Saccharum

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Saccharum
Saccharum officinarum - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-125.jpg
Saccharum officinarum[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Tribe: Andropogoneae
Genus: Saccharum
L.
Type species
Saccharum officinarum
L.[2][3]
Synonyms[4]

Saccharum is a genus of tall perennial plants of the broomsedge tribe within the grass family.[5]

The genus is widespread across tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions in Africa, Eurasia, Australia, the Americas, and assorted oceanic islands. Several species are cultivated and naturalized in areas outside their native habitats.[4][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Saccharum includes the sugar canes, as well as several ornamental grasses such as Ravenna grass. They have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are generally rich in sugar, and measure two to six m (6 to 19 ft) tall. All sugar cane species interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids.

Accepted species[4]
  1. Saccharum alopecuroidum (L.) Nutt. - southeastern USA
  2. Saccharum angustifolium (Nees) Trin. - South America
  3. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. - East + South + Southeast Asia; New Guinea
  4. Saccharum asperum (Nees) Steud. - South America
  5. Saccharum baldwinii Spreng. - southeastern USA
  6. Saccharum beccarii (Stapf) Cope - Sumatra
  7. Saccharum bengalense Retz. - India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan
  8. Saccharum brevibarbe (Michx.) Pers. - southeastern USA
  9. Saccharum coarctatum (Fern.) R. Webster - southeastern USA
  10. Saccharum contortum (Baldwin ex Elliott) Nutt. - southeastern USA
  11. Saccharum fallax Balansa - China, Assam, southeast Asia
  12. Saccharum filifolium Steud. - Afghanistan, Himalayas
  13. Saccharum formosanum (Stapf) Ohwi - southern China
  14. Saccharum giganteum (Walt.) Pers. - southeastern USA, Cuba, Jamaica, Paraguay, Argentina
  15. Saccharum griffithii Munro ex Aitch. - from Yemen to Bangladesh
  16. Saccharum hildebrandtii (Hack.) Clayton - Madagascar
  17. Saccharum kajkaiense (Melderis) Melderis - Oman, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan
  18. Saccharum kanashiroi (Ohwi) Ohwi - Nansei-shoto
  19. Saccharum longesetosum (Andersson) V.Naray. ex Bor - China, Himalayas, Indochina
  20. Saccharum maximum (Brongn.) Trin. - Pacific Islands
  21. Saccharum narenga (Nees ex Steud.) Hack. - China, Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, Ethiopia
  22. Saccharum officinarum L. - New Guinea; naturalized in many warm places
  23. Saccharum perrieri (A.Camus) Clayton. - Madagascar
  24. Saccharum procerum Roxb. - China, Himalayas, Indochina
  25. Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. - Europe, Asia, Africa
  26. Saccharum robustum Brandes & Jesw. ex Grassl - New Guinea
  27. Saccharum rufipilum Steud. - China, Indian Subcontinent, Indochina
  28. Saccharum sikkimense (Hook.f.) V.Naray. ex Bor - eastern Himalayas
  29. Saccharum spontaneum L. - Asia, Africa, Sicily, Papuasia
  30. Saccharum stewartii Rajesw., R.R.Rao & Arti Garg - western Himalayas
  31. Saccharum strictum (Host) Spreng. - from Italy to Iran
  32. Saccharum velutinum (Holttum) Cope - Peninsular Malaysia
  33. Saccharum viguieri (A.Camus) Clayton - Madagascar
  34. Saccharum villosum Steud. - South America, Mesoamerica
  35. Saccharum wardii (Bor) Bor ex Cope - Assam, Bhutan, Myanmar
  36. Saccharum williamsii (Bor) Bor ex Cope - Nepal

Formerly included[4][edit]

Numerous species are now considered better suited in other genera: Andropogon, Chloris, Digitaria, Eriochrysis, Eulalia, Gynerium, Hemarthria, Imperata, Lasiurus, Lophopogon, Melinis, Miscanthus, Panicum, Pappophorum, Paspalum, Perotis, Pogonatherum, Pseudopogonatherum, Spodiopogon, and Tricholaena.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
  2. ^ lectotype designated by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot. 119 (1929)
  3. ^ Tropicos, Saccharum L.
  4. ^ a b c d Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  5. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 54 in Latin
  6. ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 576 甘蔗属 gan zhe shu Saccharum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 54. 1753.
  7. ^ Flora of Pakistan, Saccharum Linn., Sp. Pl. 1: 54. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5; 28.1754
  8. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  9. ^ Catasus Guerra, L. 1997. Las gramíneas (Poaceae) de Cuba, I. Fontqueria 46: [i–ii], 1–259.
  10. ^ Davidse, G. & R. W. Pohl. 1994. 146. Saccharum L. 6: 378–379. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
  11. ^ Phillips, S. 1995. Poaceae (Gramineae). Flora of Ethiopia 7: i–xx, 1–420.
  12. ^ Welker, C. A. D. & H. M. Longhi-Wagner. 2012. The genera Eriochrysis P. Beauv., Imperata Cirillo and Saccharum L. (Poaceae - Andropogoneae - Saccharinae) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Botany 35(1): 87–105.

External links[edit]