Sadri language

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Sadri
Nagpuri
Native toIndia
RegionJharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
EthnicityNagpuri people
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1][2][3]
(Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi) L2 speakers: 7.0 million (2007)
Devanagari, Kaithi, Bengali, Latin
Official status
Official language in
 India (Jharkhand)[4]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
sck – Sadri
Glottologsada1242[5]

Sadri (Nagpuri) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. It is sometimes considered a Hindi dialect.[6] It is native language of the Sadan. In addition to native speakers, it is also used as lingua franca by many tribal groups such as Kharia, Munda and Kurukh, and a number of speakers of these tribal groups have adopted it as their first language. It is also used as a lingua franca among Tea-garden community of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh.[6][1] According to the 2011 Census, there were approximately 5,130,000 native speakers of the Nagpuri language, including 19,100 identifying as Gawari, 4,350,000 as "Sadan/Sadri" and 763,000 as "Nagpuria".[2]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of Sadani/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [6] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country.[7]

Classification[edit]

Nagpuri belongs to Bihari group of Indo-Aryan languages. Some linguist have classified it as a dialect of Bhojpuri. Sometimes it considered a Hindi dialect.[6][8]

Some linguist have opined that Nagpuri has evovled from Magadhi Prakrit while other opined that it has evolved from Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. Nagpuri has many features of Eastern Hindi and eastern Indo-Aryan languages. The accusative-dative postposition is /keː/ which is features of Bihari languages. The locative postposition is /mẽː/ found in Bihari and Hindi languages. The pronouns has the personal genitives /toːɾ-/, /moːɾ-/ which is found in many eastern Indo-Aryan languages. The oblique is /ɦəmaːɾ/. Another characteristic of Nagpuri is the affix /-ɪs/ as in /jaɪs/, /khaːɾɪs/ etc which is also found in Awadhi but not in other bihari languages, /-l/, /laː/, /-li/ as in /khail/, /khala/, /khali/ etc which is features of eastern Indo-Aryan languages and /-mon/ as in /Oomon/, /hamemon/ etc also found in Chhattisgarhi and Odia languages.[6]

Geographical Distribution[edit]

Nagpuri language is mainly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of west-central Jharkhand in districts such as Chatra, Latehar, Palamu, Hazaribagh, Lohardaga, Gumla, Ranchi, Simdega, Khunti, West Singhbhum, North-east Chhattisgarh in district of Jashpur, Surguja, Balrampur, south-west Bihar in Aurangabad, Gaya district and Northern Odisha in Sundergarh district.[2][3]

Status[edit]

Historically Nagpuri was official language during reign of Nagvanshi dynasty.[9] Nagpuri is accorded as second official language in Indian state of Jharkhand.[10] There is demand to include Nagpuri in Eighth schedule.[11][12][13] Some academics oppose inclusion of hindi dialects in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution as full-fledged Indian languages. According to them recogniton of hindi dialects as separate languages would deprive Hindi of millions of its speakers and eventually no hindi will be left.[14]

Literature[edit]

During reign of Nagvanshi Kings and kings of Ramgarh several Nagpuri poems written in Devanagari and Kaithi script.[9][15] Nagvanshi king Raghunath Shah and King of Ramgarh Dalel Singh were great poet. Some Nagpuri peot were Hanuman Singh, Jaigovind Mishra, Barju Ram, Ghasi Ram Mahli and Das Mahli.[16] "Nagvanshawali" written by Beniram Mehta is a historical work in Nagpuri language. Great poet Ghasiram Mahli had written several works including Vanshawali, Durgasaptasati, Barahamasa, Vivha Parichhan etc. There were also great writer like Pradumn Das and Rudra Singh.[17]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand.[18] Monthly Nagpuri magazines Gotiya and Johar Sahiya have been published in Ranchi.[19][20] Several magazines also have been published in Assam, West Bengal’s Tarai and Dooars district.[21][3]

Sample phrases[edit]

English Nagpuri Nagpuri (Devanagari)
My name is Mahesh. Mor naaw Mahesh heke मोर नाव महेश हेके।
How are you ? Toen kaisan aahis? तोयं कसैन आहीस्?
I am fine. Moen thik aahon मोएं ठीक आहों।
What? Ka? का?
Who? Ke? के?
Why? Kale? काले?
How? Kaisan? कसैन?
Which? Kon? कोन?
Come here. Hian aao हीयां आओ
I am going to home. Moen ghor jat hon मोएं घर जात हों।
I have eaten. Moen kha hon मोएं खा हों।
I will go. Moen Jamu मोएं जामु।
We go. Hame jaeil हामे जाइल।
You go. Toen jais तोयं जाइस्।
You are writing. Toen likhothis तोयं लिखतहिस्।
You will come. Toen aabe तोयं आबे।
We are writing. Hame likhothi हामे लीखतही।
We have written. Hame likh hi हामे लीख ही।
He/She come. Oo aawela उ आवेला।
He/She is going. Oo jat he उ जात हे।
He/She was coming. Oo aawot rehe उ आवत रेहे।
He/She will play. Oo kheli उ खेली।
They have eaten bread. Oomon roti kha hoen उमन रोटी खा हयं।
They went. Oomon geloen उमन गेलयं।
They will go home. Oomon ghor jaboen उमन घर जाबयं।

Relations[edit]

Father Abba, Baba, Bap आबा, बाबा, बाप
Mother Mae, Aayo माए, आयो
Brother Bhai भाइ
Sister Bahin बहीन
Paternal uncle Kaka काका
Paternal aunt Kaki काकी
Maternal uncle Mama मामा
Maternal aunt Mami मामी
friend Sang(male), Sangi(female) संग(पुरूष), संगी(स्त्री)
brother of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangat(for female), Yaar(for male) संगात, यार
sister of sister-in-law and brother-in-law Sangatin संगातीन

Alternate names[edit]

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[22][23][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ a b c "Sadri". Ethnologue.
  3. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". avenuemail. 21 March 2018.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sadani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Sadani / Sadri". www.southasiabibliography.de.
  7. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127–128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  8. ^ "Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: Sasay to Zorgot". books.google.co.in.
  9. ^ a b "Giant new chapter for Nagpuri poetry". telegraphindia. 5 November 2012.
  10. ^ "Jharkhand gives second language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili". avenuemail. 11 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Requests to include 38 languages in Constitution pending: Govt". thehindu. 1 December 2009.
  12. ^ "38 languages stake claim to be in Eighth schedule". dailyexcelsior. 16 August 2013.
  13. ^ "'नागपुरी पझरा' संवाद कार्यक्रम में उठी नागपुरी भाषा को 8वीं अनुसूची में शामिल करने की मांग". prabhatkhabar.
  14. ^ "Don't add Hindi dialects in Eighth Schedule, say academics". thehindu. 20 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Bid to save language treasure by Dr Keshri". dailypioneer. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  16. ^ "नागपुरी राग-रागिनियों को संरक्षित कर रहे महावीर नायक". prabhatkhabar. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  17. ^ "Jharkhand Samanya Gyan". books.google.com.
  18. ^ "RU gold medallist to promote Nagpuri lang". timesofindia. 21 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Nagpuri call for culture". telegraphindia. 25 July 2008.
  20. ^ "JOHAR SAHIYA". newspapers.
  21. ^ "New insight into tea community of Assam". thethumbprintmag. 25 May 2015.
  22. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  23. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  24. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-08-25.