ꦱꦽꦃ srêh ꦱꦽꦁ srêng ꦱꦽꦂ srêr ◌꧀ꦱꦽ -srê ◌꧀ꦱꦽꦃ -srêh ◌꧀ꦱꦽꦁ -srêng ◌꧀ꦱꦽꦂ -srêr
ꦱꦿꦶ sri ꦱꦿꦶꦃ srih ꦱꦿꦶꦁ sring ꦱꦿꦶꦂ srir ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦶ -sri ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦶꦃ -srih ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦶꦁ -sring ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦶꦂ -srir
ꦱꦿꦺꦴ sro ꦱꦿꦺꦴꦃ sroh ꦱꦿꦺꦴꦁ srong ꦱꦿꦺꦴꦂ sror ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦴ -sro ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦴꦃ -sroh ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦴꦁ -srong ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦺꦴꦂ -sror
ꦱꦿꦸ sru ꦱꦿꦸꦃ sruh ꦱꦿꦸꦁ srung ꦱꦿꦸꦂ srur ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦸ -sru ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦸꦃ -sruh ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦸꦁ -srung ◌꧀ꦱꦿꦸꦂ -srur
ꦱꦾ sya ꦱꦾꦃ syah ꦱꦾꦁ syang ꦱꦾꦂ syar ◌꧀ꦱꦾ -sya ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦃ -syah ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦁ -syang ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦂ -syar
ꦱꦾꦺ sye ꦱꦾꦺꦃ syeh ꦱꦾꦺꦁ syeng ꦱꦾꦺꦂ syer ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺ -sye ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦃ -syeh ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦁ -syeng ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦂ -syer
ꦱꦾꦼ syê ꦱꦾꦼꦃ syêh ꦱꦾꦼꦁ syêng ꦱꦾꦼꦂ syêr ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦼ -syê ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦼꦃ -syêh ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦼꦁ -syêng ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦼꦂ -syêr
ꦱꦾꦶ syi ꦱꦾꦶꦃ syih ꦱꦾꦶꦁ sying ꦱꦾꦶꦂ syir ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦶ -syi ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦶꦃ -syih ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦶꦁ -sying ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦶꦂ -syir
ꦱꦾꦺꦴ syo ꦱꦾꦺꦴꦃ syoh ꦱꦾꦺꦴꦁ syong ꦱꦾꦺꦴꦂ syor ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦴ -syo ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦴꦃ -syoh ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦴꦁ -syong ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦺꦴꦂ -syor
ꦱꦾꦸ syu ꦱꦾꦸꦃ syuh ꦱꦾꦸꦁ syung ꦱꦾꦸꦂ syur ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦸ -syu ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦸꦃ -syuh ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦸꦁ -syung ◌꧀ꦱꦾꦸꦂ -syur
Other forms
Nglegena forms Pasangan forms
ꦱ꦳ tsa ꦱ꦳ꦃ tsah ꦱ꦳ꦁ tsang ꦱ꦳ꦂ tsar ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ -tsa ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦃ -tsah ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦁ -tsang ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦂ -tsar
ꦱ꦳ꦺ tse ꦱ꦳ꦺꦃ tseh ꦱ꦳ꦺꦁ tseng ꦱ꦳ꦺꦂ tser ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺ -tse ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦃ -tseh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦁ -tseng ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦂ -tser
ꦱ꦳ꦼ tsê ꦱ꦳ꦼꦃ tsêh ꦱ꦳ꦼꦁ tsêng ꦱ꦳ꦼꦂ tsêr ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦼ -tsê ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦼꦃ -tsêh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦼꦁ -tsêng ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦼꦂ -tsêr
ꦱ꦳ꦶ tsi ꦱ꦳ꦶꦃ tsih ꦱ꦳ꦶꦁ tsing ꦱ꦳ꦶꦂ tsir ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦶ -tsi ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦶꦃ -tsih ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦶꦁ -tsing ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦶꦂ -tsir
ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴ tso ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴꦃ tsoh ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴꦁ tsong ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴꦂ tsor ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴ -tso ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴꦃ -tsoh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴꦁ -tsong ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦺꦴꦂ -tsor
ꦱ꦳ꦸ tsu ꦱ꦳ꦸꦃ tsuh ꦱ꦳ꦸꦁ tsung ꦱ꦳ꦸꦂ tsur ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦸ -tsu ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦸꦃ -tsuh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦸꦁ -tsung ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦸꦂ -tsur
ꦱ꦳ꦿ tsra ꦱ꦳ꦿꦃ tsrah ꦱ꦳ꦿꦁ tsrang ꦱ꦳ꦿꦂ tsrar ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿ -tsra ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦃ -tsrah ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦁ -tsrang ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦂ -tsrar
ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺ tsre ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦃ tsreh ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦁ tsreng ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦂ tsrer ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺ -tsre ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦃ -tsreh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦁ -tsreng ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦂ -tsrer
ꦱ꦳ꦽ tsrê ꦱ꦳ꦽꦃ tsrêh ꦱ꦳ꦽꦁ tsrêng ꦱ꦳ꦽꦂ tsrêr ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦽ -tsrê ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦽꦃ -tsrêh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦽꦁ -tsrêng ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦽꦂ -tsrêr
ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶ tsri ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶꦃ tsrih ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶꦁ tsring ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶꦂ tsrir ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶ -tsri ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶꦃ -tsrih ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶꦁ -tsring ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦶꦂ -tsrir
ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴ tsro ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴꦃ tsroh ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴꦁ tsrong ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴꦂ tsror ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴ -tsro ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴꦃ -tsroh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴꦁ -tsrong ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦺꦴꦂ -tsror
ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸ tsru ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸꦃ tsruh ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸꦁ tsrung ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸꦂ tsrur ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸ -tsru ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸꦃ -tsruh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸꦁ -tsrung ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦿꦸꦂ -tsrur
ꦱ꦳ꦾ tsya ꦱ꦳ꦾꦃ tsyah ꦱ꦳ꦾꦁ tsyang ꦱ꦳ꦾꦂ tsyar ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾ -tsya ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦃ -tsyah ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦁ -tsyang ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦂ -tsyar
ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺ tsye ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦃ tsyeh ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦁ tsyeng ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦂ tsyer ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺ -tsye ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦃ -tsyeh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦁ -tsyeng ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦂ -tsyer
ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼ tsyê ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼꦃ tsyêh ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼꦁ tsyêng ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼꦂ tsyêr ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼ -tsyê ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼꦃ -tsyêh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼꦁ -tsyêng ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦼꦂ -tsyêr
ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶ tsyi ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶꦃ tsyih ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶꦁ tsying ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶꦂ tsyir ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶ -tsyi ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶꦃ -tsyih ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶꦁ -tsying ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦶꦂ -tsyir
ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴ tsyo ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴꦃ tsyoh ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴꦁ tsyong ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴꦂ tsyor ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴ -tsyo ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴꦃ -tsyoh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴꦁ -tsyong ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦺꦴꦂ -tsyor
ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸ tsyu ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸꦃ tsyuh ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸꦁ tsyung ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸꦂ tsyur ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸ -tsyu ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸꦃ -tsyuh ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸꦁ -tsyung ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ꦾꦸꦂ -tsyur

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Campbell, George L. Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  2. ^ Soemarmo, Marmo. "Javanese Script." Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14.Winter (1995): 69-103.
  3. ^ Daniels, Peter T and William Bright. The World's Writing Systems. Ed. Peter T Daniels and William Bright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
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U+A9Bx ꦿ
1.^ As of Unicode version 9.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points