Sachs Harbour

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Sachs Harbour
Ikahuak
Sachs Harbour cairn and community 02.jpg
Sachs Harbour is located in Northwest Territories
Sachs Harbour
Sachs Harbour
Sachs Harbour is located in Canada
Sachs Harbour
Sachs Harbour
Coordinates: 71°59′12″N 125°15′02″W / 71.98667°N 125.25056°W / 71.98667; -125.25056[1]Coordinates: 71°59′12″N 125°15′02″W / 71.98667°N 125.25056°W / 71.98667; -125.25056[1]
CountryCanada
TerritoryNorthwest Territories
RegionInuvik Region
ConstituencyNunakput
Census divisionRegion 1
First permanent settlement1929
Incorporated (hamlet)1 April 1986
Government
 • MayorNorman Anikina
 • Senior Administrative OfficerBetty Haogak
 • MLAJackie Jacobson
Area
 • Land272.22 km2 (105.10 sq mi)
Elevation
86 m (282 ft)
Population
 (2021)[2]
 • Total104
 • Density0.4/km2 (1/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−07:00 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Canadian Postal code
X0E 0Z0
Area code(s)867
Telephone exchange690
- Living cost192.5A
- Food price index (2019)197.4B
Sources:
Department of Municipal and Community Affairs,[3]
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre,[4]
Canada Flight Supplement[5]
^A 2018 figure based on Edmonton = 100[6]
^B 2019 figure based on Yellowknife = 100[6]

Sachs Harbour (/ˈsæks/, Inuinnaqtun: Ikahuak) is a hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Situated on the southwestern coast of Banks Island in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, the population according to the 2021 census count was 103 people.[2] Sachs Harbour is the only permanent settlement on Banks Island.

Etymology[edit]

The town was named after the ship Mary Sachs, which was part of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913–1916. The traditional name for the area is Ikahuak[pronunciation?], meaning "where you go across to".[7]

History[edit]

Pre-Dorset cultural sites on the island have been found that date from approximately 1500 BCE. The pre-Dorset sites were later replaced by archaeological cultures showing Eastern and Western Arctic Dorset characteristics in the southern parts of the island. From c. 800 BCE to 1000 CE northern half of Banks Island was seldom visited by people. From 1000 to 1450 Thule culture has occupied several sites along the island, but due to the cooling climate brought on by the Little Ice Age the island was most likely deserted until the arrival of the Inuvialuit in the 17th century.[8]

The island Sachs Harbour is located was first spotted in 1820 by Sir William Edward Parry and named "Banks Land" in honour of Sir Joseph Banks. The origins of the settlement go back to 1929 when several Inuit families moved to the site to trap. It was incorporated as a hamlet in 1986.[7]

On the north shore of Banks Island within Aulavik National Park is a narrow bay, Mercy Bay, penetrating some distance into the park. It is of historical significance for one of a number of ships sent out to the Arctic by the Admiralty to find the lost expedition of John Franklin, became trapped in the ice in the bay for some three years and had to be abandoned by its crew. That ship was the Investigator and its captain, Commander Robert McClure. The Investigator sailed from England all around North and South America so that it passed through the Bering Strait in an attempt to find the Northwest Passage from the west while looking for Franklin's lost expedition.

Economy[edit]

The community's economy is based largely on hunting and trapping, but tourism also plays a small role. Most of the town lies within 230 m (250 yd) of the shoreline. Residents engage in ice fishing, harvesting fish from the Amundsen Gulf and the Beaufort Sea. There is a goose hunt every spring. The community is also home to the largest commercial muskox harvests in Canada.

Oil and gas exploration has provided jobs over the years for some Sachs Harbour residents — estimates of commercially recoverable oil in the Beaufort Sea range from 640×10^6 to 1,910×10^6 m3 (4 to 12 Gbbl), and there is believed to be between 370×10^9 and 1,780×10^9 m3 (13×10^12 and 63×10^12 cu ft) of natural gas.

Aulavik National Park[edit]

Sachs Harbour is the headquarters of Aulavik National Park and the Visitor Reception Centre is situated in Sachs Harbour. Aulavik National Park is located on the north end of Banks Island, and is co-operatively managed by Parks Canada with the residents of Sachs Harbour and the broader Inuvialuit community. The Visitor Reception Centre presents the park and Inuvialuit culture to visitors to Banks Island, as well as serves as a centre for community activities.

Demographics[edit]

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Sachs Harbour had a population of 104 living in 38 of its 52 total private dwellings, a change of 1% from its 2016 population of 103. With a land area of 272.22 km2 (105.10 sq mi), it had a population density of 0.4/km2 (1.0/sq mi) in 2021.[2]

The two principal languages in the town are Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun) and English.[9] Sachs Harbour is the only permanent settlement on Banks Island.

Federal census population history of Sachs Harbour
YearPop.±%
1976163—    
1981161−1.2%
1986158−1.9%
1991125−20.9%
1996135+8.0%
2001114−15.6%
2006122+7.0%
2011112−8.2%
2016103−8.0%
2021104+1.0%
Source: Statistics Canada
[2][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][9]
Annual population estimates
YearPop.±%
1996140—    
1997150+7.1%
1998149−0.7%
1999138−7.4%
2000127−8.0%
2001125−1.6%
2002118−5.6%
2003113−4.2%
2004121+7.1%
2005122+0.8%
2006127+4.1%
2007123−3.1%
YearPop.±%
2008124+0.8%
2009131+5.6%
2010126−3.8%
2011115−8.7%
2012117+1.7%
2013124+6.0%
2014125+0.8%
2015116−7.2%
2016115−0.9%
2017112−2.6%
2018114+1.8%
2019117+2.6%
Sources: NWT Bureau of Statistics (2008 - 2019),[6] NWT Bureau of Statistics (2001 - 2017)[17]

Infrastructure[edit]

Services include a two-member Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment and a health centre with one nurse.[18] Phone services are provided by Northwestel with Internet access. The local hunters and trappers association provides outfitting for big-game hunts like muskox and polar bears. Bulk supplies of food and other items are brought by barge in the summer months and flights from Inuvik, some 523 km (325 mi) to the southwest, operate all year, via the Sachs Harbour (David Nasogaluak Jr. Saaryuaq) Airport.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Sachs Harbour is in the Arctic tundra climatic zone (ET), characterized by long, cold winters. Since the activities of many residents of the community revolve around fishing, hunting, and travel, many residents have considerable knowledge of weather conditions, permafrost, and even erosion patterns. Because of climate changes in recent years, local residents fear their knowledge of weather patterns may not be of much use, as the weather has become harder to predict.[citation needed]

Climate data for Sachs Harbour (Sachs Harbour (David Nasogaluak Jr. Saaryuaq) Airport}
Climate ID: 2503650; coordinates 72°00′N 125°16′W / 72.000°N 125.267°W / 72.000; -125.267 (Sachs Harbour (David Nasogaluak Jr. Saaryuaq) Airportt); elevation: 86.3 m (283 ft); 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex −4.4 −6.1 −5.6 3.0 9.4 23.5 26.0 23.7 16.3 3.9 1.1 −4.3 26.0
Record high °C (°F) −4.4
(24.1)
−4.5
(23.9)
−4.0
(24.8)
2.2
(36.0)
10.0
(50.0)
20.5
(68.9)
24.2
(75.6)
21.5
(70.7)
15.6
(60.1)
4.4
(39.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
24.2
(75.6)
Average high °C (°F) −24.4
(−11.9)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−14.6
(5.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
6.1
(43.0)
10.0
(50.0)
6.5
(43.7)
1.2
(34.2)
−7.7
(18.1)
−17.1
(1.2)
−21.5
(−6.7)
−9.5
(14.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −28.0
(−18.4)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
3.1
(37.6)
6.6
(43.9)
3.7
(38.7)
−1.2
(29.8)
−10.7
(12.7)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−12.8
(9.0)
Average low °C (°F) −31.7
(−25.1)
−32.1
(−25.8)
−30.3
(−22.5)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−10.5
(13.1)
0.1
(32.2)
3.1
(37.6)
0.9
(33.6)
−3.4
(25.9)
−13.7
(7.3)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−16.0
(3.2)
Record low °C (°F) −52.2
(−62.0)
−50.2
(−58.4)
−48.4
(−55.1)
−43.0
(−45.4)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−16.5
(2.3)
−5.0
(23.0)
−11.0
(12.2)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−35.5
(−31.9)
−42.8
(−45.0)
−45.0
(−49.0)
−52.2
(−62.0)
Record low wind chill −71.6 −68.1 −64.8 −58.4 −40.3 −21.1 −10.3 −20.4 −31.2 −44.9 −56.4 −64.1 −71.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.9
(0.19)
6.6
(0.26)
7.1
(0.28)
12.1
(0.48)
9.1
(0.36)
7.5
(0.30)
17.6
(0.69)
28.9
(1.14)
22.0
(0.87)
20.0
(0.79)
9.0
(0.35)
7.0
(0.28)
151.5
(5.96)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
5.1
(0.20)
16.7
(0.66)
24.7
(0.97)
11.2
(0.44)
0.5
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
58.3
(2.30)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5.2
(2.0)
7.0
(2.8)
7.7
(3.0)
12.4
(4.9)
9.3
(3.7)
2.4
(0.9)
0.9
(0.4)
4.1
(1.6)
10.9
(4.3)
20.2
(8.0)
9.4
(3.7)
8.3
(3.3)
97.7
(38.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 6.5 6.3 6.7 5.6 7.4 4.7 8.1 14.5 12.0 13.7 8.2 6.2 99.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.9 7.8 11.7 5.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 28.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 6.6 6.4 6.7 5.6 7.3 1.8 0.6 3.4 7.4 13.3 8.3 6.3 73.5
Average relative humidity (%) 84.3 81.6 76.9 81.7 88.9 86.7 87.8 93.9 91.9 88.2 86.0 86.3 86.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 0.0 27.5 168.6 276.0 252.0 397.3 254.2 152.8 76.9 36.6 0.0 0.0 1,641.9
Percent possible sunshine 0.0 15.6 47.1 54.9 34.9 55.2 34.2 25.0 18.8 13.7 0.0 0.0 33.3
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010[19]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Banks Island is home to the largest goose colony in North America. Three quarters of the world's population of muskoxen roam the island. Barren-ground caribou and polar bear are also seen on the island. On April 26, 2006, the world's first documented wild-born grizzly–polar bear hybrid was shot near the town.

Since the climate has been changing, sea ice has been breaking up earlier than normal, taking seals farther south in the summer. Seals are one of the main sources of food for the town. Sockeye and pink salmon appeared for the first time in nearby waters between 1999 and 2001.[20] New species of birds are migrating to the island, including robins and barn swallows, and more flies and mosquitos have been appearing.[21][22]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sachs Harbour". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), Northwest Territories". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 18, 2022.
  3. ^ "NWT Communities - Sachs Harbour". Government of the Northwest Territories: Department of Municipal and Community Affairs. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
  4. ^ "Northwest Territories Official Community Names and Pronunciation Guide". Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre. Yellowknife: Education, Culture and Employment, Government of the Northwest Territories. Archived from the original on 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2016-01-13.
  5. ^ Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 16 July 2020 to 0901Z 10 September 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Sachs Harbour - Statistical Profile at the GNWT
  7. ^ a b "Sachs Harbour | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved 2022-01-23.
  8. ^ "History and culture". Parks Canada. 2015-05-07. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-22.
  9. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  10. ^ "1981 Census of Canada: Census subdivisions in decreasing population order" (PDF). Statistics Canada. May 1992. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  11. ^ "1986 Census: Population - Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 1987. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  12. ^ "91 Census: Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions - Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1992. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  13. ^ "96 Census: A National Overview - Population and Dwelling Counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 1997. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  14. ^ "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Subdivisions (Municipalities), 2001 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. August 15, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  15. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. August 20, 2021. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  16. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Northwest Territories)". Statistics Canada. July 25, 2021. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
  17. ^ Population Estimates By Community from the GNWT
  18. ^ Infrastructure
  19. ^ "Sachs Harbour A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Climate ID: 2503650. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  20. ^ First Records of Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Pink Salmon (O. gorbuscha) from Banks Island and Other Records of Pacific Salmon in Northwest Territories, Canada
  21. ^ Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada
  22. ^ Climate change impacts on Canadian Western Arctic: the Inuvialuit of Sachs Harbour

External links[edit]