Hamburg in the Mediterranean in March 2013
|Preceded by:||Lütjens-class destroyer|
|Length:||143 m (469 ft)|
|Beam:||17.44 m (57.2 ft)|
|Draft:||6 m (20 ft)|
|Speed:||29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph)|
|Range:||4,000 nmi (7,400 km; 4,600 mi)+ at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)|
|Complement:||230 crew + 13 aircrew|
|Aircraft carried:||2 Sea Lynx Mk.88A or 2 NH90 helicopters equipped with torpedoes, air-to-surface missiles Sea Skua, and/or heavy machine gun.|
The F124 Sachsen class is Germany's latest class of highly advanced air-defense frigates. The design of the Sachsen-class frigate is based on that of the F123 Brandenburg class but with enhanced stealth features designed to deceive an opponent's radar and acoustic sensors. The class incorporates an advanced multifunction radar APAR and a SMART-L long-range radar which is purported to be capable of detecting stealth aircraft and stealth missiles.
Although designated as frigates, they are comparable to destroyers in capability and size and were intended to replace the Navy's Lütjens class. They are similar to the Dutch De Zeven Provinciën class, in that both are based on the use of a common primary anti-air warfare system built around the APAR and SMART-L radars as well as the area-defence SM-2 Block IIIA and point-defence Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) surface-to-air missiles.
The German government contracted for three ships in June 1996 with an option on a fourth that was provisionally to have been named Thüringen, but the option for this fourth ship was not taken up. At €2.1 billion for the three ships, the class was one of the most expensive ship building programs of the German Navy.
Following the reunification of Germany in 1990 at the end of the Cold War, the German Navy continued the construction program of the former Bundesmarine (Federal Navy), which projected a fleet centered on destroyers and frigates. The Sachsen class was the second group of frigates to be built in the post-unification era, following the Brandenburg-class frigates laid down in the early 1990s. The three Sachsens were ordered to replace the old Lütjens-class destroyers that were then over thirty years old.
General characteristics and machinery
The ships of the Sachsen class are 132.15 meters (433.6 ft) long at the waterline and 143 m (469 ft) long overall. They have a beam of 17.44 m (57.2 ft) and a draft of 5 m (16 ft), though the draft increases to 7 m (23 ft) at the sonar array in the bulbous bow. They displace 5,690 long tons (5,780 t) at full load. Steering is controlled by a single roll-stabilized rudder; the ships have a turning radius of 570 m (1,870 ft). The frigates have a crew of 38 officers, 64 petty officers, and 140 enlisted sailors. They have accommodations for an additional thirteen officers and sailors as part of a squadron commander's staff, and they have crew provisions for female sailors. The ships can remain at sea for 21 days at a time.
The ships' hulls were designed on the pattern of the previous Brandenburg class to allow for great commonality of parts to reduce maintenance costs; they were built using MEKO modular construction and incorporate seven watertight compartments. The primary improvement over the earlier vessels is the significantly reduced radar signature. The ships were designed with a capacity for an extra 270 long tons (270 t) of weight, to allow for future additions of new weapons and sensors without compromising the ships' efficiency.
The ships of the Sachsen class are equipped with a combined diesel and gas (CODAG) propulsion system. The two operating shafts work independently. The diesel engines are installed in a non-walkable sound-proof capsule. The shafts drive two five-bladed variable-pitch propellers. The General Electric LM2500 PF/MLG gas turbine is rated at 31,500 shaft horsepower (23,500 kW) and the MTU 20V 1163 TB93 diesels provide a combined 20,100 brake horsepower (15,000 kW). The total 51,600 hp (38,500 kW) propulsion system provides a top speed of 29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph); while operating the diesels only, the ships can cruise for 4,000 nautical miles (7,400 km; 4,600 mi) at a speed of 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph). The ships are equipped with four 1,000 Kilowatt diesel generators that operate at 400 Volts (V) and 115 V.
Steering is controlled via the Rudder Roll System, which communicates information about the ship's position and rudder dampening signals, allowing the ships to maintain "almost unprecedented stability" in as high as sea state 5.
These ships were optimized for the anti-air warfare role. The primary anti-air weapons are the 32-cell Mk 41 Mod 10 vertical launching system, equipped with twenty-four SM-2 Block IIIA missiles and thirty-two Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles. Point-defense against cruise missiles is provided by a pair of 21-round Rolling Airframe Missile launchers. The ships are also equipped with two four-cell RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile launchers. In 2013, the German Navy considered modifying the ships' long-range search radar to allow the SM-2 missiles to be used in an anti-ballistic missile capacity.
For defense against submarines, the frigates carry two triple-launchers for the 324 mm (12.8 in) MU90 Impact torpedoes. The ships also carry a variety of guns, including one dual-purpose 62-caliber 76-millimeter (3.0 in) gun manufactured by OTO Melara. They are also armed with two Rheinmetall 27 mm (1.1 in) MLG 27 remote-controlled autocannons in single mounts.
In January 2003, Hamburg had a modified Panzerhaubitze 2000 turret with a 155 mm (6.1 in) gun fitted experimentally for the Modular Naval Artillery Concept. The experiment was a feasibility study for the projected F125-class frigate. The gun had a range of 40 nmi (74 km; 46 mi) and a rate of fire of 10 rounds per minute.
Sachsen and her sister ships are equipped with a flight deck and hangar that can accommodate two Super Lynx or NH90 helicopters. The flight deck is rated to accommodate a 15-metric-ton (15-long-ton; 17-short-ton) helicopter in conditions up to sea state 6. The helicopter handling system from MBB-Förder und Hebesysteme uses laser guided and computer controlled manipulator arms to secure the helicopter after landing.
Sensors and countermeasures
For this role the ships are equipped with an advanced sensor and weapons suite. The primary sensors for this role are the long range surveillance radar SMART-L and the multi-function radar APAR. The SMART-L and APAR are highly complementary, in the sense that SMART-L is a L band radar providing very long range surveillance while APAR is an X band radar providing precise target tracking, a highly capable horizon search capability, and missile guidance using the Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination (ICWI) technique, thus allowing guidance of 32 semi-active radar homing missiles in flight simultaneously, including 16 in the terminal guidance phase. The ships are also equipped with two STN Atlas 9600-M ARPA navigation radars.
|Pennant number||Name||Call sign||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Delivered||Commissioned||Fate|
|F219||Sachsen||DRAA||Blohm + Voss, Hamburg||1 February 1999||20 January 2001||29 November 2002||31 December 2003||In service|
|F220||Hamburg||DRAB||HDW, Kiel||1 September 2000||16 August 2002||September 2004||13 December 2004||In service|
|F221||Hessen||DRAC||Nordseewerke, Emden||14 September 2001||26 July 2003||7 December 2005||21 April 2006||In service|
|(F222)||Thüringen||option not taken up|
In August 2004, Sachsen completed a series of live missile firings at the Point Mugu missile launch range off the coast of California that included a total of 11 ESSM and 10 SM-2 Block IIIA missiles. The tests included firings against target drones such as the BQM-74E Chukar III and BQM-34S Firebee I, as well as against missile targets such as the AQM-37C Jayhawk and air-launched Kormoran 1 anti-ship missiles. While serving in NATO Standing Maritime Force 1 in 2004, Sachsen took part in training operations with the United States' aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. Operations with American carrier groups continued over the following decade, with Hessen taking part in inter-operability exercises with the carrier USS Harry S. Truman in 2010, before departing in the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, Hamburg became the first German ship to fully integrate into an American carrier strike group in March 2013.
Since 2006, the three Sachsen-class ships have been assigned to Einsatzflotille 2 and based in Wilhelmshaven, along with the four Brandenburg-class frigates and the five Braunschweig-class corvettes.
Hessen served as the flagship of the NATO Standing Maritime Force 1 in January 2013. That year, Atlas Elektronik and Thales Deutschland were awarded a contract to modernize the three Sachsen-class frigates, with the project to be completed by 2017. In March 2015, Hessen and the frigates Bremen and Brandenburg took part in Operation Good Hope, a training exercise conducted with the South African Navy.
- Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate, Spain
- De Zeven Provinciën-class frigate, a Dutch class of comparable frigates
- F125 Baden-Württemberg-class frigate, another German class of frigates
- FREMM multipurpose frigate, French/Italian collaboration
- Fridtjof Nansen-class frigate, Norway
- Iver Huitfeldt-class frigate, Denmark
- Type 26, an equivalent British design
- Osborne, pp. 161, 174
- Wertheim, p. 245
- Waters, p. 135
- Waters, p. 191
- Lok, Joris Janssen (October 2005). "Live firing tests rewrite the guiding principles". Jane's Navy International. 110: 38–40.
- Friedman, p. 263
- Wertheim, p. 237
- Kaylor, N. C. (13 March 2007). "CCSG 12 Visits FGS Sachsen". US Navy. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- Gorman, Timothy (4 April 2013). "Hamburg First German Ship to Deploy in U.S. Carrier Strike Group". US Navy. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Krause & Bruns, p. 289
- "Thales Deutschland, Atlas Elektronik to Modernize Three F-124 Frigates for the German Navy".
- "German Navy vessels make port call in Angola". DefenseWeb. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Report: Germany to sell Israel 2 destroyers for 1 billion euros". The Jerusalem Post. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "With Natural Gas Fields in the Eastern Mediterranean, Israel Now Has a New Front: the Sea". Tablet Magazine. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Friedman, Norman (2006). The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781557502629.
- Krause, Joachim; Bruns, Sebastian (2016). Routledge Handbook of Naval Strategy and Security. Routledge. ISBN 9781317555391.
- Osborne, Eric W. (2005). Destroyers: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851094790.
- Waters, Conrad (2012). Seaforth World Naval Review 2013. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781848321564.
- Wertheim, Eric (2007). The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781591149552.
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