Sadri language

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Sadri
Nagpuri
सादरी (नागपुरी)
Native toIndia
RegionJharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Assam
EthnicityNagpuri
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1][2][3]
(Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi) L2 speakers: 7.0 million (2007)
Devanagari, Kaithi, Odia, Bengali-Assamese, Latin
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3sck
Glottologsada1242[5]
Sadri speaking region.png
Sadri-speaking region in India
A Sadri speaker speaking three languages, recorded in China.

Sadri, also known as Nagpuri, is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh Odisha and Assam. It is native language of the Sadan. In addition to native speakers, it is also used as lingua franca by many tribal groups such as Kharia, Munda and Kurukh, and a number of speakers of these tribal groups have adopted it as their first language. It is also used as a lingua franca among Tea-garden community of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh.[6][1] According to the 2011 Census, there were approximately 5,130,000 native speakers of the Nagpuri language, including 19,100 identifying as Gawari, 4,350,000 as "Sadan/Sadri" and 763,000 as "Nagpuria".[2]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of Sadani/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [6] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country.[7]

Classification[edit]

Nagpuri belongs to Bihari group of Indo-Aryan languages.[6][8] There are different opinion among linguist about origin of Nagpuri language. Sir George Abraham Grierson had classified Nagpuri as dialect of Bhojpuri language in his Survey "Linguistic Survey of India". According to professor Keshri Kumar Singh, Nagpuri is descendant of Magadhi Prakrit in his book "Nagpuri bhasa ebam Sahitya". According to Dr. Sravan Kumar Goswami, Nagpuri had evolved from Ardhamagadhi Prakrit.[9]

It is sometimes considered a Hindi dialect.[6] Some linguists also treat Chhattisgarhi and Sadri as dialects of Odia.[10]

Geographical Distribution[edit]

Nagpuri language is mainly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of west-central Jharkhand in districts such as Chatra, Palamu, Latehar, Hazaribagh, Lohardaga, Gumla, Ranchi, Simdega, Khunti, West Singhbhum, North-east Chhattisgarh in district of Jashpur, Surguja, Balrampur, south-west Bihar in Aurangabad, Gaya district and Northern Odisha in Sundergarh district. It is also spoken by some Tea garden community in Tea garden area of Bangladesh, West Bengal and Assam who were taken as labourer to work in Tea garden during British Rule.[2][3]

Status[edit]

Historically Nagpuri was lingua-franca in the region. It was court language during reign of Nagvanshi dynasty.[11] Nagpuri is accorded as second official language in Indian state of Jharkhand.[12] There is demand to include Nagpuri in Eighth schedule.[13][14][15] Some academics oppose inclusion of hindi dialects in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution as full-fledged Indian languages. According to them recogniton of hindi dialects as separate languages would deprive Hindi of millions of its speakers and eventually no hindi will be left.[16]

Literature[edit]

Literature in Nagpuri language started around 17th century. Nagvanshi king Raghunath Shah and King of Ramgarh, Dalel Singh were poet.[11][17] Some Nagpuri peot were Hanuman Singh, Jaigovind Mishra, Barju Ram, Ghasiram Mahli, Das Mahli, Mahant Ghasi and Kanchan.[18] "Nagvanshavali" written by Beniram Mehta is a historical work in Nagpuri language. Great poet Ghasiram Mahli had written several works including "Nagvanashavali", "Durgasaptasati", "Barahamasa", "Vivha Parichhan" etc. There were also great writer like Pradumn Das and Rudra Singh.[19] Some Nagpuri language writers and poet in modern period are Praful Kumar Rai, Sahani Upendra Pal Nahan, Shiv Avtar Choudhary, Lal Ranvijay Nath Shahdeo, Bindheswari Prasad Keshri, Ram Dayal Munda and Girdhari Ram Ganjhu.[9]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand.[20] Monthly Nagpuri magazines Gotiya and Johar Sahiya have been published in Ranchi.[21][22] Several magazines have been also published in Assam, West Bengal’s Tarai and Dooars district.[23][3]

Sample phrases[edit]

English Nagpuri Nagpuri (Devanagari)
My name is Mahesh. Mor naaw Mahesh heke मोर नाव महेश हेके।
How are you ? Toen kaisan aahis? तोयं कसैन आहीस्?
I am fine. Moen thik aahon मोएं ठीक आहों।
What? Ka? का?
Who? Ke? के?
Why? Kale? काले?
How? Kaisan? कसैन?
Which? Kon? कोन?
Come here. Hian aao हीयां आओ
I am going to home. Moen ghor jat hon मोएं घर जात हों।
I have eaten. Moen kha hon मोएं खा हों।
I will go. Moen Jamu मोएं जामु।
We go. Hame jaeil हामे जाइल।
You go. Toen jais तोयं जाइस्।
You are writing. Toen likhothis तोयं लिखतहिस्।
You will come. Toen aabe तोयं आबे।
We are writing. Hame likhothi हामे लीखतही।
We have written. Hame likh hi हामे लीख ही।
He/She come. Oo aawela उ आवेला।
He/She is going. Oo jat he उ जात हे।
He/She was coming. Oo aawot rahe उ आवत रहे।
He/She will play. Oo kheli उ खेली।
They have eaten bread. Oomon roti kha hoen उमन रोटी खा हयं।
They went. Oomon geloen उमन गेलयं।
They will go home. Oomon ghor jaboen उमन घर जाबयं।

Relations[edit]

Father Abba, Baba आबा, बाबा
Mother Maa, Aayo मा, आयो
Brother Bhai भाइ
Sister Bahin बहीन
Paternal uncle Kaka काका
Paternal aunt Kaki काकी
Maternal uncle Mama मामा
Maternal aunt Mami मामी
friend Sang(male), Sangi(female) संग(पुरूष), संगी(स्त्री)
brother of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangat(for female), Yaar(for male) संगात, यार
sister of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangatin संगातीन

Alternate names[edit]

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[24][25][26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ a b c "Sadri". Ethnologue.
  3. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". avenuemail. 21 March 2018.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sadani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ a b c d "Sadani / Sadri". www.southasiabibliography.de.
  7. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127–128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  8. ^ Lal, Mohan (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot. books.google.com. ISBN 9788126012213.
  9. ^ a b Ranjan, Manish (19 August 2002). Jharkhand Samanya Gyan. books.google.com. ISBN 9789351867982.
  10. ^ Nava Kishor Das (2012). Odisha. Seagull. p. 111. ISBN 978-81-7046-293-4. An Odia dialect.
  11. ^ a b "Giant new chapter for Nagpuri poetry". telegraphindia. 5 November 2012.
  12. ^ "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". avenuemail. 11 March 2018.
  13. ^ "Requests to include 38 languages in Constitution pending: Govt". thehindu. 1 December 2009.
  14. ^ "38 languages stake claim to be in Eighth schedule". dailyexcelsior. 16 August 2013.
  15. ^ "'नागपुरी पझरा' संवाद कार्यक्रम में उठी नागपुरी भाषा को 8वीं अनुसूची में शामिल करने की मांग". prabhatkhabar.
  16. ^ "Don't add Hindi dialects in Eighth Schedule, say academics". thehindu. 20 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Bid to save language treasure by Dr Keshri". dailypioneer. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  18. ^ "नागपुरी राग-रागिनियों को संरक्षित कर रहे महावीर नायक". prabhatkhabar. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  19. ^ Ranjan, Manish (January 2016). Jharkhand Samanya Gyan. books.google.com. ISBN 9789351866848.
  20. ^ "RU gold medallist to promote Nagpuri lang". timesofindia. 21 January 2016.
  21. ^ "Nagpuri call for culture". telegraphindia. 25 July 2008.
  22. ^ "JOHAR SAHIYA". newspapers.
  23. ^ "New insight into tea community of Assam". thethumbprintmag. 25 May 2015.
  24. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  25. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  26. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-08-25.