Sacred Name Movement
The Sacred Name Movement (SNM) is a movement within the Church of God (Seventh-Day) in Christianity, propagated by Clarence Orvil Dodd from the 1930s, which claims that it seeks to conform Christianity to its "Hebrew Roots" in practice, belief and worship. The best known distinction of the SNM is its advocacy of the use of the "sacred name" Yahweh (יַהְוֶה), i.e. the reconstructed proper name of the God of Israel, and the use of the original Hebrew name of Jesus, often transcribed as Yahshua. SNM believers also generally keep many of the Old Testament laws and ceremonies such as the Seventh-day Sabbath, Torah festivals and kosher food laws.
The Sacred Name Movement arose in the early 20th century out of the Church of God (Seventh Day) movement. This movement was influenced by Joseph Franklin Rutherford who changed the name of the main branch of the Bible Student movement to Jehovah's witnesses in 1931, based on his belief in the importance of the Hebrew name of God. C. O. Dodd, a member of the Church of God (Seventh Day), began keeping the Jewish festivals (including Passover) in 1928, adopting sacred name doctrines in the late 1930s.
Dodd began publishing The Faith magazine starting in 1937 to promote his views. It is currently freely distributed by the Assembly of Yahweh, the oldest of any still existing Sacred Name Assembly. American religious scholar J. Gordon Melton wrote, "No single force in spreading the Sacred Name movement was as important as The Faith magazine."
The Sacred Name Movement consists of several small and contrasting groups, unified by the use of the name Yahweh and for the most part, a Hebraic-based form Yahshua for the name of God's Son. Angelo Traina, a disciple of Dodd, undertook the translation of a Sacred Name edition of the Bible, publishing the Holy Name New Testament in 1950 (see Tetragrammaton in the New Testament) and the Holy Name Bible in 1962, both based upon the King James Version, but changing some names and words in the text to Hebrew based forms, such as "God" to "Elohim", "LORD" to "Yahweh" and "Jesus" to "Yahshua". Most groups within the Sacred Name Movement use a Sacred Name Bible, others having been produced since Traina's.
Generally, the SNM reject Easter and Christmas as pagan in origin and claim to keep the holy days of Leviticus 23 such as Passover and the Feast of Weeks. They are also non-Trinitarian as they reject the Trinity doctrine as unbiblical. However, groups within the movement have differed on doctrinal points, such as the wearing of beards and what constitutes a Sabbath rest. The Assemblies of Yahweh (headquartered in Bethel, Pennsylvania) distanced itself from the movement because of its refusal to become doctrinally united, calling the movement a "disorganisation" and "confusion".
Individuals and even groups within the Movement will use other forms of Yahshua, including "Yeshua", "Yehoshua", "Yahushua", "Yahoshua", "Yaohushua", "Y'shua" or "Yahshuah". This use of the sacred names has led to the SNM production of Bibles, which comprise a percentage of all Sacred Name Bible translations. These include:
- Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible
- Angelo Traina's Holy Name Bible, Sacred Name King James Bible
- Sacred Scriptures, Family of Yah Edition
- The Word of Yahweh
- The Scriptures
- The Hebraic Roots Bible
The Sacred Name Movement has few adherents and includes the following groups:
- Assembly of Yahweh (Michigan)
- Shalom Assembly of Yahweh (Illinois)
- Yahweh's Restoration Ministry (Missouri)
- Assembly of Yahweh 7th Day (Texas)
- Yahweh's Assembly in Messiah (Missouri)
- Yahweh's Frystown Assembly (Pennsylvania)
- Congregation of Yahweh (Florida)
- Congregation of Yahweh Jerusalem (Jerusalem, Israel)
- Yahweh's Assembly in Yahshua (Missouri)
- Semitic philology reconstructs the Aramaic name of Jesus as Yeshua, Yehoshua or Yahshua (c.f. English "Joshua" Heb 4:8).
- Melton, J. Gordon (1992), Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America, New York: Garland Publishing, p. 83, ISBN 978-0-8153-1140-9, OCLC 246783309
- Hughey, Sam, A History of the True Church, The Reformed Reader web site, retrieved 2009-01-07, archived by WebCite here.
- Hughey, Sam. "A History of the True Church". The Reformed Reader. Archived from the original on 2009-01-07.
- Melton, J. Gordon (1978), The Encyclopedia of American Religions, Wilmington, North Carolina: McGrath Publishing Company, p. 476, ISBN 978-0-7876-6384-1, OCLC 4854827
- Clarke, Peter. Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. p. 543.