Saccharomyces paradoxus

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Saccharomyces paradoxus
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Saccharomycetes
Order: Saccharomycetales
Family: Saccharomycetaceae
Genus: Saccharomyces
S. paradoxus
Binomial name
Saccharomyces paradoxus
Bachinskaya, A.A., 1914

Saccharomyces paradoxus is a wild yeast and the closest known species to the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is used in population genomics and phylogenetic studies to compare its wild characteristics to laboratory yeasts.[1]


Saccharomyces paradoxus is mostly isolated from deciduous trees (oak, maple, birch), and in some rare occasions on insects and fruits.[2][3][4][5] It is often found in sympatry with other Saccharomyces species.[6][7][8] Like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it has a worldwide distribution and it is mesophilic, which limits its natural distribution to low latitudes. However, Saccharomyces paradoxus typically grows at lower temperatures than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in a slight shift in its distribution toward cooler regions, like British islands and Eastern Canada.[2][8][9]


Saccharomyces paradoxus worldwide distribution. Populations are represented in different colours. Green asterisks indicate recent introductions of the European type.
Phylogeny of main Saccharomyces paradoxus populations.[10]

Unlike most other Saccharomyces species, there is no evidence that Saccharomyces paradoxus has been domesticated by humans.[3][11] Accordingly, its biogeography is mostly marked by natural processes like limited migration,[3] glacial refugia[12] and adaptation to climate.[10] At least four genetically and phenotypically distinct populations of Saccharomyces paradoxus have been identified, corresponding to main geographical divisions: Europe (including West Siberia), Far East Asia (Japan, Eastern Siberia), North America (North American East and West coasts, Great Lakes region) and North-East America (Gaspé Peninsula, Saint Lawrence Valley and Appalaches), respectively.[3][9][10][11] Representative strains of these populations exhibit partial post-zygotic isolation.[12][13] A fifth population is represented by a singleton isolate from Hawaii.[3][11] Some strains from the European population are found in North America and New Zealand and likely result from recent colonization events.[14][15] Two isolates from South America, described as Saccharomyces cariocanus,[16] are genetically indistinguishable but exhibit post-zygotic isolation when crossed to strains from the American population, due to chromosomal translocations.[13]


Saccharomyces paradoxus is naturally homothallic, and is mostly found as diploid in the environment. Reproduction is mostly clonal and 99% of sexual reproduction occurs between spores from the same ascus.[17] This purges recessive deleterious mutations that accumulated during clonal expansion, in a process known as "genome renewal".[18][19] Post-zygotic isolation between strains of Saccharomyces paradoxus is commonly observed and could be either due to genetic divergence between populations or to chromosomal changes within populations.[12][13]

Like in other Saccharomyces species, heterothallism can be restored using standard genetic tools, to obtain stable haploid strains for experimental purposes.


  1. ^ Dunham, MJ; Louis, ED (2011). "Yeast evolution and ecology meet genomics". EMBO Reports. 12 (1): 8–10. doi:10.1038/embor.2010.204. PMC 3024138. PMID 21151040.
  2. ^ a b Charron, G; Leducq, J-B; Bertin, C (2014). "Exploring the northern limit of the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in North America". FEMS Yeast Research. 14 (2): 281–8. doi:10.1111/1567-1364.12100. PMID 24119009.
  3. ^ a b c d e Hyma, KE; Jay, JC (2013). "Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards". Molecular Ecology. 22 (11): 2917–30. doi:10.1111/mec.12155. PMC 3620907. PMID 23286354.
  4. ^ Maganti, H; Bartfai, D; Xu, J (2012). "Ecological structuring of yeasts associated with trees around Hamilton, Ontario, Canada". FEMS Yeast Research. 12 (1): 9–19. doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00756.x. PMID 22029478.
  5. ^ Sniegowski, PD; Dombrowski, PG; Fingerman, E (2002). "Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus coexist in a natural woodland site in North America and display different levels of reproductive isolation from European conspecifics". FEMS Yeast Research. 1 (4): 299–306. doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2002.tb00048.x. PMID 12702333.
  6. ^ Naumov, GI; Naumova, ES; Sniegowski, PD (1998). "Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are associated with exudates of North American oaks". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 44 (11): 1045–50. doi:10.1139/w98-104. PMID 10029999.
  7. ^ Sampaio, JP; Goncalves, P (2008). "Natural populations of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii in Portugal are associated with oak bark and are sympatric with S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus" (PDF). Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (7): 2144–52. doi:10.1128/AEM.02396-07. PMC 2292605. PMID 18281431.
  8. ^ a b Sweeney, JY; Kuehne, HA; Sniegowski, PD (2004). "Sympatric natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. paradoxus populations have different thermal growth profiles". FEMS Yeast Research. 4 (4–5): 521–5. doi:10.1016/s1567-1356(03)00171-5. PMID 14734033.
  9. ^ a b Johnson, LJ; Koufopanou, V; Goddard, MR (2004). "Population genetics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus". Genetics. 166 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1534/genetics.166.1.43. PMC 1470673. PMID 15020405.
  10. ^ a b c Leducq, J-B; Charron, G; Samani, P (2014). "Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1777): 20132472. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2472. PMC 3896012. PMID 24403328.
  11. ^ a b c Liti, G; Carter, DM; Moses, AM (2009). "Population genomics of domestic and wild yeasts". Nature. 458 (7236): 337–41. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..337L. doi:10.1038/nature07743. PMC 2659681. PMID 19212322.
  12. ^ a b c Charron, G; Leducq, J-B; Landry, CR (2014). "Chromosomal variation segregates within incipient species and correlates with reproductive isolation". Molecular Ecology. 23 (17): 4362–4372. doi:10.1111/mec.12864. PMID 25039979. S2CID 43071397.
  13. ^ a b c Liti, G; Barton, DB; Louis, EJ (2006). "Sequence diversity, reproductive isolation and species concepts in Saccharomyces". Genetics. 174 (2): 839–850. doi:10.1534/genetics.106.062166. PMC 1602076. PMID 16951060.
  14. ^ Kuehne, HA; Murphy, HA; Francis, CA (2007). "Allopatric divergence, secondary contact, and genetic isolation in wild yeast populations". Current Biology. 17 (5): 407–11. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.12.047. PMID 17306538. S2CID 18301950.
  15. ^ Zhang, HA; Skelton, A; Gardner, RC (2010). "Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae reside on oak trees in New Zealand: evidence for migration from Europe and interspecies hybrids". FEMS Yeast Research. 10 (7): 941–7. doi:10.1111/j.1567-1364.2010.00681.x. PMID 20868381.
  16. ^ Naumov, GI; James, SA; Naumova, ES (2000). "Three new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex: Saccharomyces cariocanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces mikatae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (5): 1931–42. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-5-1931. PMID 11034507.
  17. ^ Tsai, IJ; Bensasson, D; Burt, A (2008). "Population genomics of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus: Quantifying the life cycle". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (12): 4957–62. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105.4957T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707314105. PMC 2290798. PMID 18344325.
  18. ^ Mortimer, Robert K.; Romano, Patrizia; Suzzi, Giovanna; Polsinelli, Mario (December 1994). "Genome renewal: A new phenomenon revealed from a genetic study of 43 strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae derived from natural fermentation of grape musts". Yeast. 10 (12): 1543–1552. doi:10.1002/yea.320101203. PMID 7725789. S2CID 11989104.
  19. ^ Masel, Joanna; Lyttle, David N. (December 2011). "The consequences of rare sexual reproduction by means of selfing in an otherwise clonally reproducing species". Theoretical Population Biology. 80 (4): 317–322. doi:10.1016/j.tpb.2011.08.004. PMC 3218209. PMID 21888925.