Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George

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Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George
Croix constantinien.svg
Cross of the order
Royal house House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic
Ribbon Light blue
Motto In hoc signo vinces
First Grand Master Angeli Comneni family
Next (higher) Order of Saint Januarius
Next (lower) Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit
Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio.png
Ribbon of the order
Knight, Knight Commander, Knight Grand Cross

The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George (Italian: Sacro militare ordine costantiniano di San Giorgio) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood founded 1520–1545 by two brothers belonging to the Angeli Comneni family,[citation needed] currently bestowed by the former royal House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies as heirs of the Farnese. Though it is not one of the orders of chivalry conferred by the Holy See, membership is restricted to practising Roman Catholics.[1][2]


The legendary origins of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George trace its foundation to an apocryphal order founded by Constantine the Great.[3] The Angeli Comneni grand masters who actually founded the order in the 2nd quarter of the 16th century received confirmations of its status in a series of papal briefs, a bull of Pope Clement VIII, and decrees of King Philip III of Spain, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor on 7 November 1630, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor on 25 June 1671, King John III Sobieski of Poland of 11 May 1681, and Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria on 8 July 1667 and 26 July 1669, in which the order was allowed to establish commanderies in Bavaria and the Palatinate.

Its incorporation as a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church hereditary in the House of Farnese and its heirs, the Bourbons, dates from the transfer to Francesco Farnese on 11 January 1698, an act confirmed in an imperial diploma, "Agnoscimus et notum facimus", of the emperor, Leopold I, dated 5 August 1699, and the apostolic brief, "Sincerae Fidei", issued by Pope Innocent XII on 24 October 1699. These confirmed the succession of the grand magistry to the Farnese family and its heirs as an ecclesiastical office and, crucially, did not tie it to tenure of sovereignty of the Duchy of Parma. Among the first major acts of the Farnese grand magistry were revised, amended and expanded statutes, issued on 25 May 1705 and confirmed in a papal brief dated 12 July 1706; both these confirmed the requirement that the grand magistry should pass by male primogeniture. Following the order's contribution to Prince Eugene of Savoy's campaign to drive the Turks from the Balkans between 1716 and 1718, Pope Clement XI, a former cardinal protector of the order, confirmed the order as a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in the bull, "Militantis Ecclesiae", of 27 May 1718.

With the death of the last male of the House of Farnese on 30 January 1731, the grand magistry was inherited by Charles, Duke of Parma (later King Charles III of Spain), eldest son of King Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth of Parma; Charles also inherited the duchies of Parma and Piacenza from the Farnese. After becoming king of Naples and Sicily in 1734, Charles was forced to surrender Parma to Austria in 1736 while retaining the Constantinian grand magistry.

On 16 October 1759, Charles III abdicated the grand magistry to his second surviving son, King Ferdinand IV and III of Naples and Sicily (from 1815 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies). The administration of the order was transferred from Parma to Naples in 1768.

The succession of Ferdinand I as grand master was disputed by the Parmesans who believed that the order was united to the ducal throne of Parma. In 1748, Charles III's younger brother Philip succeeded as duke of Parma; henceforth, his branch of the family regarded themselves as rightful successors to the grand magistry of the order. Philip's heir today is Carlos, Duke of Parma. See the historical note authored by Paolo Conforte, a senior officer of the Parma dynastic order.[4]

The view of the Bourbon-Sicily family is that the grand magistry was never united with the Two Sicilies Crown, but remained, in the words of Charles III 's son and successor, Ferdinand I, in a decree of 8 March 1796 "In his (the King's) royal person there exists together two very distinct qualities, the one of Monarch of the Two Sicilies, and the other of Grand Master of the illustrious, royal and military Constantinian order, which though united gloriously in the same person form nonetheless at the same time two separate independent Lordships". It was this independence that enabled the order, whose grand magistry was held conjointly with the headship of the house of the Two Sicilies, to survive the abolition of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860.

In 1910, Pope Pius X appointed the first of three successive cardinal protectors and, in 1913, approved a series of privileges for the chaplains of the order. In 1915, Pope Benedict XV dedicated the Constantinian chapel in the basilica of Santa Croce al Flaminio, which had been built with donations from the knights, who included Monsignor Eugenio Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII. In 1916, the pope restored the church of Saint Anthony Abbot to the Order - this church had originally been given to the Constantinian order along with the properties of the religious order of that name in 1777, but had been put under the direction of the archdiocese of Naples in 1861. In 1919, new statutes received papal approval and Cardinal Ranuzzi de' Bianchi was appointed cardinal protector, the last to hold this post. Following the intervention of the grand magistry of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus in 1924, whose grand master, the king of Italy, objected to the awarding of the order to leading Italian noblemen, the Holy See felt the close relationship with Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta might prove an obstacle to settling the Roman question. It was, therefore, decided not to reappoint a successor to Cardinal Ranuzzi de' Bianchi at his death in 1927.

Disputed succession[edit]

The succession to the grand magistry of this order has been disputed among as many as three branches of Bourbons since 1960. The dispute is rooted in different interpretations of the so-called "Act of Cannes" of 14 December 1900 in which the count of Caserta's second son, Prince Carlo (grandfather of Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria), promised that he would renounce his succession to the crown of the Two Sicilies in execution of the "Pragmatic Decree" of 1759.[5] This decree required that if the king of Spain, or his immediate heir, should inherit the Two Sicilies crown, he would renounce the latter to the next in line. Whether the "Pragmatic Decree" applied to Prince Carlo's situation in 1900, and whether the grand magistry of the order was included in such a renunciation, are both issues in dispute.

Supporters of Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria assert that his grandfather's renunciation was conditional on his actually inheriting both the Spanish and Two Sicilies crowns and/or that, even in that circumstances, such a renunciation did not include the position of grand master of the Constantinian order, which they regard as separate from the crown.[6] Further, supporters of Infante Carlos argue that the "Act of Cannes" was legally defective and thus void.

Supporters of Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro reject all three positions advanced by Infante Carlos' supporters, and claim that the rival claimant's ancestor validly renounced both the crown of the Two Sicilies and the grand magistry.[7]

As noted above, all three contending parties have their supporters, and there is, in any case, no legal forum in a position to make a binding determination of the competing claims.

The Italian and Hungarian governments among others have authorised members of the Franco-Neapolitan branch, bestowed by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, to wear the insignia in Italy. [8] In 2011, the Constantinian Order headed by the Duke of Castro, became one of the 3,536[9] non-governmental organizations to hold consultative status at the Economic and Social Council at the United Nations.[10]

Spaniards and Italians who have been granted the Constantinian Order by Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria have applied for, and received, authorisation to wear the decorations of the order.[11]

Each branch appoints a Roman Catholic cardinal as grand prior. On 16 October 2012, the Vatican Secretary of State renewed its position that the Holy See does not recognise any order except the seven Papal Orders listed on their statement. The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George was not one of those orders.[1]


On January 24, 2014, the day before the Blessed Beatification of the Venerable Servant of God Maria Cristina of Savoy, the Duke of Castro and the Duke of Noto signed an "Act of Reconciliation" at Naples' Excelsior Hotel.

This act appears to have ended the longstanding dynastic differences between the branches of the House of the Two Sicilies. The signing of the act of reconciliation was done in the presence of the Duchesses of Noto and Castro, the Duke of Noto's mother, the Duchess of Calabria, the Duke of Noto's sisters, Maria and Inés, and their husbands, Archduke Simeon and Michele Carrelli Palombi, their aunt, Princess Teresa, Marquesa de Laserma, the Duke of Castro's sister, Princess Napoleon, Prince Casimiro of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and his wife Princess Margherita, and the Duke of Braganza. Owing to his state of health, the Infante Don Carlos, Duke of Calabria was unable to attend the ceremony.

The Act states that the two branches will recognize each other's titles, and the titles of Duchess of Palerma and Duchess of Capri were awarded to the Duke and Duchess of Castro's two daughters. The final piece of the reconciliation is to work together to unite the Constantinian Order as well as the administrations of the Two Sicilies Orders of St. Januarius and Francis I.[12]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State" (Press release). Pontifical Council for Social Communication. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Vatican16Oct2012" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  2. ^ Adernò, Fabio (22 October 2012). "La Santa Sede e gli Ordini Cavallereschi: doverosi chiarimenti (Seconda parte)". Zenit (in Italian). Retrieved 22 August 2016. 
  3. ^ Constantinian Order, Hispano-Neapolitan
  4. ^
  5. ^ Paul Theroff, Online Gotha, Two Sicilies
  6. ^ The website of the so-called "Spanish" branch, headed by Infante Don Carlos, asserts that the renunciation was conditioned on facts that never arose, and that the order and the crown are governed by separate rules.
  7. ^ The Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies, History asserting that the "Act of Cannes" was a fully valid act of renunciation
  8. ^ Gregor Gatscher-Riedl, In hoc signo vinces. Zwischen religiösem Mythos und politischem Anspruch von Byzanz nach Neapel. Die Geschichte des Heiligen Konstantinischen Ritterordens vom Heiligen Georg, Vienna 2012, p. 172
  9. ^ "Basic Facts about ECOSOC Status". United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, NGO Branch. Retrieved 27 November 2012. Currently 3,536 NGOs enjoy consultative status with of November 2011....•In 2011-2012 some 600 organizations applied for consultative status. On average between 100 and 150 applications are recommended by the Committee in each of its two sessions per year 
  10. ^ List of non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council as of 1 September 2011 (PDF) (E/2011/INF/4 ed.). New York: United Nations, Economic and Social Council. 15 November 2011. p. 65. Retrieved 27 November 2012. Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio (2011) 
  11. ^ Gregor Gatscher-Riedl, In hoc signo vinces. Zwischen religiösem Mythos und politischem Anspruch von Byzanz nach Neapel. Die Geschichte des Heiligen Konstantinischen Ritterordens vom Heiligen Georg, Vienna 2012, p. 173
  12. ^ Koenig, Marlene Eislers. "RECONCILIATION IN THE HOUSE OF BOURBON-TWO SICILIES". Retrieved 27 January 2014.