Sadri language

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Sadri
Nagpuri
Sadani
Native toIndia
RegionJharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
EthnicityNagpuri people
Native speakers
5.1 million (2011 census)[1] [2]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Early form
Devanagari, Kaithi, Eastern Nagari, Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
sck – Sadri
sdr – Oraon Sadri
Glottologsada1242[3]

Sadri (also Nagpuri) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. It is the native language of the Sadaan, an ethino-linguistic group of the of Chota Nagpur region.[4] In addition to native speaker, Sadri is also used as a lingua-fraca by large number of tribal groups such as: Kharia, Munda, Bhumij, Kurukh and many of these tribal group have adopted Sadri as their first language.[5] It spoken by many Tea-tribes of Assam, West Bengal and Bangladesh.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of Sadan/Sadri and other related terms is somewhat obscure. Probably the term "Sadan" derive from nisaada, referring to an ethnic group of North India. [7] The name Nagpur is probably taken from Nagvanshi, who ruled in this part of the country. [8]

Geographical Distribution[edit]

Nagpuri language is chiefly spoken in western Chota Nagpur Plateau region of west-central Jharkhand in districts such as Latehar, Lohardaga, Chatra, Palamu, Garhwa, Gumla, Simdega, Ranchi, Khunti, West Singhbhum, North-east Chhattisgarh in district Jashpur, Surguja, Balrampur, South-east Uttarpradesh in Sonbhadra, Northern Odisha in Sundargarh and south-west Bihar in Aurangabad district.[9] [10]

History[edit]

Nagpuri language evolved from Prakrit languages.

Script[edit]

In past, either Devanagari or Kaithi script were use in writing Nagpuri poems. [11] In present, Nagpuri is commonly written in the Devanagari script, an abugida. Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and written from left to right.[12]

Vocabulary[edit]

The main source Nagpuri lexicon is Prakrit and Sanskrit. During the medieval period contact with North India resulted in introduction of some Persian words.

Media[edit]

Literature[edit]

During reign of Nagvanshi Kings in Daisa(Navratangarh), Gumla and kings in Ramgarh, several Nagpuri poems had written in Devanagari and Kaithi script. [13]

Nagpuri, taught at Ranchi University and other universities of Jharkhand. Many Sadri magazines have published in various parts of India including in Ranchi, Shillong, Dooars and Tarai regions of West Bengal.

Example of short phrases[edit]

Phrases in Nagpuri/Transliteration English Translation
मोर नाम महेश हेके/ Mor naam Mahesh heke My name is Mahesh.
मोैं वजार जात होंं/ Moen bazar jat hon I am going to market.
मौ खा हों, मौं खालों/ Moen kha hon, Moen Khalon I have eaten.
मौं खाए रहों/ Moen Khae rohon I had eaten.
मोके भुख लागत रेहे /Moke bhukh lagot rehe I was feeling hungry.
तोयं आबे/ Toen abe You will come.
तोयं कने जात हीस् ॽ/ Toen kane jat hisॽ Where are you going?
हामे लीखत ही/ Hame likhot hi We are writing.
हामे लीख ही, हामे लीखली/ Hame likh hi, Hame likhli We have written.
उगो आवत हे/ Oogo awot he He/She is coming.
उगो आवत रेहे/ Oogo awot rehe He/She was coming.
उगो खेली/ Oogo kheli He/She will play.
उमन रोटी खा हैं/ Ooman roti kha hain They have eaten bread.
उमन गेलैं/ Ooman gelain They went.
उमन घर जाबैं/ Ooman ghar jabain They will go home.

Alternate names[edit]

Alternate names of dialects include: Sadani, Sadana, Sadati, Sadari, Sadhan, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri, Sadhari, Sadan, Nagpuria, Nagpuri, Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Gawari, Ganwari, Goari, Gauuari, Jharkhandhi.[14][15][16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sadri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  5. ^ http://www.southasiabibliography.de/uploads/Sadri.htm
  6. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sck
  7. ^ http://www.southasiabibliography.de/uploads/Sadri.htm
  8. ^ Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, pp. 127-128, Orient Longmans, 1949.
  9. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sck
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  11. ^ https://m.telegraphindia.com/states/jharkhand/giant-new-chapter-for-nagpuri-poetry/cid/362632
  12. ^ http://www.southasiabibliography.de/uploads/Sadri.htm#rGrierson1903
  13. ^ https://m.telegraphindia.com/states/jharkhand/giant-new-chapter-for-nagpuri-poetry/cid/362632
  14. ^ "Sadri (Language code 'sck')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  15. ^ "Oraon Sadri (Language code 'sdr')". Global Recordings Network. Archived from the original on 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  16. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: sck". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2012-08-31. Retrieved 2012-08-25.