Sabr ad-Din II

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Sabr ad-Din
الصبر اد الدين
Sultan of Adal
PredecessorSa'ad ad-Din II
SuccessorMansur ad-Din
Died1422 or 1423
Full name
Sabr ad-Din II
DynastyWalashma dynasty

Sabr ad-Din II (Arabic: الصبر اد الدين‎) (died 1422 or 1423) was a Sultan of Adal and the oldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II. Sabr ad-Din returned to the Horn of Africa from Yemen to reclaim his father's realm, but was defeated in battle by the Emperor of Ethiopia Yeshaq.[1][2]


E. A. Wallis Budge offers some more details, explaining that Sabr ad-Din II was chosen as the first to return to their father's lands; he crossed over to Adal and established a base in Sayarah, where he was joined by many of his father's followers. Despite his army's smaller size, he was able to defeat his Ethiopian opponents in battles at Serjan and Zikr Amhara (Memory of the Amhara) and consequently pillaged the surrounding areas.[3] As a result, Yeshaq sent to the region the Ethiopian general Najt Bakal who had under him 10 chiefs, each the head of 20,000 soldiers. The Adalites fled from this army, which then occupied the region for a year. Sabr ad-Din sent his brother Muhammad, aided by the Christian apostate and Ethiopian defector Harb Jaush, defeated Najt Bakal's forces in Retwa, resulting in the general's death, along with many soldiers and Christian leaders. Sabr ad-Din II pillaged the region and was able to defeat Yeshaq's imperial headquarters in Adal and retired to his capital, while instructing his followers and commanders to continue to fight.[3] He entrusted his brother Muhammad with taking an imperial fort at Barut and ordered his commander Umar to take Jab from the Christians. However, the region was well defended by numerous imperial soldiers and the attack was a failure, resulting in the deaths of all of Umar's men, according to Al-Maqrizi. Sabr ad-Din barely escaped capture due to the speed of his horse, but died soon after of a natural death in 1422-3.[4][5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia (Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press, 1952), p. 75.
  2. ^ Asafa Jalata, State Crises, Globalisation, And National Movements In North-east Africa page 3-4
  3. ^ a b Pankhurst, Richard. The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century (Asmara, Eritrea: Red Sea Press, 1997), pp.56
  4. ^ Pankhurst. Ethiopian Borderlands, pp.57
  5. ^ Budge, A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia, 1928 (Oosterhout, the Netherlands: Anthropological Publications, 1970), p. 302.
Preceded by
Sa'ad ad-Din II
Walashma dynasty Succeeded by
Mansur ad-Din